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Most recent 19 results returned for keyword: robert f kennedy (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/109380522943523627031 Peter John John James Karsh -Arendas : Outside with the Desert Fox  @ Libya news ! 8-3-2015 A Cloud shrouded and drizzly day in the Wasatch...
Outside with the Desert Fox  @ Libya news ! 8-3-2015 A Cloud shrouded and drizzly day in the Wasatch mountain's in Murray, Utah in Salt Lake county and a pleasant spirit around. Pictured below Sir Hahn Sir Hahn Assassin of former U.S.A. Presidential candidate Robert  F. Kennedy. Sir Hahn Sir Hahn was a Palestinian with Jordanian citizenship.
22 minutes ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/105748566639350054908 Newspiracy - Conspiracy behind the news : New post (All About - Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories (Extended)) has been published...
New post (All About - Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories (Extended)) has been published on Newspiracy - #Conspiracy
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All About - Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories (Extended)
What is Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories? A documentary report all about Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories for the blind
22 hours ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/105748566639350054908 Newspiracy - Conspiracy behind the news : New post (All About - Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories (Extended)) has been published...
New post (All About - Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories (Extended)) has been published on Newspiracy - #Conspiracy
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All About - Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories (Extended)
What is Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories? A documentary report all about Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories for the blind
1 day ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/101118010884524599369 ANDIE REYNOLDS : I found this using 'Inspiring Quotes Daily' for Android, iOS and Kindle Fire! (http://www.roboticode.co.uk...
I found this using 'Inspiring Quotes Daily' for Android, iOS and Kindle Fire!
(http://www.roboticode.co.uk)

"Dare to Fail":

Only those who dare to fail greatly can achieve greatly.

Thought to be by Robert F. Kennedy
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-bNvxQvCQRFY/Vb1UIK5U5bI/AAAAAAAAB9I/ZTZb8nr1rAk/w506-h750/CameraZOOM-20150726164613452.jpg
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https://plus.google.com/105861077871083662983 Joe Carpenter : LETS SEE IF THIS POSTS: The Media just can not stop, (The confederate flag, copy/paste #1 as the top...
LETS SEE IF THIS POSTS: 

The Media just can not stop, (The confederate flag, copy/paste #1 as the top Google news Story on my screen saver day in and day out) as the world markets are in turmoil and "they" just can not and do not want anyone talking about anything but the social issues of division and sensationalized fabricated shock and aw. Rush Limbaugh today is talking about the new transgender tampons with 3 tiers of fake feminine experience containing a self dispensing look alike liquid. You can not make this stuff up as Sean Hannity says.  "They" just will not stop as the rich keep getting richer setting the country up for failure after failure, at every turn, at every sell out point, at ever betrayal, ( The Middle East, for what,  think about how unconscionable that was for political gain and is after the investment of trillions of dollars in US blood and treasure)  so they can make more and more money for themselves. The 5 corporations that own 90% of all the news knows exactly what they do not want people thinking about, talking about, arguing about, writing about. WHy do you think NBC needs to character assassinate Donald Trump as a racist. My money is my money and your money is soon to be my money. Its all about the money and how to make your money their money. Will Donald Trump have the same candor about the money, the "Dollar" as the dying reserve currency of the world, the fake inflation number, the fraudulent valuation numbers of the money itself, the bogus unemployment numbers,  the banks, TARP, QE3, the Federal Reserve problem, The bad bond buying, The IMF problem, The World Bank problem, The IBS problem, Greece, The Cyprus model of problem and solution with the new "bail in laws" since there is no money left to barrow or print, the 1.4 Quadrillion in derivative speculation on a global GDP of 60 Trillion  with 15 Trillion of that being the US GDP with 18 Trillion in dept. and 100 to 150 Trillion in unfunded entitlements, the 0% money to big institutions and 25% on your credit cards and more, the removal of predatory lending laws, Dodd Frank, Glass Steagall. Well well well, will Donald Trump take on the banks with the same zeal and enthusiasm as he can take on Rosie O'Donnell or Whoopi Goldberg. Does Donald Trump have the capacity to explain to a nation what the US Supreme Court of Fools just did and why it is arrogant, hypocritical, antithetical,  Un-Constitional,  Un-Profesional and Unacceptable. Or is he afraid that he will end up like John F Kennedy taking on the powers that be. 

COPY/PASTE Google News screen saver: #1
Republicans Back Down on Confederate Flags at US Cemeteries
New York Times - ‎32 minutes ago‎
WASHINGTON - Republican leaders on Thursday abruptly yanked an environmental spending bill from the House floor before a final vote amid a storm of protest over an amendment that would have allowed Confederate flags at federal cemeteries.
Related
South Carolina »
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House GOP pulls spending bill after Confederate flag controversyCBS News
Amid Backlash, House GOP Scraps Vote on Confederate Flag ImageryNBCNews.com
In Depth:Democrats increasingly think the Confederate flag is racist. Republicans don't.Washington Post (blog)
Wikipedia:Modern display of the Confederate flag

COPY/PASTE #2 Open Google Search 

About 27,400,000 results (0.49 seconds) 
Search Results

    The Bail-In: How You and Your Money Will Be Parted ...
    sandiegofreepress.org/.../the-bail-in-how-you-and-your-money-will-be-p...

Jan 6, 2015 - Technically and legally, it becomes the property of the bank, and the bank just issues you ... Cyprus-style confiscations are to become the law.
New G20 Rules: Cyprus-style Bail-ins to Hit Depositors AND ...
ellenbrown.com/.../new-rules-cyprus-style-bail-ins...
Ellen Hodgson Brown
Dec 1, 2014 - Cyprus-style confiscations are to become the law. ... In the latest rendition of its bail-in scheme, TBTF banks are required to keep a buffer equal ...
New Rules: Cyprus-style Bail-ins to Take Deposits and ...
www.huffingtonpost.com/.../new-g20-bailin-rules-n...
The Huffington Post
Dec 1, 2014 - Cyprus-style confiscations are to become the law. ... In the latest rendition of its bail-in scheme, TBTF banks are required to keep a buffer equal ...
Bail-out Is Out, Bail-in Is In: Time for Some Publicly Owned ...
www.huffingtonpost.com/.../bailout-is-out-bailin-is-...
The Huffington Post
May 2, 2013 - Author, Web of Debt, Public Bank Solution; President, Public Banking Institute ... By law, when you put your money into a deposit account, your ...
American Bank Bail-Ins Are Beginning | Dave Hodges – The ...
www.thecommonsenseshow.com/.../american-bank-bail-ins-beginning/
Dec 30, 2014 - Health · Martial Law · Previous Articles · Prepper Ad · Ready Made ... It would appear that your bank is preparing to go on a bank holiday. No, not a vacation, but a ... Why? Because bank bail-ins appear to be commencing.
Bombshell: US is Preparing a Bail in Law to Seize our Bank ...
investmentwatchblog.com/bombshell-us-is-preparing-a-bail-in-law-to-sei...
Aug 29, 2014 - Bombshell: US is Preparing a Bail in Law to Seize our Bank Accounts. by IWB · August ... Tags: accountsbailbankBombshelllawpreparingseize ...
[PDF]Get Out of Big Banks NOW - Master - PopularResistance.Org
www.popularresistance.org/docs/bail-in.pdf
Bail-in Example – How Your Money will be Confiscated . .... As I dug deeper I uncovered a complex series of federal laws, risky big bank financial maneuvers,.
bail-in | Max Keiser
www.maxkeiser.com/tag/bail-in/
Max Keiser
Bank Holidays, Bail-ins, & Full Capital Controls: Greece on the Precipice .... Bank of England officials who have said that bail-in legislation could be used today.
Are You Prepared For a US Bank Bail-In? | The Dollar ...
https://www.dollarvigilante.com/.../plans-in-place-for-a-us-bank-bail-in.h...
Nov 4, 2013 - [Editor's Note: The following post is by TDV Editor-in-Chief, Jeff Berwick]. If you have cash in a US bank, you can expect to have the federal ...
Sat, Aug 1
Capitalism & Morality 2015
Sun, Aug 2
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It's Official: The Worldwide Bail-ins Are Coming Alex Jones ...
www.infowars.com/its-official-the-worldwide-bail-ins-are-co...
Alex Jones
Dec 24, 2014 - Thus, when you deposit money in a bank, you're taking the same risk ... Federal law authorizes borrowing from the US Treasury to make up the ...

COPY/PASTE #3 Wikipedia 

Assassination of John F. Kennedy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Changes must be reviewed before being displayed on this page.show/hide details
"Kennedy assassination" redirects here. For the assassination of John's brother Robert, see Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
JFK limousine.png
President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, in the presidential limousine, minutes before the President's assassination
Location Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas
Coordinates 32°46′45″N 96°48′31″WCoordinates: 32°46′45″N 96°48′31″W
Date November 22, 1963
12:30 p.m. (CST) (Central Time Zone)
Target John F. Kennedy
Attack type
Sniper style assassination
Weapons 6.5×52mm Italian Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle
Deaths 1 (President Kennedy)
Non-fatal injuries
2 wounded (Governor Connally, James Tague)
Perpetrator Lee Harvey Oswald
John F. Kennedy, White House photo portrait, looking up.jpg This article is part of a series about
John F. Kennedy

    U.S. Navy Service in WWII 

    Why England Slept Profiles in Courage 

    A Nation of Immigrants Family

    Career in the U.S. Congress 

    Marriage to Jacqueline Bouvier 

President of the United States

    Campaign for the Presidency
        1960 election 

    Inauguration
        Speech Presidency 

    New Frontier Foreign Policy
        Doctrine 

    "A Strategy of Peace" 

    Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Civil Rights Address Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Clean Air Peace Corps 

    "We choose to go to the Moon" 

    Space programs
        Mercury Gemini Apollo 

Assassination and legacy

    November 22, 1963 State Funeral Eternal Flame Memorials Library Legacy 

John F Kennedy Signature 2.svg
Seal of the President of the United States.svg

    v t e 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC) on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas.[1] Kennedy was fatally shot by a sniper while traveling with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife Nellie, in a presidential motorcade. A ten-month investigation from November 1963 to September 1964 by the Warren Commission concluded that Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone, and that Jack Ruby also acted alone when he killed Oswald before he could stand trial.[2] Kennedy's death marked the fourth successful assassination of an American President, and elevated Lyndon B. Johnson to the nation's highest office.

In contrast to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded in 1979 that Kennedy was “probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.”[3] The HSCA agreed with the Warren Commission in that Kennedy and Connally’s injuries were caused by Oswald’s three rifle shots, but they also determined the existence of additional gunshots based on analysis of an audio recording and therefore "...a high probability that two gunmen fired at [the] President."[4][5] The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the conspiracy. In addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were “seriously flawed” in respects to information sharing and the possibility of conspiracy.[6] As recommended by the HSCA, the acoustic evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently reexamined and rejected.[7]

In light of investigative reports determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman", the Justice Department has concluded active investigations, stating “that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in … the assassination of President Kennedy”.[8] However, Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios. Polling in 2013 showed that 60% of Americans believe that a group of conspirators was responsible for the assassination.[9][10]

Contents

    1 Route to Dealey Plaza
    2 Shooting in Dealey Plaza
        2.1 Others wounded
        2.2 Aftermath in Dealey Plaza
    3 Lee Harvey Oswald
    4 Carcano rifle
    5 President Kennedy declared dead in the emergency room
        5.1 Autopsy
    6 Funeral
    7 Recordings of the assassination
    8 Official investigations
        8.1 Dallas Police
        8.2 FBI investigation
        8.3 Warren Commission
        8.4 Ramsey Clark Panel
        8.5 Rockefeller Commission
        8.6 Church Committee
        8.7 United States House Select Committee on Assassinations
        8.8 The JFK Act and Assassination Records Review Board
    9 Conspiracy theories
    10 Reaction to the assassination
    11 Artifacts, museums and locations today
    12 See also
    13 Notes
    14 References
    15 External links

Route to Dealey Plaza
An aerial view of Dealey Plaza showing the route of President Kennedy's motorcade
Ike Altgens' photo of the Presidential limousine taken between the first and second shots that hit President Kennedy. President Kennedy's left hand is in front of his throat and Mrs. Kennedy's left hand is holding his arm.
Polaroid photo by Mary Ann Moorman taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot (detail).
Secret Service Special Agent Clint Hill shields the occupants of the Presidential limousine, moments after the fatal shot.
Howard Brennan sitting across from the Texas School Book Depository. Circle "A" indicates where he saw a man fire a rifle at the motorcade.
The assassination site on Elm Street in 2008. White arrows indicate the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository, and the mark on Elm Street is where Kennedy was hit in the head. The building seen close to the Depository is the Dal-Tex Building.
Main article: Timeline of the John F. Kennedy assassination

President Kennedy's motorcade route through Dallas was planned to give him maximum exposure to Dallas crowds before his arrival,[11] along with Vice-President Lyndon Johnson and Texas Governor John Connally, at a luncheon with civic and business leaders in that city. The White House staff informed the Secret Service that the President would arrive in Dallas via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth to Dallas Love Field airport.[11][12]

The Dallas Trade Mart had been preliminarily selected for the luncheon and the final decision of the Trade Mart as the end of the motorcade journey was selected by President Kennedy's friend and appointments secretary Kenneth O'Donnell.[11][12] Leaving from Dallas' Love Field, 45 minutes had been allotted for the motorcade to reach the Dallas Trade Mart at a planned arrival time of 12:15 p.m. The actual route was chosen to be a meandering 10-mile (16-km) route from Love Field to the Trade Mart which could be driven slowly in the allotted time.

Special Agent Winston G. Lawson, a member of the White House detail who acted as the advance Secret Service Agent, and Secret Service Agent Forrest V. Sorrels, Special Agent In Charge of the Dallas office, were most active in planning the actual route. On November 14, Lawson and Sorrels attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route which Sorrels believed best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a portion of suburban Dallas, through the downtown area along Main Street, and finally to the Trade Mart via a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway.[13]

For the President's return to Love Field, from which he planned to depart for a fund-raising dinner in Austin later in the day, the agents selected a more direct route, which was approximately 4 miles, or 6.4 kilometers (some of this route would be used after the assassination). The planned route to the Trade Mart was widely reported in Dallas newspapers several days before the event, for the benefit of people who wished to view the motorcade.[13]

To pass through downtown Dallas, a route west along Dallas' Main Street, rather than Elm Street (one block to the north) was chosen, because this was the traditional parade route, and provided the maximal building and crowd views. The Main Street route precluded a direct turn onto the Fort Worth Turnpike exit (which served also as the Stemmons Freeway exit), which was the route to the Trade Mart, because this exit was accessible only from Elm Street. The planned motorcade route thus included a short one-block turn at the end of the downtown segment of Main Street, onto Houston Street for one block northward, before turning again west onto Elm, in order to proceed through Dealey Plaza before exiting Elm onto the Stemmons Freeway. The Texas School Book Depository was situated at this corner of Houston and Elm.[14]

Three vehicles were used for secret service and police protection in the Dallas motorcade. The first car, an unmarked white Ford (hardtop), consisted of Dallas police chief Jesse Curry, secret service agent Win Lawson, Sheriff Bill Decker and Dallas field agent Forrest Sorrels. The second car, a 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible, consisted of driver agent Bill Greer, SAIC Roy Kellerman, governor John Connally, Nellie Connally, President Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy.[15]

The third car, a 1955 Cadillac convertible code-named "Halfback," contained driver agent Sam Kinney, ATSAIC Emory Roberts, presidential aides Ken O'Donnell and Dave Powers, driver agent George Hickey and PRS agent Glen Bennett. Secret service agents Clint Hill, Jack Ready, Tim McIntyre and Paul Landis rode on the running boards. There was an AR-15 rifle in the third vehicle.[15]

On November 22, after a breakfast speech in Fort Worth, where President Kennedy had stayed overnight after arriving from San Antonio, Houston, and Washington, D.C., the previous day,[16] the president boarded Air Force One, which departed at 11:10 and arrived at Love Field 15 minutes later. At about 11:40, the presidential motorcade left Love Field for the trip through Dallas, which was running on a schedule about 10 minutes longer than the planned 45 minutes, due to enthusiastic crowds estimated at 150,000–200,000 people, and two unplanned stops directed by the president.[17] By the time the motorcade reached Dealey Plaza they were only 5 minutes away from their planned destination.
Shooting in Dealey Plaza

At 12:30 p.m. CST, as President Kennedy's uncovered 1961 Lincoln Continental four-door convertible limousine entered Dealey Plaza, Nellie Connally, then the First Lady of Texas, turned around to President Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, "Mr. President, you can't say Dallas doesn't love you," which President Kennedy acknowledged by saying "No, you certainly can't." Those were the last words ever spoken by John F. Kennedy.[18][19][20]

From Houston Street, the presidential limousine made the planned left turn onto Elm Street, allowing it access to the Stemmons Freeway exit. As it turned on Elm, the motorcade passed the Texas School Book Depository. Shots were fired at President Kennedy as they continued down Elm Street. About 80% of the witnesses recalled hearing three shots.[21]

A minority of the witnesses recognized the first gunshot they heard as weapon fire, but there was hardly any reaction to the first shot from a majority of the people in the crowd or those riding in the motorcade. Many later said they heard what they first thought to be a firecracker, or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle, just after the President started waving.[22][23]

Within one second of each other, President Kennedy, Governor Connally, and Mrs. Kennedy, all turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right, between Zapruder film frames 155 and 169.[24] Connally, like the President, a World War II military veteran (and, unlike him, a longtime hunter), testified he immediately recognized the sound of a high-powered rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward, attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. Governor Connally testified he could not see the President, so he then started to turn forward again (turning from his right to his left). Connally testified that when his head was facing about 20 degrees left of center,[19] he was hit in his upper right back by a bullet he did not hear fired. The doctor who operated on Connally measured his head at the time he was hit as turned 27 degrees left of center.[19] After Connally was hit he shouted, "Oh, no, no, no. My God. They're going to kill us all!"[25]

Mrs. Connally testified that just after hearing a first loud, frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her right, she turned toward President Kennedy and saw him with his arms and elbows raised high, with his hands in front of his face and throat. She then heard another gunshot and then Governor Connally yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from President Kennedy toward her husband, at which point another gunshot sounded and she and the limousine's rear interior were covered with fragments of skull, blood, and brain.

According to the Warren Commission[26] and the House Select Committee on Assassinations,[27] as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his right with his right arm upraised on the side of the limo, a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, slightly damaged a spinal vertebra and the top of his right lung, and exited his throat nearly centerline just beneath his larynx, nicking the left side of his suit tie knot. He raised his elbows and clenched his fists in front of his face and neck, then leaned forward and left. Mrs. Kennedy, facing him, then put her arms around him in concern.[19][28]

Governor Connally also reacted after the same bullet penetrated his back just below his right armpit, creating an oval entry wound, impacted and destroyed four inches of his right fifth rib, exited his chest just below his right nipple, creating a two-and-a-half inch oval sucking-air chest wound, entered his arm just above his right wrist, cleanly shattered his right radius bone into eight pieces, exited just below the wrist at the inner side of his right palm, and finally lodged in his left inner thigh.[19][28] The Warren Commission theorized that the "single bullet" (see single-bullet theory) struck sometime between Zapruder frames 210 to 225, while the House Select Committee theorized that it struck exactly at Zapruder frame 190.[29]

According to the Warren Commission, a second shot struck the President at Zapruder film frame 313. The Commission made no conclusion as to whether this was the second or third bullet fired. The presidential limousine was then passing in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. Meanwhile, the House Select Committee concluded that a fourth shot was then fired at almost the same time, from a separate sniper, but that it missed. Each body concluded that the second shot to hit the president entered the rear of his head (the House Select Committee placed the entry wound four inches higher than the Warren Commission placed it) and, passing in fragments through his head, created a large, "roughly ovular" [sic] hole on the rear, right side. The president's blood and fragments of his scalp, brain, and skull landed on the interior of the car, the inner and outer surfaces of the front glass windshield and raised sun visors, the front engine hood, the rear trunk lid, the followup Secret Service car and its driver's left arm, and motorcycle officers riding on both sides of the President behind him.[30][31]

United States Secret Service Special Agent Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the follow-up car, which was immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Hill testified that he heard one shot, then, as documented in other films and concurrent with Zapruder frame 308, he jumped off into Elm Street and ran forward to try to get on the limousine and protect the President. (Hill testified to the Warren Commission that after he jumped into Elm Street, he heard two more shots.)[32]

After the President had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy began to climb out onto the back of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of doing so.[25][33] Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the President's skull.[32] He jumped onto the back of the limousine while at the same time Mrs. Kennedy returned to her seat, and he clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and accelerated, speeding to Parkland Memorial Hospital.

After Mrs. Kennedy crawled back into her limousine seat, both Governor Connally and Mrs. Connally heard her say more than once, "They have killed my husband," and "I have his brains in my hand."[18][19] In a long-redacted interview for Life magazine days later, Mrs. Kennedy recalled, "All the ride to the hospital I kept bending over him saying, 'Jack, Jack, can you hear me? I love you, Jack.' I kept holding the top of his head down trying to keep the..." The President's widow could not finish her sentence.[34]
Others wounded

Governor Connally, riding in the same limousine in a seat in front of the President and three inches more to the left than the President, was also critically injured but survived. Doctors later stated that after the Governor was shot, his wife pulled him onto her lap, and the resulting posture helped close his front chest wound (which was causing air to be sucked directly into his chest around his collapsed right lung).

James Tague, a spectator and witness to the assassination, also received a minor wound to his right cheek while standing 531 feet (162 m) away from the Depository's sixth floor, easternmost window, 270 feet (82 m) in front of and slightly to the right of President Kennedy's head facing direction, and more than 16 feet (4.9 m) below the top of the President's head. Tague's injury occurred when a bullet or bullet fragment with no copper casing struck the nearby Main Street south curb. When Tague testified to the Warren Commission and was asked which of the three shots he remembered hearing struck him, he stated it was the second or third shot. When the Warren Commission attorney pressed him further, Tague stated he was struck concurrent with the second shot.[35]
Aftermath in Dealey Plaza
Assassination witnesses Bill and Gayle Newman drop to the grass and cover their children.

The presidential limousine was passing a grassy knoll on the north side of Elm Street at the moment of the fatal head shot. As the motorcade left the plaza, police officers and spectators ran up the knoll and from a railroad bridge over Elm Street (the triple underpass), to the area behind a five-foot (1.5 m) high stockade fence atop the knoll, separating it from a parking lot. No sniper was found.[36] S. M. Holland, who had been watching the motorcade on the triple underpass, testified that "immediately" after the shots were fired, he went around the corner where the overpass joined the fence, but did not see anyone running from the area.[37][38]

Lee Bowers, a railroad switchman sitting in a two-story tower,[38] had an unobstructed view of the rear of the stockade fence atop the grassy knoll during the shooting.[39] He saw a total of four men in the area between his tower and Elm Street: a middle-aged man and a younger man, standing 10 to 15 feet (3.0 to 4.6 m) apart near the triple underpass, who did not seem to know each other, and one or two uniformed parking lot attendants. At the time of the shooting, he saw "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around," which he could not identify. Bowers testified that one or both of the men were still there when motorcycle officer Clyde Haygood ran up the grassy knoll to the back of the fence.[40] In a 1966 interview, Bowers clarified that the two men he saw were standing in the opening between the pergola and the fence, and that "no one" was behind the fence at the time the shots were fired.[41][42]

Meanwhile, Howard Brennan, a steamfitter who was sitting across the street from the Texas School Book Depository, notified police that as he watched the motorcade go by, he heard a shot come from above, and looked up to see a man with a rifle make another shot from a corner window on the sixth floor. He said he had seen the same man minutes earlier looking out the window.[43] Brennan gave a description of the shooter,[44] and Dallas police subsequently broadcast descriptions at 12:45 p.m., 12:48 p.m., and 12:55 p.m.[45] After the second shot was fired, Brennan recalled, "This man I saw previous was aiming for his last shot ... and maybe paused for another second as though to assure himself that he had hit his mark."[46]

As Brennan spoke to the police in front of the building, they were joined by Harold Norman and James Jarman, Jr.,[47] two employees of the Texas School Book Depository who had watched the motorcade from windows at the southeast corner of the fifth floor.[48] Norman reported that he heard three gunshots come from directly over their heads.[49] Norman also heard the sounds of a bolt-action rifle and cartridges dropping on the floor above them.[50]

Estimates of when Dallas police sealed off the entrances to the Texas School Book Depository range from 12:33 to after 12:50 p.m.[51][52]

Of the 104 earwitnesses in Dealey Plaza who are on record with an opinion as to the direction from which the shots came, 54 (51.9%) thought that all shots came from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository, 33 (31.7%) thought that all shots came from the area of the grassy knoll or the triple underpass, 9 (8.7%) thought all shots came from a location entirely distinct from the knoll or the Depository, 5 (4.8%) thought they heard shots from two locations, and 3 (2.9%) thought the shots came from a direction consistent with both the knoll and the Depository.[21][53]

Additionally, the Warren Commission said of the three shots they concluded were fired that "a substantial majority of the witnesses stated that the shots were not evenly spaced. Most witnesses recalled that the second and third shots were bunched together."[54]
Lee Harvey Oswald
Main article: Lee Harvey Oswald
Jack Ruby prepares to shoot and kill Oswald, who, escorted by police detectives Jim Leavelle (tan suit) and L.C. Graves, is being transferred from the City Jail to the Dallas County jail.

Lee Harvey Oswald, reported missing to the Dallas police by Roy Truly, his supervisor at the Depository,[55] was arrested approximately 70 minutes after the assassination for the murder of Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit. According to witness Helen Markam, Tippit had spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk in the residential neighborhood of Oak Cliff,[56] three miles from Dealey Plaza. Officer Tippit had earlier received a radio message which gave a description of the suspect being sought in the assassination and called Oswald over to the patrol car.

Helen Markam testified that after an exchange of words, Tippit got out of his car and Oswald shot him four times.[56] Oswald was next seen by shoe store manager Johnny Brewer "ducking into" the entrance alcove of his store. Suspicious of this activity, Brewer watched Oswald continue up the street and slip into the nearby Texas Theatre without paying.[57] Brewer alerted the theater's ticket clerk, who telephoned police[58] at about 1:40 p.m.

According to one of the arresting officers, M.N. McDonald, Oswald resisted arrest and was attempting to draw his pistol when he was struck and forcibly restrained by the police.[59] He was charged with the murders of President Kennedy and Officer Tippit later that night.[60] Oswald denied shooting anyone and claimed he was a patsy who was arrested because he had lived in the Soviet Union.[61][62][63]

Oswald's case never came to trial because two days later, while being escorted to a car for transfer from Dallas Police Headquarters to the Dallas County Jail, he was shot and mortally wounded by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby, live on American television at 11:21 a.m. CST on Sunday, November 24. Oswald was taken unconscious by ambulance to Parkland Memorial Hospital, the same hospital where doctors tried to save President Kennedy's life two days earlier. Oswald died at 1:07 p.m.[64] Oswald's death was announced on a TV news broadcast by Dallas police chief Jesse Curry. An autopsy was performed by the Dallas County Medical Examiner at 2:45 p.m. the same day. The stated cause of death in the autopsy report was "hemorrhage secondary to gunshot wound of the chest."[65] Arrested immediately after the shooting, Ruby later said that he had been distraught over the Kennedy assassination and that killing Oswald would spare "...Mrs. Kennedy the discomfiture of coming back to trial."[66]
Carcano rifle
Main article: John F. Kennedy assassination rifle

An Italian Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle (see 6.5×52mm Mannlicher–Carcano cartridge) was found on the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository by Deputy Constable Seymour Weitzman and Deputy Sheriff Eugene Boone soon after the assassination of President Kennedy.[67] The recovery was filmed by Tom Alyea of WFAA-TV.[68]

This footage shows the rifle to be a Carcano, and it was later verified by photographic analysis commissioned by the HSCA that the rifle filmed was the same one later identified as the assassination weapon.[69] Compared to photographs taken of Oswald holding the rifle in his backyard, "one notch in the stock at [a] point that appears very faintly in the photograph" matched,[70] as well as the rifle's dimensions.[71]

The previous March, the Carcano rifle had been bought by Oswald under the name "A. Hidell" and delivered to a post-office box Oswald rented in Dallas.[72] According to the Warren Commission Report, a partial palm print of Oswald was also found on the barrel of the gun,[73][74] and a tuft of fibers found in a crevice of the rifle was consistent with the fibers and colors of the shirt Oswald was wearing at the time of his arrest.[75][76]

A bullet found on Governor Connally's hospital gurney, and two bullet fragments found in the Presidential limousine, were ballistically matched to this rifle.[77]
President Kennedy declared dead in the emergency room
Further information: Timeline of the John F. Kennedy assassination

The staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated President Kennedy observed that his condition was "moribund" (a mortal wound), meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arriving at the hospital. Dr. George Burkley,[78] the President's personal physician, stated that a gunshot wound to the skull was the cause of death. Dr. Burkley signed President Kennedy's death certificate.[79]
Cecil Stoughton's iconic photograph as Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as U.S. President aboard Air Force One, Love Field, Dallas. Jackie (right), still in her blood-soaked clothes (not visible in picture), looks on.

At 1:00 p.m., CST (19:00 UTC), after all heart activity had ceased and after Father Oscar Huber[80] had administered the last rites, the President was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving his life," one doctor said.[81] Father Huber[80] told The New York Times that the President was already dead by the time he arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of Extreme Unction. President Kennedy's death was officially announced by White House Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff at 1:33 p.m. CST (19:33 UTC).[82][83] Kilduff was acting press secretary on the trip because Pierre Salinger was traveling to Japan with half the Cabinet, including Secretary of State Dean Rusk.[84][85][86] Governor Connally, meanwhile, was taken to emergency surgery, where he underwent two operations that day.

As members of the President's security detail attempted to remove Kennedy's body from the hospital, they briefly scuffled with Dallas officials, including Dallas County Coroner Earl Rose who believed he was legally obligated to perform an autopsy before Kennedy's body was removed.[87] The Secret Service pushed through and Rose eventually stepped aside.[88] The forensic panel of the HSCA, of which Rose was a member, later reported that Texas law indicated that it was the responsibility of the justice of the peace to determine the cause of death as well as the necessity of whether an autopsy was needed to determine the cause of death.[89] Theran Ward, a justice of the peace in Dallas County, signed the official record of inquest[89] as well as a second certificate of death.[90]

A few minutes after 2:00 p.m. CST (20:00 UTC), President Kennedy's body was taken from Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force One. The casket was then loaded aboard the airplane through the rear door, where it remained at the rear of the passenger compartment, in place of a removed row of seats. Lyndon B. Johnson, who as Vice President, became President upon Kennedy's death,[91] and had been riding two cars behind President Kennedy in the motorcade, refused to leave for Washington without President Kennedy and his widow.

At 2:38 p.m. CST (20:38 UTC), President Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One just before it departed from Love Field, with Jacqueline Kennedy at his side.
Autopsy
Main article: John F. Kennedy autopsy

The autopsy was performed, beginning at about 8 p.m. and ending at about midnight EST at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. The choice of autopsy hospital in the Washington, D.C. area was made at the request of Mrs. Kennedy, on the basis that John F. Kennedy had been a naval officer.[92]
Funeral
Main article: State funeral of John F. Kennedy

The state funeral took place in Washington, DC during the three days that followed the assassination.[93]

The body of President Kennedy was brought back to Washington, D.C. and placed in the East Room of the White House for 24 hours.[94][95] On the Sunday after the assassination, his coffin was carried on a horse-drawn caisson to the U.S. Capitol to lie in state.[96] Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.[97] Representatives from over 90 countries attended the state funeral on Monday, November 25.[98] After the Requiem Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral, the late President was laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.
Recordings of the assassination

No radio or television stations broadcast the assassination live because the area through which the motorcade was traveling was not considered important enough for a live broadcast[citation needed]. Most media crews were not even with the motorcade but were waiting instead at the Dallas Trade Mart in anticipation of President Kennedy's arrival. Those members of the media who were with the motorcade were riding at the rear of the procession.

The Dallas police were recording their radio transmissions over two channels. A frequency designated as Channel One was used for routine police communications; Channel Two was an auxiliary channel dedicated to the President's motorcade. Up until the time of the assassination, most of the broadcasts on the second channel consisted of Police Chief Jesse Curry's announcements of the location of the motorcade as it wound through the city.

President Kennedy's last seconds traveling through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8 mm film for the 26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, in what became known as the Zapruder film. Frame enlargements from the Zapruder film were published by Life magazine shortly after the assassination. The footage was first shown publicly as a film at the trial of Clay Shaw in 1969, and on television in 1975.[99] According to the Guinness Book of World Records, an arbitration panel ordered the U.S. government to pay $615,384 per second of film to Zapruder's heirs for giving the film to the National Archives. The complete film, which lasts for 26 seconds, was valued at $16 million.[100]

Zapruder was not the only person who photographed at least part of the assassination; a total of 32 photographers were in Dealey Plaza. Amateur movies taken by Orville Nix, Marie Muchmore (shown on television in New York on November 26, 1963),[101][102][103] and photographer Charles Bronson captured the fatal shot, although at a greater distance than Zapruder. Other motion picture films were taken in Dealey Plaza at or around the time of the shooting by Robert Hughes, F. Mark Bell, Elsie Dorman, John Martin Jr., Patsy Paschall, Tina Towner, James Underwood, Dave Wiegman, Mal Couch, Thomas Atkins, and an unknown woman in a blue dress on the south side of Elm Street.[104]

Still photos were taken by Phillip Willis, Mary Ann Moorman, Hugh W. Betzner Jr., Wilma Bond, Robert Croft, and many others. The lone professional photographer in Dealey Plaza who was not in the press cars was Ike Altgens, photo editor for the Associated Press in Dallas.

An unidentified woman, nicknamed the Babushka Lady by researchers, might have been filming the Presidential motorcade during the assassination. She was seen apparently doing so on film and in photographs taken by the others.

Previously unknown color footage filmed on the assassination day by George Jefferies was released on February 19, 2007 by the Sixth Floor Museum, Dallas, Texas.[105][106] The film does not include the shooting, having been taken roughly 90 seconds beforehand and a couple of blocks away. The only detail relevant to the investigation of the assassination is a clear view of President Kennedy's bunched suit jacket, just below the collar, which has led to different calculations about how low in the back President Kennedy was first shot (see discussion above).
Official investigations
Dallas Police

After arresting Oswald and collecting physical evidence at the crime scenes, the Dallas Police held Oswald at the police headquarters for interrogation. Oswald was questioned all afternoon about both the Tippit shooting and the assassination of the President. He was questioned intermittently for approximately 12 hours between 2:30 p.m., on November 22, and 11 a.m., on November 24.[107] Throughout this interrogation Oswald denied any involvement with either the assassination of President Kennedy or the murder of Patrolman Tippit.[107] Captain Fritz of the homicide and robbery bureau did most of the questioning, keeping only rudimentary notes.[108][109] Days later, he wrote a report of the interrogation from notes he made afterwards.[108] There were no stenographic or tape recordings. Representatives of other law enforcement agencies were also present, including the FBI and the Secret Service, and occasionally participated in the questioning.[110] Several of the FBI agents present wrote contemporaneous reports of the interrogation.[111]

During the evening of November 22, the Dallas Police Department performed paraffin tests on Oswald's hands and right cheek in an apparent effort to determine, by means of a scientific test, whether Oswald had recently fired a weapon.[110] The results were positive for the hands and negative for the right cheek.[110] Because of the unreliability of these tests, the Warren Commission did not rely on the results of the test in making their findings.[110]

Oswald provided little information during his questioning. When confronted with evidence which he could not explain he resorted to statements which were found to be false.[110][112] Dallas authorities were not able to complete their investigation into the assassination of President Kennedy because of interruptions from the FBI and the murder of Oswald by Jack Ruby.[citation needed]
FBI investigation

The FBI was the first authority to complete an investigation. On December 9, 1963, the FBI issued a report and gave it to the Warren Commission.

The FBI stated that three bullets were fired during the Kennedy assassination; the Warren Commission agreed with the FBI investigation that three shots were fired but disagreed with the FBI report on which shots hit Kennedy and which hit Governor Connally. The FBI report claimed that the first shot hit President Kennedy, the second shot hit Governor Connally, and the third shot hit President Kennedy in the head, killing him. In contrast, the Warren Commission concluded that one of the three shots missed, one of the shots hit President Kennedy and then struck Governor Connally, and a third shot struck President Kennedy in the head, killing him.
Warren Commission
The Warren Commission presents its report to President Johnson. From left to right: John McCloy, J. Lee Rankin (General Counsel), Senator Richard Russell, Congressman Gerald Ford, Chief Justice Earl Warren, President Lyndon B. Johnson, Allen Dulles, Senator John Sherman Cooper, and Congressman Hale Boggs.
Main article: Warren Commission

The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by President Lyndon Johnson to investigate the assassination.[113] Its 888-page final report was presented to President Johnson on September 24, 1964,[114] and made public three days later.[115] It concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the killing of President Kennedy and the wounding of Texas Governor John Connally,[116] and that Jack Ruby also acted alone in the murder of Oswald.[117] The Commission's findings have since proven controversial and been both challenged and supported by later studies.

The Commission took its unofficial name, "The Warren Commission", from its chairman, Chief Justice Earl Warren. According to published transcripts of Johnson's presidential phone conversations, some major officials were opposed to forming such a commission, and several commission members took part only with extreme reluctance.[118] One of their chief reservations was that a commission would ultimately create more controversy than consensus, and those fears ultimately proved valid.[118] The Commission's report was printed by Doubleday.[119]

All of the Warren Commission's records were submitted to the National Archives in 1964. The unpublished portion of those records was initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a general National Archives policy that applied to all federal investigations by the executive branch of government,[120] a period "intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with participants in the case.”[121] The 75-year rule no longer exists, supplanted by the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 and the JFK Records Act of 1992.
Ramsey Clark Panel

In 1968, a panel of four medical experts appointed by Attorney General Ramsey Clark met in Washington, D.C. to examine various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence about the death of President Kennedy. The Clark Panel determined that President Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its upper right side.[122]
Rockefeller Commission

The United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the CIA within the United States. The commission was led by Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller, and is sometimes referred to as the Rockefeller Commission.

Part of the commission's work dealt with the Kennedy assassination, specifically the head snap as seen in the Zapruder film (first shown to the general public in 1975), and the possible presence of E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis in Dallas.[123] The commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Sturgis was in Dallas at the time of the assassination.[124]
Church Committee

Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church, to investigate the illegal intelligence gathering by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) after the Watergate incident. It also investigated the CIA and FBI conduct relating to the JFK assassination.

Their report concluded that the investigation on the assassination by FBI and CIA were fundamentally deficient and the facts which have greatly affected the investigation had not been forwarded to the Warren Commission by the agencies. It also found that the FBI, the agency with primary responsibility on the matter, was ordered by Director Hoover and pressured by unnamed higher government officials to conclude its investigation quickly.[125] The report hinted that there was a possibility that senior officials in both agencies made conscious decisions not to disclose potentially important information.[126]
United States House Select Committee on Assassinations
Main article: United States House Select Committee on Assassinations

As a result of increasing public and congressional skepticism regarding the Warren Commission’s findings and the transparency of government agencies, House Resolution 1540 was passed in September 1976, creating the United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) to investigate the assassinations of President Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr..[127]

On April 2, 1977 Willem Oltmans told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that George de Mohrenschildt had implicated himself in the conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. And Pat S. Russell, who was De Mohrenschildt's attorney said "I definitely feel there was a conspiracy and that definitely was the opinion of George." [128] Oltmans testified for three hours behind closed doors and told the committee that De Mohrenschildt told him he had discussed the assassination of Kennedy with Oswald from A to Z. "De Mohrenschildt told me that Oswald acted at his (De Mohrenschildt's) instructions and that he knew Oswald was going to kill Kennedy," Oltmans said.[129] Although Oltmans had given information to the Committee shortly before, De Mohrenschildt's death had released Oltmans from his promise not to divulge certain information. Oltmans revealed that De Mohrenschildt, whom he had known for ten years, had told him that there had been a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy and that he had played a role in the conspiracy. De Mohrenschildt said that CIA and FBI personnel were involved as well.[130]

The Committee investigated until 1978, and in March 1979 issued its final report, concluding that President John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.[3] While the one of the reasons for that finding of "probable conspiracy" was a since-discredited[7][8] acoustic analysis of a police channel dictabelt recording, the HSCA also commissioned numerous other scientific studies of acoustic analysis that corroborate the Warren Commission's findings.[131] The Committee concluded that previous investigations into Oswald's responsibility were “thorough and reliable” but they did not adequately investigate the possibility of a conspiracy, and that Federal agencies performed with “varying degrees of competency.”[132] Specifically, the FBI and CIA were found to be deficient in sharing information with other agencies and the Warren Commission. Instead of furnishing all information relevant to the investigation, the FBI and CIA only responded to specific requests and were still occasionally inadequate.[133] Furthermore, the Secret Service did not properly analyze information it possessed prior to the assassination and was inadequately prepared to protect the President.[3]

In regards to the conclusions of “probable conspiracy,” four of the twelve committee members wrote dissenting opinions.[134] In accordance with the recommendations of the HSCA, the Dictabelt recording and acoustic evidence of a second assassin was subsequently reexamined. In light of investigative reports from the FBI’s Technical Services Division and a specially appointed National Academy of Science Committee determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman", the Justice Department concluded “that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in … the assassination of President Kennedy.”[8]

Although the final report and supporting volumes of the HSCA was publically released, the working papers and primary documents were sealed until 2029 under Congressional rules and only partially released as part of the 1992 JFK Act.[135]
The JFK Act and Assassination Records Review Board
Main article: President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992

In 1992, the popular but controversial movie JFK had renewed public interest in the assassination and particularly in the still-classified documents referenced in the film’s postscript. Largely in response to the film, Congress passed the JFK Act, or “President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.” The goal of the legislation was to collect at the National Archives and make publicly available all of the assassination-related records held by federal and state government agencies, private citizens and various other organizations.

The JFK Act also mandated the creation of an independent office, the Assassination Records Review Board, to review the submitted records for completeness and continued secrecy. The Review Board was not commissioned to make any findings or conclusions regarding the assassination, just to collect and release all related documents. From 1994 until 1998, the Assassination Records Review Board gathered and unsealed about 60,000 documents, consisting of over 4 million pages.[136][137] Government agencies requested that some records remain classified and these were reviewed under section 6 criteria of the JFK Act. There were 29,420 such records and all of them were fully or partially released, with stringent requirements for redaction.

All remaining assassination-related records (approximately 5,000 pages) are scheduled to be released by October 2017, with the exception of documents certified for continued postponement by the President under the following conditions: (1) “continued postponement is made necessary by an identifiable harm to the military, defense, intelligence operations, law enforcement, or conduct of foreign relations” and (2) “the identifiable harm is of such gravity that it outweighs the public interest in disclosure.” There is some concern among researchers that significant records, particularly those of the CIA, may still remain classified after 2017.[138] Although these documents may include interesting historical information, all of the records were examined by the Review Board and were not determined to impact the facts of the Kennedy assassination.[139]
Conspiracy theories
Main article: John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories
The wooden fence on the grassy knoll, where many researchers believe another gunman stood.

There are numerous conspiracy theories surrounding the assassination. These theories posit that the assassination involved people or organizations other than Lee Harvey Oswald. Most current theories put forth a criminal conspiracy involving parties as varied as the CIA, the Mafia, sitting Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban President Fidel Castro, the KGB, or some combination of those entities.[140] Some conspiracy theories claim that the United States government covered up crucial information in the aftermath of the assassination.

In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that only Lee Harvey Oswald was responsible for the assassination of Kennedy. Subsequent investigations confirmed most of the conclusions of the Commission. In 1979, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that a second gunman besides Oswald probably fired at Kennedy. The HSCA did not identify the second gunman, nor did it identify any other person or organization as having been involved.[141][142] The acoustical evidence that the HSCA based its second gunman conclusion on has since been discredited.[143][144][145][146][147][148]

Public opinion polls have consistently shown that a majority of Americans believe there was a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Gallup polls have also found that only 20–30% of the population believe that Oswald had acted alone. These polls also show that there is no agreement on who else may have been involved.[10][149] Vincent Bugliosi estimated that a total of 42 groups, 82 assassins, and 214 people had been accused in various Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories.[150]
Reaction to the assassination
Main article: Reactions to the assassination of John F. Kennedy

The assassination evoked stunned reactions worldwide. Before the President's death was announced, the first hour after the shooting was a time of great confusion. Taking place during the Cold War, it was at first unclear whether the shooting might be part of a larger attack upon the U.S., and whether Vice-President Lyndon Johnson, who had been riding two cars behind in the motorcade, was safe.

The news shocked the nation. People wept openly and gathered in department stores to watch the television coverage, while others prayed. Traffic in some areas came to a halt as the news spread from car to car.[151] Schools across the U.S. dismissed their students early.[152] Anger against Texas and Texans was reported from some individuals. Various Cleveland Browns fans, for example, carried signs at the next Sunday's home game against the Dallas Cowboys decrying the city of Dallas as having "killed the President".[153][154]

The event left a lasting impression on many Americans. As with the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor before it and the September 11, 2001 attacks after it, asking "Where were you when you heard about President Kennedy's assassination" would become a common topic of discussion.[155][156][157]
Artifacts, museums and locations today
Dealey Plaza and Texas School Book Depository in 1969, looking much as they did in November 1963.
Dealey Plaza, with Elm Street on the right and the Triple Underpass in the middle.
Looking southeast, with the pergola and knoll behind the photographer: the X on the street marks the approximate position of President Kennedy in the limousine at the moment he and Governor Connally were shot (photo taken in July 2006).

The plane serving as Air Force One is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio, where tours of the aircraft are offered including the rear of the aircraft where President Kennedy's casket was placed and the location where Mrs. Kennedy stood in her blood stained pink dress while Vice-President Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as president. The 1961 Lincoln Continental limousine is at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.[158]

Equipment from the trauma room at Parkland Memorial Hospital, where President Kennedy was pronounced dead, including a gurney, was purchased by the federal government from the hospital in 1973 and is now stored by the National Archives at an underground facility in Lenexa, Kansas. The First Lady's pink suit, the autopsy report, X-rays and President Kennedy's blood-stained jacket, shirt and tie worn during the assassination are stored in the National Archives facility in College Park, Maryland, with access controlled by a representative of the Kennedy family. The rifle used by Oswald, his diary, revolver, bullet fragments, and the windshield of Kennedy's limousine are also stored by the Archives.[158] The Lincoln Catafalque, which President Kennedy's coffin rested on while he lay in state in the Capitol, is on display at the United States Capitol Visitor Center.[159]

The three-acre park within Dealey Plaza, the buildings facing it, the overpass, and a portion of the adjacent railyard – including the railroad switching tower – were designated part of the Dealey Plaza Historic District by the National Park Service on October 12, 1993. Much of the area is accessible to visitors, including the park and grassy knoll. Though still an active city street, the approximate spot where the presidential limousine was located at the time of the shooting is marked with an X on the street.[160] The Texas School Book Depository now draws over 325,000 visitors each year to the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza operated by the Dallas County Historical Foundation. There is a re-creation of the sniper's nest on the sixth floor of the building.[161]

At the Historic Auto Attractions museum in Roscoe, Illinois, are permanently displayed items related to the assassination such as the catalogue Oswald used to order the rifle, a hat and jacket that belonged to Jack Ruby and the shoes he wore when he shot Oswald, and a window from the Texas School Book Depository. The Texas State Archives have the clothes Governor Connally wore on November 22, 1963.

Some items were intentionally destroyed by the U.S. government at the direction of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, such as the casket used to transport President Kennedy's body aboard Air Force One from Dallas to Washington, which was dropped by the Air Force into the sea as "its public display would be extremely offensive and contrary to public policy".[162] Other items such as the hat worn by Jack Ruby the day he shot Lee Harvey Oswald and the toe tag on Oswald's corpse are in the hands of private collectors and have sold for tens of thousands of dollars at auctions.[158]

Jack Ruby's gun, owned by his brother Earl Ruby, was sold by the Herman Darvick Autograph Auctions in New York City on December 26, 1991, for $220,000.[163]
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https://plus.google.com/101670248192604004074 Francesca Van der Geld : Army–McCarthy hearings: Have You No Decency, Sir? US Army (accusing their opponents of blackmail) Joseph...
Army–McCarthy hearings:
Have You No Decency, Sir?

US Army (accusing their opponents of blackmail)
Joseph McCarthy, Roy Cohn and G. David Schine (accusing the Army of communism)

The Army–McCarthy hearings were a series of hearings held by the United States Senate's Subcommittee on Investigations between April 1954 and June 1954. The hearings were held for the purpose of investigating conflicting accusations between the United States Army and Senator Joseph McCarthy. The Army accused chief committee counsel Roy Cohn of pressuring the Army to give preferential treatment to G. David Schine, a former McCarthy aide and a friend of Cohn's. McCarthy counter-charged that this accusation was made in bad faith and in retaliation for his recent aggressive investigations of suspected Communists and security risks in the Army.

Chaired by Senator Karl Mundt, the hearings convened on March 16, 1954, and received considerable press attention, including gavel-to-gavel live television coverage on ABC and DuMont from April 22 to June 17. The media coverage, particularly television, greatly contributed to McCarthy's decline in popularity and his eventual censure by the Senate the following December.

Background:
McCarthy came to national prominence after giving a February 9, 1950 speech claiming to have a list of 205 State Department employees who were members of the Communist Party. McCarthy claimed the list was provided to and dismissed by then-Secretary of State Dean Acheson, saying that the "State Department harbours a nest of Communists and Communist sympathizers who are helping to shape our foreign policy".[2] In 1953, McCarthy was re-elected to a second term and the Republican Party regained control of the Senate; with the Republicans in the majority, McCarthy was made chairman of the Senate Committee on Government Operations. This committee included the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, and the mandate of this subcommittee allowed McCarthy to use it to carry out his investigations of Communists in the government. McCarthy appointed 26-year-old Roy Cohn as chief counsel to the subcommittee and future Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy as assistant counsel; reassigning Francis Flanagan to the ad hoc position of general counsel.

In 1953, McCarthy's committee began inquiries into the United States Army, starting by investigating supposed Communist infiltration of the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. McCarthy's investigations were largely fruitless, but after the Army accused McCarthy and his staff of seeking special treatment[clarification needed] for Private G. David Schine, a chief consultant to the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and a close friend of Cohn's, and who had been drafted into the Army as a private the previous year, McCarthy claimed that the accusation was made in bad faith.

The inquiry:
The Senate decided that these conflicting charges should be investigated and the appropriate committee to do this was the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, usually chaired by McCarthy. Since McCarthy was one of the targets of the hearings, Senator Karl Mundt (R-South Dakota) was reluctantly appointed to replace McCarthy as chairman of the subcommittee. John G. Adams was the Army's Counsel. Acting as Special Counsel was Joseph Welch of the Boston law firm of Hale & Dorr (now called WilmerHale). The hearings were broadcast nationally on the new ABC and DuMont networks, and in part by NBC. Francis Newton Littlejohn, the news director at ABC, made the decision to cover the hearings live, gavel-to-gavel. The televised hearings lasted for 36 days and an estimated 80 million people saw at least part of the hearings.

The photograph:
During the hearings, a photograph of Schine was introduced, and Joseph Welch accused Cohn of doctoring the image to show Schine alone with Army Secretary Robert T. Stevens. On the witness stand Cohn and Schine both insisted that the picture entered into evidence (Schine and Stevens alone) was requested by Stevens and that no one was edited out of the photograph. Welch then produced a wider shot of Stevens and Schine with McGuire AFB wing commander Colonel Jack Bradley standing to Schine's right. A fourth person also edited out of the picture (his sleeve was visible to Bradley's right in the Welch photograph) was identified as McCarthy aide Frank Carr.

The Hoover memo:
After the photograph was discredited, McCarthy produced a copy of a confidential letter he claimed was a January 26, 1951 memo written and sent by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, to Major General Alexander R. Bolling, warning Army Intelligence of subversives in the Army Signal Corps. McCarthy claimed the letter was in the Army files when Stevens became secretary in 1953, and that Stevens wilfully ignored it.Welch was the first to question the letter's validity, claiming that McCarthy's "purported copy" did not come from Army files; McCarthy stated he never received any document from the FBI, but when questioned on the stand by special Senate counsel Ray Jenkins and cross-examined by Welch, McCarthy, while admitting the document was given him by an intelligence officer, refused to identify his source.

Robert Collier, assistant to Ray Jenkins, read a letter from Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr., in which he stated that Hoover examined the document and that he neither wrote nor ordered the letter, and that no such copy existed in FBI files, rendering McCarthy's claims meritless, and the letter spurious.

Homosexuality:
Though the hearings were primarily about government subversion, they occasionally took on accusations of a more taboo nature: A portion of the hearings assessed the security risk of homosexuals in government. The issue remained an undercurrent throughout the hearings. One such example of this undercurrent was an exchange between Senator McCarthy and Joseph Welch. Welch was questioning McCarthy staff member James Juliana about the unedited picture of Schine with Stevens and Bradley asking him "Did you think this came from a Pixie?", at which point McCarthy asked to have the question re-read:

Senator McCarthy. Will counsel [i.e. Welch] for my benefit define – I think he might be an expert on that – what a pixie is?
Mr. Welch. Yes. I should say, Mr. Senator, that a pixie is a close relative of a fairy. (Laughter from the chamber) Shall I proceed, sir? Have I enlightened you?
Senator McCarthy. As I said, I think you may be an authority on what a pixie is.

Cohn, Schine and McCarthy:~~~*Bastards Incorporated.
At least a portion of the Army's allegations were correct. Roy Cohn did take steps to request preferential treatment for Schine, going so far on at least one occasion to sign McCarthy's name without his knowledge on a request for Schine to have access to the Senators' Baths.

The exact relationship between Cohn, McCarthy and Schine remains unknown. Cohn and Schine were certainly close, and rather than work out of the Senate offices, the two rented nearby office space and shared bills. McCarthy commented that Cohn was unreasonable in matters dealing with Schine. It is unclear if Schine ever had a romantic or sexual relationship with Cohn, who was a closeted homosexual. (Three years after the hearings Schine married and eventually had six children.) Some have also suggested that McCarthy may have been homosexual, and even possibly involved with Schine or Cohn.

Joseph Welch confronts McCarthy:
Joseph N. Welch (left) being questioned by Senator Joseph McCarthy (right), June 9, 1954.
In what played out to be the most dramatic exchange of the hearings, McCarthy responded to aggressive questioning from Army counsel Joseph Welch. On June 9, 1954, day 30 of the hearings, Welch challenged Cohn to give McCarthy's list of 130 subversives in defence plants to the office of the FBI and the Department of Defence "before the sun goes down". In response to Welch's challenge, McCarthy suggested that Welch should check on Fred Fisher, a young lawyer in Welch's own Boston law firm whom Welch planned to have on his staff for the hearings. McCarthy then mentioned that Fisher had once belonged to the National Lawyers Guild (NLG), a group which Attorney General Brownell had called "the legal bulwark of the Communist Party".

Welch revealed he had confirmed Fisher's former membership in the National Lawyers' Guild approximately six weeks before the hearings started.[27] After Fisher admitted his membership in the National Lawyers' Guild, Welch decided to send Fisher back to Boston. His replacement by another colleague on Welch's staff was also covered by The New York Times.Welch then reprimanded McCarthy for his needless attack on Fisher, saying that "Until this moment, Senator, I think I never really gauged your cruelty or your recklessness."

McCarthy, accusing Welch of filibustering the hearing and baiting Cohn, dismissed Welch's dissertation and casually resumed his attack on Fisher, at which point Welch angrily cut him short:
Senator, may we not drop this? We know he belonged to the Lawyer's Guild ... Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator; you've done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?

Welch excluded himself from the remainder of the hearings with a parting shot to McCarthy: "You have seen fit to bring [the Fisher/NLG affair] out, and if there is a God in heaven, it will do neither you nor your cause any good!"[After Welch deferred to Chairman Mundt to call the next witness, the gallery burst into applause.

Conclusion and aftermath:
Near the end of the hearings McCarthy and Senator Stuart Symington (D-Missouri) sparred over the handling of secret files by McCarthy's staff. Symington hinted that some members of McCarthy's own staff might themselves be subversive and signed a document agreeing to take the stand in the hearings to reveal their names in return for McCarthy's signature on the same document agreeing to an investigation of his staff. But McCarthy, after calling Symington "Sanctimonious Stu", refused to sign the document, claiming it contained false statements, and called Symington's accusations an "unfounded smear" on his men. He then rebuked Symington by saying, "You're not fooling anyone!", but Symington retaliated with a prophetic remark of his own: "Senator, the American people have had a look at you now for six weeks; you're not fooling anyone, either."
In Gallup polls from January 1954, McCarthy's approval rating was at 50%, with only 29% disapproving. By June both percentages had shifted by as much as 16%, with more people (34% approving, 45% disapproving) now rebuking McCarthy and his methods.

After hearing 32 witnesses and two million words of testimony, the committee concluded that McCarthy himself had not exercised any improper influence on Schine's behalf, but that Roy Cohn, McCarthy's chief counsel, had engaged in some "unduly persistent or aggressive efforts" for Schine. The conclusion also reported questionable behavior on the part of the Army: That Secretary Stevens and Army Counsel John Adams "made efforts to terminate or influence the investigation and hearings at Fort Monmouth", and that Adams "made vigorous and diligent efforts" to block subpoenas for members of the Army Loyalty and Screening Board "by means of personal appeal to certain members of the [McCarthy] committee". Before the official reports were released Cohn had resigned as McCarthy's chief counsel, and Senator Ralph Flanders (R, Vermont) had introduced a resolution of censure against McCarthy in the Senate.

Despite McCarthy's acquittal of misconduct in the Schine matter, the Army–McCarthy hearings ultimately became the main catalyst in McCarthy's downfall from political power. Daily newspaper summaries were increasingly unfavourable toward McCarthy, while television audiences witnessed first-hand the unethical tactics of the junior Senator from Wisconsin.

On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted 67–22 to censure McCarthy, effectively eradicating his influence, though not expelling him from office.[39] McCarthy continued to chair the Subcommittee on Investigations until January 3, 1955, the day the 84th United States Congress was inaugurated; Senator John L. McClellan (D-Arkansas) replaced McCarthy as chairman.

Fred Fisher was relatively unaffected by McCarthy's charges and went on to become a partner in Boston's prestigious Hale & Dorr law firm and organized its commercial law department. He also served as president of the Massachusetts Bar Association and as chairman of many committees of the American and Boston bar associations. 
After his censuring, Senator McCarthy continued his anti-Communist oratory, often speaking to an empty or near-empty Senate chamber. Turning increasingly to alcohol, McCarthy died of hepatitis on May 2, 1957 at the relatively young age of 48. He died from alcoholism.
Army–McCarthy hearings - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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“Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly.” - Robert F. Kennedy
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Robert F. Kennedy 
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NYC - Astoria, Queens
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#BogusClimateChange Competitive Enterprise Institute Senior Fellow Marlo Lewis debates the recent comments of Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. on global warming and "traitors".
Watch the video: Marlo Lewis Debates Global Warming (7/11/07)
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Competitive Enterprise Institute Senior Fellow Marlo Lewis debates the recent comments of Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. on global warming and "traitors".
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Robert F. Kennedy 
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"Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly." - Robert F. Kennedy
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https://plus.google.com/105861077871083662983 Joe Carpenter : LETS SEE IF THIS POSTS: The Media just can not stop, (The confederate flag, copy/paste #1 as the top...
LETS SEE IF THIS POSTS: 

The Media just can not stop, (The confederate flag, copy/paste #1 as the top Google news Story on my screen saver day in and day out) as the world markets are in turmoil and "they" just can not and do not want anyone talking about anything but the social issues of division and sensationalized fabricated shock and aw. Rush Limbaugh today is talking about the new transgender tampons with 3 tiers of fake feminine experience containing a self dispensing look alike liquid. You can not make this stuff up as Sean Hannity says.  "They" just will not stop as the rich keep getting richer setting the country up for failure after failure, at every turn, at every sell out point, at ever betrayal, ( The Middle East, for what,  think about how unconscionable that was for political gain and is after the investment of trillions of dollars in US blood and treasure)  so they can make more and more money for themselves. The 5 corporations that own 90% of all the news knows exactly what they do not want people thinking about, talking about, arguing about, writing about. WHy do you think NBC needs to character assassinate Donald Trump as a racist. My money is my money and your money is soon to be my money. Its all about the money and how to make your money their money. Will Donald Trump have the same candor about the money, the "Dollar" as the dying reserve currency of the world, the fake inflation number, the fraudulent valuation numbers of the money itself, the bogus unemployment numbers,  the banks, TARP, QE3, the Federal Reserve problem, The bad bond buying, The IMF problem, The World Bank problem, The IBS problem, Greece, The Cyprus model of problem and solution with the new "bail in laws" since there is no money left to barrow or print, the 1.4 Quadrillion in derivative speculation on a global GDP of 60 Trillion  with 15 Trillion of that being the US GDP with 18 Trillion in dept. and 100 to 150 Trillion in unfunded entitlements, the 0% money to big institutions and 25% on your credit cards and more, the removal of predatory lending laws, Dodd Frank, Glass Steagall. Well well well, will Donald Trump take on the banks with the same zeal and enthusiasm as he can take on Rosie O'Donnell or Whoopi Goldberg. Does Donald Trump have the capacity to explain to a nation what the US Supreme Court of Fools just did and why it is arrogant, hypocritical, antithetical,  Un-Constitional,  Un-Profesional and Unacceptable. Or is he afraid that he will end up like John F Kennedy taking on the powers that be. 

COPY/PASTE Google News screen saver: #1
Republicans Back Down on Confederate Flags at US Cemeteries
New York Times - ‎32 minutes ago‎
WASHINGTON - Republican leaders on Thursday abruptly yanked an environmental spending bill from the House floor before a final vote amid a storm of protest over an amendment that would have allowed Confederate flags at federal cemeteries.
Related
South Carolina »
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House GOP pulls spending bill after Confederate flag controversyCBS News
Amid Backlash, House GOP Scraps Vote on Confederate Flag ImageryNBCNews.com
In Depth:Democrats increasingly think the Confederate flag is racist. Republicans don't.Washington Post (blog)
Wikipedia:Modern display of the Confederate flag

COPY/PASTE #2 Open Google Search 

About 27,400,000 results (0.49 seconds) 
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Assassination of John F. Kennedy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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"Kennedy assassination" redirects here. For the assassination of John's brother Robert, see Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
JFK limousine.png
President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, in the presidential limousine, minutes before the President's assassination
Location Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas
Coordinates 32°46′45″N 96°48′31″WCoordinates: 32°46′45″N 96°48′31″W
Date November 22, 1963
12:30 p.m. (CST) (Central Time Zone)
Target John F. Kennedy
Attack type
Sniper style assassination
Weapons 6.5×52mm Italian Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle
Deaths 1 (President Kennedy)
Non-fatal injuries
2 wounded (Governor Connally, James Tague)
Perpetrator Lee Harvey Oswald
John F. Kennedy, White House photo portrait, looking up.jpg This article is part of a series about
John F. Kennedy

    U.S. Navy Service in WWII 

    Why England Slept Profiles in Courage 

    A Nation of Immigrants Family

    Career in the U.S. Congress 

    Marriage to Jacqueline Bouvier 

President of the United States

    Campaign for the Presidency
        1960 election 

    Inauguration
        Speech Presidency 

    New Frontier Foreign Policy
        Doctrine 

    "A Strategy of Peace" 

    Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Civil Rights Address Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Clean Air Peace Corps 

    "We choose to go to the Moon" 

    Space programs
        Mercury Gemini Apollo 

Assassination and legacy

    November 22, 1963 State Funeral Eternal Flame Memorials Library Legacy 

John F Kennedy Signature 2.svg
Seal of the President of the United States.svg

    v t e 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC) on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas.[1] Kennedy was fatally shot by a sniper while traveling with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife Nellie, in a presidential motorcade. A ten-month investigation from November 1963 to September 1964 by the Warren Commission concluded that Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone, and that Jack Ruby also acted alone when he killed Oswald before he could stand trial.[2] Kennedy's death marked the fourth successful assassination of an American President, and elevated Lyndon B. Johnson to the nation's highest office.

In contrast to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded in 1979 that Kennedy was “probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.”[3] The HSCA agreed with the Warren Commission in that Kennedy and Connally’s injuries were caused by Oswald’s three rifle shots, but they also determined the existence of additional gunshots based on analysis of an audio recording and therefore "...a high probability that two gunmen fired at [the] President."[4][5] The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the conspiracy. In addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were “seriously flawed” in respects to information sharing and the possibility of conspiracy.[6] As recommended by the HSCA, the acoustic evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently reexamined and rejected.[7]

In light of investigative reports determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman", the Justice Department has concluded active investigations, stating “that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in … the assassination of President Kennedy”.[8] However, Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios. Polling in 2013 showed that 60% of Americans believe that a group of conspirators was responsible for the assassination.[9][10]

Contents

    1 Route to Dealey Plaza
    2 Shooting in Dealey Plaza
        2.1 Others wounded
        2.2 Aftermath in Dealey Plaza
    3 Lee Harvey Oswald
    4 Carcano rifle
    5 President Kennedy declared dead in the emergency room
        5.1 Autopsy
    6 Funeral
    7 Recordings of the assassination
    8 Official investigations
        8.1 Dallas Police
        8.2 FBI investigation
        8.3 Warren Commission
        8.4 Ramsey Clark Panel
        8.5 Rockefeller Commission
        8.6 Church Committee
        8.7 United States House Select Committee on Assassinations
        8.8 The JFK Act and Assassination Records Review Board
    9 Conspiracy theories
    10 Reaction to the assassination
    11 Artifacts, museums and locations today
    12 See also
    13 Notes
    14 References
    15 External links

Route to Dealey Plaza
An aerial view of Dealey Plaza showing the route of President Kennedy's motorcade
Ike Altgens' photo of the Presidential limousine taken between the first and second shots that hit President Kennedy. President Kennedy's left hand is in front of his throat and Mrs. Kennedy's left hand is holding his arm.
Polaroid photo by Mary Ann Moorman taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot (detail).
Secret Service Special Agent Clint Hill shields the occupants of the Presidential limousine, moments after the fatal shot.
Howard Brennan sitting across from the Texas School Book Depository. Circle "A" indicates where he saw a man fire a rifle at the motorcade.
The assassination site on Elm Street in 2008. White arrows indicate the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository, and the mark on Elm Street is where Kennedy was hit in the head. The building seen close to the Depository is the Dal-Tex Building.
Main article: Timeline of the John F. Kennedy assassination

President Kennedy's motorcade route through Dallas was planned to give him maximum exposure to Dallas crowds before his arrival,[11] along with Vice-President Lyndon Johnson and Texas Governor John Connally, at a luncheon with civic and business leaders in that city. The White House staff informed the Secret Service that the President would arrive in Dallas via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth to Dallas Love Field airport.[11][12]

The Dallas Trade Mart had been preliminarily selected for the luncheon and the final decision of the Trade Mart as the end of the motorcade journey was selected by President Kennedy's friend and appointments secretary Kenneth O'Donnell.[11][12] Leaving from Dallas' Love Field, 45 minutes had been allotted for the motorcade to reach the Dallas Trade Mart at a planned arrival time of 12:15 p.m. The actual route was chosen to be a meandering 10-mile (16-km) route from Love Field to the Trade Mart which could be driven slowly in the allotted time.

Special Agent Winston G. Lawson, a member of the White House detail who acted as the advance Secret Service Agent, and Secret Service Agent Forrest V. Sorrels, Special Agent In Charge of the Dallas office, were most active in planning the actual route. On November 14, Lawson and Sorrels attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route which Sorrels believed best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a portion of suburban Dallas, through the downtown area along Main Street, and finally to the Trade Mart via a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway.[13]

For the President's return to Love Field, from which he planned to depart for a fund-raising dinner in Austin later in the day, the agents selected a more direct route, which was approximately 4 miles, or 6.4 kilometers (some of this route would be used after the assassination). The planned route to the Trade Mart was widely reported in Dallas newspapers several days before the event, for the benefit of people who wished to view the motorcade.[13]

To pass through downtown Dallas, a route west along Dallas' Main Street, rather than Elm Street (one block to the north) was chosen, because this was the traditional parade route, and provided the maximal building and crowd views. The Main Street route precluded a direct turn onto the Fort Worth Turnpike exit (which served also as the Stemmons Freeway exit), which was the route to the Trade Mart, because this exit was accessible only from Elm Street. The planned motorcade route thus included a short one-block turn at the end of the downtown segment of Main Street, onto Houston Street for one block northward, before turning again west onto Elm, in order to proceed through Dealey Plaza before exiting Elm onto the Stemmons Freeway. The Texas School Book Depository was situated at this corner of Houston and Elm.[14]

Three vehicles were used for secret service and police protection in the Dallas motorcade. The first car, an unmarked white Ford (hardtop), consisted of Dallas police chief Jesse Curry, secret service agent Win Lawson, Sheriff Bill Decker and Dallas field agent Forrest Sorrels. The second car, a 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible, consisted of driver agent Bill Greer, SAIC Roy Kellerman, governor John Connally, Nellie Connally, President Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy.[15]

The third car, a 1955 Cadillac convertible code-named "Halfback," contained driver agent Sam Kinney, ATSAIC Emory Roberts, presidential aides Ken O'Donnell and Dave Powers, driver agent George Hickey and PRS agent Glen Bennett. Secret service agents Clint Hill, Jack Ready, Tim McIntyre and Paul Landis rode on the running boards. There was an AR-15 rifle in the third vehicle.[15]

On November 22, after a breakfast speech in Fort Worth, where President Kennedy had stayed overnight after arriving from San Antonio, Houston, and Washington, D.C., the previous day,[16] the president boarded Air Force One, which departed at 11:10 and arrived at Love Field 15 minutes later. At about 11:40, the presidential motorcade left Love Field for the trip through Dallas, which was running on a schedule about 10 minutes longer than the planned 45 minutes, due to enthusiastic crowds estimated at 150,000–200,000 people, and two unplanned stops directed by the president.[17] By the time the motorcade reached Dealey Plaza they were only 5 minutes away from their planned destination.
Shooting in Dealey Plaza

At 12:30 p.m. CST, as President Kennedy's uncovered 1961 Lincoln Continental four-door convertible limousine entered Dealey Plaza, Nellie Connally, then the First Lady of Texas, turned around to President Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, "Mr. President, you can't say Dallas doesn't love you," which President Kennedy acknowledged by saying "No, you certainly can't." Those were the last words ever spoken by John F. Kennedy.[18][19][20]

From Houston Street, the presidential limousine made the planned left turn onto Elm Street, allowing it access to the Stemmons Freeway exit. As it turned on Elm, the motorcade passed the Texas School Book Depository. Shots were fired at President Kennedy as they continued down Elm Street. About 80% of the witnesses recalled hearing three shots.[21]

A minority of the witnesses recognized the first gunshot they heard as weapon fire, but there was hardly any reaction to the first shot from a majority of the people in the crowd or those riding in the motorcade. Many later said they heard what they first thought to be a firecracker, or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle, just after the President started waving.[22][23]

Within one second of each other, President Kennedy, Governor Connally, and Mrs. Kennedy, all turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right, between Zapruder film frames 155 and 169.[24] Connally, like the President, a World War II military veteran (and, unlike him, a longtime hunter), testified he immediately recognized the sound of a high-powered rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward, attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. Governor Connally testified he could not see the President, so he then started to turn forward again (turning from his right to his left). Connally testified that when his head was facing about 20 degrees left of center,[19] he was hit in his upper right back by a bullet he did not hear fired. The doctor who operated on Connally measured his head at the time he was hit as turned 27 degrees left of center.[19] After Connally was hit he shouted, "Oh, no, no, no. My God. They're going to kill us all!"[25]

Mrs. Connally testified that just after hearing a first loud, frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her right, she turned toward President Kennedy and saw him with his arms and elbows raised high, with his hands in front of his face and throat. She then heard another gunshot and then Governor Connally yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from President Kennedy toward her husband, at which point another gunshot sounded and she and the limousine's rear interior were covered with fragments of skull, blood, and brain.

According to the Warren Commission[26] and the House Select Committee on Assassinations,[27] as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his right with his right arm upraised on the side of the limo, a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, slightly damaged a spinal vertebra and the top of his right lung, and exited his throat nearly centerline just beneath his larynx, nicking the left side of his suit tie knot. He raised his elbows and clenched his fists in front of his face and neck, then leaned forward and left. Mrs. Kennedy, facing him, then put her arms around him in concern.[19][28]

Governor Connally also reacted after the same bullet penetrated his back just below his right armpit, creating an oval entry wound, impacted and destroyed four inches of his right fifth rib, exited his chest just below his right nipple, creating a two-and-a-half inch oval sucking-air chest wound, entered his arm just above his right wrist, cleanly shattered his right radius bone into eight pieces, exited just below the wrist at the inner side of his right palm, and finally lodged in his left inner thigh.[19][28] The Warren Commission theorized that the "single bullet" (see single-bullet theory) struck sometime between Zapruder frames 210 to 225, while the House Select Committee theorized that it struck exactly at Zapruder frame 190.[29]

According to the Warren Commission, a second shot struck the President at Zapruder film frame 313. The Commission made no conclusion as to whether this was the second or third bullet fired. The presidential limousine was then passing in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. Meanwhile, the House Select Committee concluded that a fourth shot was then fired at almost the same time, from a separate sniper, but that it missed. Each body concluded that the second shot to hit the president entered the rear of his head (the House Select Committee placed the entry wound four inches higher than the Warren Commission placed it) and, passing in fragments through his head, created a large, "roughly ovular" [sic] hole on the rear, right side. The president's blood and fragments of his scalp, brain, and skull landed on the interior of the car, the inner and outer surfaces of the front glass windshield and raised sun visors, the front engine hood, the rear trunk lid, the followup Secret Service car and its driver's left arm, and motorcycle officers riding on both sides of the President behind him.[30][31]

United States Secret Service Special Agent Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the follow-up car, which was immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Hill testified that he heard one shot, then, as documented in other films and concurrent with Zapruder frame 308, he jumped off into Elm Street and ran forward to try to get on the limousine and protect the President. (Hill testified to the Warren Commission that after he jumped into Elm Street, he heard two more shots.)[32]

After the President had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy began to climb out onto the back of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of doing so.[25][33] Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the President's skull.[32] He jumped onto the back of the limousine while at the same time Mrs. Kennedy returned to her seat, and he clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and accelerated, speeding to Parkland Memorial Hospital.

After Mrs. Kennedy crawled back into her limousine seat, both Governor Connally and Mrs. Connally heard her say more than once, "They have killed my husband," and "I have his brains in my hand."[18][19] In a long-redacted interview for Life magazine days later, Mrs. Kennedy recalled, "All the ride to the hospital I kept bending over him saying, 'Jack, Jack, can you hear me? I love you, Jack.' I kept holding the top of his head down trying to keep the..." The President's widow could not finish her sentence.[34]
Others wounded

Governor Connally, riding in the same limousine in a seat in front of the President and three inches more to the left than the President, was also critically injured but survived. Doctors later stated that after the Governor was shot, his wife pulled him onto her lap, and the resulting posture helped close his front chest wound (which was causing air to be sucked directly into his chest around his collapsed right lung).

James Tague, a spectator and witness to the assassination, also received a minor wound to his right cheek while standing 531 feet (162 m) away from the Depository's sixth floor, easternmost window, 270 feet (82 m) in front of and slightly to the right of President Kennedy's head facing direction, and more than 16 feet (4.9 m) below the top of the President's head. Tague's injury occurred when a bullet or bullet fragment with no copper casing struck the nearby Main Street south curb. When Tague testified to the Warren Commission and was asked which of the three shots he remembered hearing struck him, he stated it was the second or third shot. When the Warren Commission attorney pressed him further, Tague stated he was struck concurrent with the second shot.[35]
Aftermath in Dealey Plaza
Assassination witnesses Bill and Gayle Newman drop to the grass and cover their children.

The presidential limousine was passing a grassy knoll on the north side of Elm Street at the moment of the fatal head shot. As the motorcade left the plaza, police officers and spectators ran up the knoll and from a railroad bridge over Elm Street (the triple underpass), to the area behind a five-foot (1.5 m) high stockade fence atop the knoll, separating it from a parking lot. No sniper was found.[36] S. M. Holland, who had been watching the motorcade on the triple underpass, testified that "immediately" after the shots were fired, he went around the corner where the overpass joined the fence, but did not see anyone running from the area.[37][38]

Lee Bowers, a railroad switchman sitting in a two-story tower,[38] had an unobstructed view of the rear of the stockade fence atop the grassy knoll during the shooting.[39] He saw a total of four men in the area between his tower and Elm Street: a middle-aged man and a younger man, standing 10 to 15 feet (3.0 to 4.6 m) apart near the triple underpass, who did not seem to know each other, and one or two uniformed parking lot attendants. At the time of the shooting, he saw "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around," which he could not identify. Bowers testified that one or both of the men were still there when motorcycle officer Clyde Haygood ran up the grassy knoll to the back of the fence.[40] In a 1966 interview, Bowers clarified that the two men he saw were standing in the opening between the pergola and the fence, and that "no one" was behind the fence at the time the shots were fired.[41][42]

Meanwhile, Howard Brennan, a steamfitter who was sitting across the street from the Texas School Book Depository, notified police that as he watched the motorcade go by, he heard a shot come from above, and looked up to see a man with a rifle make another shot from a corner window on the sixth floor. He said he had seen the same man minutes earlier looking out the window.[43] Brennan gave a description of the shooter,[44] and Dallas police subsequently broadcast descriptions at 12:45 p.m., 12:48 p.m., and 12:55 p.m.[45] After the second shot was fired, Brennan recalled, "This man I saw previous was aiming for his last shot ... and maybe paused for another second as though to assure himself that he had hit his mark."[46]

As Brennan spoke to the police in front of the building, they were joined by Harold Norman and James Jarman, Jr.,[47] two employees of the Texas School Book Depository who had watched the motorcade from windows at the southeast corner of the fifth floor.[48] Norman reported that he heard three gunshots come from directly over their heads.[49] Norman also heard the sounds of a bolt-action rifle and cartridges dropping on the floor above them.[50]

Estimates of when Dallas police sealed off the entrances to the Texas School Book Depository range from 12:33 to after 12:50 p.m.[51][52]

Of the 104 earwitnesses in Dealey Plaza who are on record with an opinion as to the direction from which the shots came, 54 (51.9%) thought that all shots came from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository, 33 (31.7%) thought that all shots came from the area of the grassy knoll or the triple underpass, 9 (8.7%) thought all shots came from a location entirely distinct from the knoll or the Depository, 5 (4.8%) thought they heard shots from two locations, and 3 (2.9%) thought the shots came from a direction consistent with both the knoll and the Depository.[21][53]

Additionally, the Warren Commission said of the three shots they concluded were fired that "a substantial majority of the witnesses stated that the shots were not evenly spaced. Most witnesses recalled that the second and third shots were bunched together."[54]
Lee Harvey Oswald
Main article: Lee Harvey Oswald
Jack Ruby prepares to shoot and kill Oswald, who, escorted by police detectives Jim Leavelle (tan suit) and L.C. Graves, is being transferred from the City Jail to the Dallas County jail.

Lee Harvey Oswald, reported missing to the Dallas police by Roy Truly, his supervisor at the Depository,[55] was arrested approximately 70 minutes after the assassination for the murder of Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit. According to witness Helen Markam, Tippit had spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk in the residential neighborhood of Oak Cliff,[56] three miles from Dealey Plaza. Officer Tippit had earlier received a radio message which gave a description of the suspect being sought in the assassination and called Oswald over to the patrol car.

Helen Markam testified that after an exchange of words, Tippit got out of his car and Oswald shot him four times.[56] Oswald was next seen by shoe store manager Johnny Brewer "ducking into" the entrance alcove of his store. Suspicious of this activity, Brewer watched Oswald continue up the street and slip into the nearby Texas Theatre without paying.[57] Brewer alerted the theater's ticket clerk, who telephoned police[58] at about 1:40 p.m.

According to one of the arresting officers, M.N. McDonald, Oswald resisted arrest and was attempting to draw his pistol when he was struck and forcibly restrained by the police.[59] He was charged with the murders of President Kennedy and Officer Tippit later that night.[60] Oswald denied shooting anyone and claimed he was a patsy who was arrested because he had lived in the Soviet Union.[61][62][63]

Oswald's case never came to trial because two days later, while being escorted to a car for transfer from Dallas Police Headquarters to the Dallas County Jail, he was shot and mortally wounded by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby, live on American television at 11:21 a.m. CST on Sunday, November 24. Oswald was taken unconscious by ambulance to Parkland Memorial Hospital, the same hospital where doctors tried to save President Kennedy's life two days earlier. Oswald died at 1:07 p.m.[64] Oswald's death was announced on a TV news broadcast by Dallas police chief Jesse Curry. An autopsy was performed by the Dallas County Medical Examiner at 2:45 p.m. the same day. The stated cause of death in the autopsy report was "hemorrhage secondary to gunshot wound of the chest."[65] Arrested immediately after the shooting, Ruby later said that he had been distraught over the Kennedy assassination and that killing Oswald would spare "...Mrs. Kennedy the discomfiture of coming back to trial."[66]
Carcano rifle
Main article: John F. Kennedy assassination rifle

An Italian Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle (see 6.5×52mm Mannlicher–Carcano cartridge) was found on the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository by Deputy Constable Seymour Weitzman and Deputy Sheriff Eugene Boone soon after the assassination of President Kennedy.[67] The recovery was filmed by Tom Alyea of WFAA-TV.[68]

This footage shows the rifle to be a Carcano, and it was later verified by photographic analysis commissioned by the HSCA that the rifle filmed was the same one later identified as the assassination weapon.[69] Compared to photographs taken of Oswald holding the rifle in his backyard, "one notch in the stock at [a] point that appears very faintly in the photograph" matched,[70] as well as the rifle's dimensions.[71]

The previous March, the Carcano rifle had been bought by Oswald under the name "A. Hidell" and delivered to a post-office box Oswald rented in Dallas.[72] According to the Warren Commission Report, a partial palm print of Oswald was also found on the barrel of the gun,[73][74] and a tuft of fibers found in a crevice of the rifle was consistent with the fibers and colors of the shirt Oswald was wearing at the time of his arrest.[75][76]

A bullet found on Governor Connally's hospital gurney, and two bullet fragments found in the Presidential limousine, were ballistically matched to this rifle.[77]
President Kennedy declared dead in the emergency room
Further information: Timeline of the John F. Kennedy assassination

The staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated President Kennedy observed that his condition was "moribund" (a mortal wound), meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arriving at the hospital. Dr. George Burkley,[78] the President's personal physician, stated that a gunshot wound to the skull was the cause of death. Dr. Burkley signed President Kennedy's death certificate.[79]
Cecil Stoughton's iconic photograph as Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as U.S. President aboard Air Force One, Love Field, Dallas. Jackie (right), still in her blood-soaked clothes (not visible in picture), looks on.

At 1:00 p.m., CST (19:00 UTC), after all heart activity had ceased and after Father Oscar Huber[80] had administered the last rites, the President was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving his life," one doctor said.[81] Father Huber[80] told The New York Times that the President was already dead by the time he arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of Extreme Unction. President Kennedy's death was officially announced by White House Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff at 1:33 p.m. CST (19:33 UTC).[82][83] Kilduff was acting press secretary on the trip because Pierre Salinger was traveling to Japan with half the Cabinet, including Secretary of State Dean Rusk.[84][85][86] Governor Connally, meanwhile, was taken to emergency surgery, where he underwent two operations that day.

As members of the President's security detail attempted to remove Kennedy's body from the hospital, they briefly scuffled with Dallas officials, including Dallas County Coroner Earl Rose who believed he was legally obligated to perform an autopsy before Kennedy's body was removed.[87] The Secret Service pushed through and Rose eventually stepped aside.[88] The forensic panel of the HSCA, of which Rose was a member, later reported that Texas law indicated that it was the responsibility of the justice of the peace to determine the cause of death as well as the necessity of whether an autopsy was needed to determine the cause of death.[89] Theran Ward, a justice of the peace in Dallas County, signed the official record of inquest[89] as well as a second certificate of death.[90]

A few minutes after 2:00 p.m. CST (20:00 UTC), President Kennedy's body was taken from Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force One. The casket was then loaded aboard the airplane through the rear door, where it remained at the rear of the passenger compartment, in place of a removed row of seats. Lyndon B. Johnson, who as Vice President, became President upon Kennedy's death,[91] and had been riding two cars behind President Kennedy in the motorcade, refused to leave for Washington without President Kennedy and his widow.

At 2:38 p.m. CST (20:38 UTC), President Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One just before it departed from Love Field, with Jacqueline Kennedy at his side.
Autopsy
Main article: John F. Kennedy autopsy

The autopsy was performed, beginning at about 8 p.m. and ending at about midnight EST at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. The choice of autopsy hospital in the Washington, D.C. area was made at the request of Mrs. Kennedy, on the basis that John F. Kennedy had been a naval officer.[92]
Funeral
Main article: State funeral of John F. Kennedy

The state funeral took place in Washington, DC during the three days that followed the assassination.[93]

The body of President Kennedy was brought back to Washington, D.C. and placed in the East Room of the White House for 24 hours.[94][95] On the Sunday after the assassination, his coffin was carried on a horse-drawn caisson to the U.S. Capitol to lie in state.[96] Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.[97] Representatives from over 90 countries attended the state funeral on Monday, November 25.[98] After the Requiem Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral, the late President was laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.
Recordings of the assassination

No radio or television stations broadcast the assassination live because the area through which the motorcade was traveling was not considered important enough for a live broadcast[citation needed]. Most media crews were not even with the motorcade but were waiting instead at the Dallas Trade Mart in anticipation of President Kennedy's arrival. Those members of the media who were with the motorcade were riding at the rear of the procession.

The Dallas police were recording their radio transmissions over two channels. A frequency designated as Channel One was used for routine police communications; Channel Two was an auxiliary channel dedicated to the President's motorcade. Up until the time of the assassination, most of the broadcasts on the second channel consisted of Police Chief Jesse Curry's announcements of the location of the motorcade as it wound through the city.

President Kennedy's last seconds traveling through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8 mm film for the 26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, in what became known as the Zapruder film. Frame enlargements from the Zapruder film were published by Life magazine shortly after the assassination. The footage was first shown publicly as a film at the trial of Clay Shaw in 1969, and on television in 1975.[99] According to the Guinness Book of World Records, an arbitration panel ordered the U.S. government to pay $615,384 per second of film to Zapruder's heirs for giving the film to the National Archives. The complete film, which lasts for 26 seconds, was valued at $16 million.[100]

Zapruder was not the only person who photographed at least part of the assassination; a total of 32 photographers were in Dealey Plaza. Amateur movies taken by Orville Nix, Marie Muchmore (shown on television in New York on November 26, 1963),[101][102][103] and photographer Charles Bronson captured the fatal shot, although at a greater distance than Zapruder. Other motion picture films were taken in Dealey Plaza at or around the time of the shooting by Robert Hughes, F. Mark Bell, Elsie Dorman, John Martin Jr., Patsy Paschall, Tina Towner, James Underwood, Dave Wiegman, Mal Couch, Thomas Atkins, and an unknown woman in a blue dress on the south side of Elm Street.[104]

Still photos were taken by Phillip Willis, Mary Ann Moorman, Hugh W. Betzner Jr., Wilma Bond, Robert Croft, and many others. The lone professional photographer in Dealey Plaza who was not in the press cars was Ike Altgens, photo editor for the Associated Press in Dallas.

An unidentified woman, nicknamed the Babushka Lady by researchers, might have been filming the Presidential motorcade during the assassination. She was seen apparently doing so on film and in photographs taken by the others.

Previously unknown color footage filmed on the assassination day by George Jefferies was released on February 19, 2007 by the Sixth Floor Museum, Dallas, Texas.[105][106] The film does not include the shooting, having been taken roughly 90 seconds beforehand and a couple of blocks away. The only detail relevant to the investigation of the assassination is a clear view of President Kennedy's bunched suit jacket, just below the collar, which has led to different calculations about how low in the back President Kennedy was first shot (see discussion above).
Official investigations
Dallas Police

After arresting Oswald and collecting physical evidence at the crime scenes, the Dallas Police held Oswald at the police headquarters for interrogation. Oswald was questioned all afternoon about both the Tippit shooting and the assassination of the President. He was questioned intermittently for approximately 12 hours between 2:30 p.m., on November 22, and 11 a.m., on November 24.[107] Throughout this interrogation Oswald denied any involvement with either the assassination of President Kennedy or the murder of Patrolman Tippit.[107] Captain Fritz of the homicide and robbery bureau did most of the questioning, keeping only rudimentary notes.[108][109] Days later, he wrote a report of the interrogation from notes he made afterwards.[108] There were no stenographic or tape recordings. Representatives of other law enforcement agencies were also present, including the FBI and the Secret Service, and occasionally participated in the questioning.[110] Several of the FBI agents present wrote contemporaneous reports of the interrogation.[111]

During the evening of November 22, the Dallas Police Department performed paraffin tests on Oswald's hands and right cheek in an apparent effort to determine, by means of a scientific test, whether Oswald had recently fired a weapon.[110] The results were positive for the hands and negative for the right cheek.[110] Because of the unreliability of these tests, the Warren Commission did not rely on the results of the test in making their findings.[110]

Oswald provided little information during his questioning. When confronted with evidence which he could not explain he resorted to statements which were found to be false.[110][112] Dallas authorities were not able to complete their investigation into the assassination of President Kennedy because of interruptions from the FBI and the murder of Oswald by Jack Ruby.[citation needed]
FBI investigation

The FBI was the first authority to complete an investigation. On December 9, 1963, the FBI issued a report and gave it to the Warren Commission.

The FBI stated that three bullets were fired during the Kennedy assassination; the Warren Commission agreed with the FBI investigation that three shots were fired but disagreed with the FBI report on which shots hit Kennedy and which hit Governor Connally. The FBI report claimed that the first shot hit President Kennedy, the second shot hit Governor Connally, and the third shot hit President Kennedy in the head, killing him. In contrast, the Warren Commission concluded that one of the three shots missed, one of the shots hit President Kennedy and then struck Governor Connally, and a third shot struck President Kennedy in the head, killing him.
Warren Commission
The Warren Commission presents its report to President Johnson. From left to right: John McCloy, J. Lee Rankin (General Counsel), Senator Richard Russell, Congressman Gerald Ford, Chief Justice Earl Warren, President Lyndon B. Johnson, Allen Dulles, Senator John Sherman Cooper, and Congressman Hale Boggs.
Main article: Warren Commission

The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by President Lyndon Johnson to investigate the assassination.[113] Its 888-page final report was presented to President Johnson on September 24, 1964,[114] and made public three days later.[115] It concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the killing of President Kennedy and the wounding of Texas Governor John Connally,[116] and that Jack Ruby also acted alone in the murder of Oswald.[117] The Commission's findings have since proven controversial and been both challenged and supported by later studies.

The Commission took its unofficial name, "The Warren Commission", from its chairman, Chief Justice Earl Warren. According to published transcripts of Johnson's presidential phone conversations, some major officials were opposed to forming such a commission, and several commission members took part only with extreme reluctance.[118] One of their chief reservations was that a commission would ultimately create more controversy than consensus, and those fears ultimately proved valid.[118] The Commission's report was printed by Doubleday.[119]

All of the Warren Commission's records were submitted to the National Archives in 1964. The unpublished portion of those records was initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a general National Archives policy that applied to all federal investigations by the executive branch of government,[120] a period "intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with participants in the case.”[121] The 75-year rule no longer exists, supplanted by the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 and the JFK Records Act of 1992.
Ramsey Clark Panel

In 1968, a panel of four medical experts appointed by Attorney General Ramsey Clark met in Washington, D.C. to examine various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence about the death of President Kennedy. The Clark Panel determined that President Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its upper right side.[122]
Rockefeller Commission

The United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the CIA within the United States. The commission was led by Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller, and is sometimes referred to as the Rockefeller Commission.

Part of the commission's work dealt with the Kennedy assassination, specifically the head snap as seen in the Zapruder film (first shown to the general public in 1975), and the possible presence of E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis in Dallas.[123] The commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Sturgis was in Dallas at the time of the assassination.[124]
Church Committee

Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church, to investigate the illegal intelligence gathering by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) after the Watergate incident. It also investigated the CIA and FBI conduct relating to the JFK assassination.

Their report concluded that the investigation on the assassination by FBI and CIA were fundamentally deficient and the facts which have greatly affected the investigation had not been forwarded to the Warren Commission by the agencies. It also found that the FBI, the agency with primary responsibility on the matter, was ordered by Director Hoover and pressured by unnamed higher government officials to conclude its investigation quickly.[125] The report hinted that there was a possibility that senior officials in both agencies made conscious decisions not to disclose potentially important information.[126]
United States House Select Committee on Assassinations
Main article: United States House Select Committee on Assassinations

As a result of increasing public and congressional skepticism regarding the Warren Commission’s findings and the transparency of government agencies, House Resolution 1540 was passed in September 1976, creating the United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) to investigate the assassinations of President Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr..[127]

On April 2, 1977 Willem Oltmans told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that George de Mohrenschildt had implicated himself in the conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. And Pat S. Russell, who was De Mohrenschildt's attorney said "I definitely feel there was a conspiracy and that definitely was the opinion of George." [128] Oltmans testified for three hours behind closed doors and told the committee that De Mohrenschildt told him he had discussed the assassination of Kennedy with Oswald from A to Z. "De Mohrenschildt told me that Oswald acted at his (De Mohrenschildt's) instructions and that he knew Oswald was going to kill Kennedy," Oltmans said.[129] Although Oltmans had given information to the Committee shortly before, De Mohrenschildt's death had released Oltmans from his promise not to divulge certain information. Oltmans revealed that De Mohrenschildt, whom he had known for ten years, had told him that there had been a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy and that he had played a role in the conspiracy. De Mohrenschildt said that CIA and FBI personnel were involved as well.[130]

The Committee investigated until 1978, and in March 1979 issued its final report, concluding that President John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.[3] While the one of the reasons for that finding of "probable conspiracy" was a since-discredited[7][8] acoustic analysis of a police channel dictabelt recording, the HSCA also commissioned numerous other scientific studies of acoustic analysis that corroborate the Warren Commission's findings.[131] The Committee concluded that previous investigations into Oswald's responsibility were “thorough and reliable” but they did not adequately investigate the possibility of a conspiracy, and that Federal agencies performed with “varying degrees of competency.”[132] Specifically, the FBI and CIA were found to be deficient in sharing information with other agencies and the Warren Commission. Instead of furnishing all information relevant to the investigation, the FBI and CIA only responded to specific requests and were still occasionally inadequate.[133] Furthermore, the Secret Service did not properly analyze information it possessed prior to the assassination and was inadequately prepared to protect the President.[3]

In regards to the conclusions of “probable conspiracy,” four of the twelve committee members wrote dissenting opinions.[134] In accordance with the recommendations of the HSCA, the Dictabelt recording and acoustic evidence of a second assassin was subsequently reexamined. In light of investigative reports from the FBI’s Technical Services Division and a specially appointed National Academy of Science Committee determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman", the Justice Department concluded “that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in … the assassination of President Kennedy.”[8]

Although the final report and supporting volumes of the HSCA was publically released, the working papers and primary documents were sealed until 2029 under Congressional rules and only partially released as part of the 1992 JFK Act.[135]
The JFK Act and Assassination Records Review Board
Main article: President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992

In 1992, the popular but controversial movie JFK had renewed public interest in the assassination and particularly in the still-classified documents referenced in the film’s postscript. Largely in response to the film, Congress passed the JFK Act, or “President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.” The goal of the legislation was to collect at the National Archives and make publicly available all of the assassination-related records held by federal and state government agencies, private citizens and various other organizations.

The JFK Act also mandated the creation of an independent office, the Assassination Records Review Board, to review the submitted records for completeness and continued secrecy. The Review Board was not commissioned to make any findings or conclusions regarding the assassination, just to collect and release all related documents. From 1994 until 1998, the Assassination Records Review Board gathered and unsealed about 60,000 documents, consisting of over 4 million pages.[136][137] Government agencies requested that some records remain classified and these were reviewed under section 6 criteria of the JFK Act. There were 29,420 such records and all of them were fully or partially released, with stringent requirements for redaction.

All remaining assassination-related records (approximately 5,000 pages) are scheduled to be released by October 2017, with the exception of documents certified for continued postponement by the President under the following conditions: (1) “continued postponement is made necessary by an identifiable harm to the military, defense, intelligence operations, law enforcement, or conduct of foreign relations” and (2) “the identifiable harm is of such gravity that it outweighs the public interest in disclosure.” There is some concern among researchers that significant records, particularly those of the CIA, may still remain classified after 2017.[138] Although these documents may include interesting historical information, all of the records were examined by the Review Board and were not determined to impact the facts of the Kennedy assassination.[139]
Conspiracy theories
Main article: John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories
The wooden fence on the grassy knoll, where many researchers believe another gunman stood.

There are numerous conspiracy theories surrounding the assassination. These theories posit that the assassination involved people or organizations other than Lee Harvey Oswald. Most current theories put forth a criminal conspiracy involving parties as varied as the CIA, the Mafia, sitting Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban President Fidel Castro, the KGB, or some combination of those entities.[140] Some conspiracy theories claim that the United States government covered up crucial information in the aftermath of the assassination.

In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that only Lee Harvey Oswald was responsible for the assassination of Kennedy. Subsequent investigations confirmed most of the conclusions of the Commission. In 1979, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that a second gunman besides Oswald probably fired at Kennedy. The HSCA did not identify the second gunman, nor did it identify any other person or organization as having been involved.[141][142] The acoustical evidence that the HSCA based its second gunman conclusion on has since been discredited.[143][144][145][146][147][148]

Public opinion polls have consistently shown that a majority of Americans believe there was a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Gallup polls have also found that only 20–30% of the population believe that Oswald had acted alone. These polls also show that there is no agreement on who else may have been involved.[10][149] Vincent Bugliosi estimated that a total of 42 groups, 82 assassins, and 214 people had been accused in various Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories.[150]
Reaction to the assassination
Main article: Reactions to the assassination of John F. Kennedy

The assassination evoked stunned reactions worldwide. Before the President's death was announced, the first hour after the shooting was a time of great confusion. Taking place during the Cold War, it was at first unclear whether the shooting might be part of a larger attack upon the U.S., and whether Vice-President Lyndon Johnson, who had been riding two cars behind in the motorcade, was safe.

The news shocked the nation. People wept openly and gathered in department stores to watch the television coverage, while others prayed. Traffic in some areas came to a halt as the news spread from car to car.[151] Schools across the U.S. dismissed their students early.[152] Anger against Texas and Texans was reported from some individuals. Various Cleveland Browns fans, for example, carried signs at the next Sunday's home game against the Dallas Cowboys decrying the city of Dallas as having "killed the President".[153][154]

The event left a lasting impression on many Americans. As with the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor before it and the September 11, 2001 attacks after it, asking "Where were you when you heard about President Kennedy's assassination" would become a common topic of discussion.[155][156][157]
Artifacts, museums and locations today
Dealey Plaza and Texas School Book Depository in 1969, looking much as they did in November 1963.
Dealey Plaza, with Elm Street on the right and the Triple Underpass in the middle.
Looking southeast, with the pergola and knoll behind the photographer: the X on the street marks the approximate position of President Kennedy in the limousine at the moment he and Governor Connally were shot (photo taken in July 2006).

The plane serving as Air Force One is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio, where tours of the aircraft are offered including the rear of the aircraft where President Kennedy's casket was placed and the location where Mrs. Kennedy stood in her blood stained pink dress while Vice-President Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as president. The 1961 Lincoln Continental limousine is at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.[158]

Equipment from the trauma room at Parkland Memorial Hospital, where President Kennedy was pronounced dead, including a gurney, was purchased by the federal government from the hospital in 1973 and is now stored by the National Archives at an underground facility in Lenexa, Kansas. The First Lady's pink suit, the autopsy report, X-rays and President Kennedy's blood-stained jacket, shirt and tie worn during the assassination are stored in the National Archives facility in College Park, Maryland, with access controlled by a representative of the Kennedy family. The rifle used by Oswald, his diary, revolver, bullet fragments, and the windshield of Kennedy's limousine are also stored by the Archives.[158] The Lincoln Catafalque, which President Kennedy's coffin rested on while he lay in state in the Capitol, is on display at the United States Capitol Visitor Center.[159]

The three-acre park within Dealey Plaza, the buildings facing it, the overpass, and a portion of the adjacent railyard – including the railroad switching tower – were designated part of the Dealey Plaza Historic District by the National Park Service on October 12, 1993. Much of the area is accessible to visitors, including the park and grassy knoll. Though still an active city street, the approximate spot where the presidential limousine was located at the time of the shooting is marked with an X on the street.[160] The Texas School Book Depository now draws over 325,000 visitors each year to the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza operated by the Dallas County Historical Foundation. There is a re-creation of the sniper's nest on the sixth floor of the building.[161]

At the Historic Auto Attractions museum in Roscoe, Illinois, are permanently displayed items related to the assassination such as the catalogue Oswald used to order the rifle, a hat and jacket that belonged to Jack Ruby and the shoes he wore when he shot Oswald, and a window from the Texas School Book Depository. The Texas State Archives have the clothes Governor Connally wore on November 22, 1963.

Some items were intentionally destroyed by the U.S. government at the direction of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, such as the casket used to transport President Kennedy's body aboard Air Force One from Dallas to Washington, which was dropped by the Air Force into the sea as "its public display would be extremely offensive and contrary to public policy".[162] Other items such as the hat worn by Jack Ruby the day he shot Lee Harvey Oswald and the toe tag on Oswald's corpse are in the hands of private collectors and have sold for tens of thousands of dollars at auctions.[158]

Jack Ruby's gun, owned by his brother Earl Ruby, was sold by the Herman Darvick Autograph Auctions in New York City on December 26, 1991, for $220,000.[163]
4 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/113095456605697566477 luca caputo : "Whenever any American's life is taken by another American unnecessarily--whether it is done in the ...
"Whenever any American's life is taken by another American unnecessarily--whether it is done in the name of the law or in the defiance of the law, by one man or a gang, in cold blood or in passion, in an attack of violence or in response to violence--whenever we tear at the fabric of the life which another man has painfully and clumsily woven for himself and his children, the whole nation is degraded."
-Robert F. Kennedy, 1968
4 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/107458609526155539697 Peanut Designs : “Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly.” - Robert F. Kennedy
“Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly.” - Robert F. Kennedy
4 days ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/113304039270752101245 Verna Brunet : (Via Robert Reich) What amazes me, frankly, are the crowds. Not since Robert F. Kennedy sought the Democratic...
(Via Robert Reich)
What amazes me, frankly, are the crowds. Not since Robert F. Kennedy sought the Democratic nomination in 1968 has a candidate for the nomination of either party generated such large numbers of people eager to see and listen to him. None in living memory has summoned such crowds this early, before the nominating season even begins. Even Sanders' advisers are amazed (I spoke with one this morning who said they never expected this kind of response).
What's the explanation? It's not his sense of humor. It's not his youth. He isn't a demagogue, bashing immigrants or pandering to hatred and bigotry. It's that he's telling Americans the unvarnished truth about what has happened to our economy and our democracy, and he is posing real solutions. And it seems that America is ready to listen.
What do you think?
Bernie Sanders draws his biggest crowd yet — in Arizona of all places
The Vermont senator draws more than 11,000 people in Phoenix.
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https://plus.google.com/118415869878384914447 George Eleady-Cole : THE     BLACK    MARTYR    HISTORY    COLLECTION                                                    ...
THE     BLACK    MARTYR    HISTORY    COLLECTION                                                                                                                                                           Harry Belafonte Biography
Civil Rights Activist, Actor (1927–)
NAME
Harry Belafonte
OCCUPATION
Civil Rights Activist, Actor
BIRTH DATE
March 1, 1927 (age 88)
PLACE OF BIRTH
New York City, New York
NICKNAME
King of Calypso
FULL NAME
Harold George Belafonte
Jr.
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SYNOPSIS
EARLY YEARS
CAREER BEGINNINGS
FIRST SUCCESSES
LATER CAREER
SOCIAL ACTIVISM
PERSONAL LIFE
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Harry Belafonte has achieved lasting fame for such songs as "The Banana Boat Song (Day-O)," and for his humanitarian work.
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“Art. There's nothing more powerful in the universe than it, because it is the recorder of the truth.”
—Harry Belafonte
Synopsis

A multi-talented performer, Harry Belafonte was born on March 1, 1927, in New York City. As a youth, he struggled with poverty and a turbulent family life. Belafonte's career took off with the film Carmen Jones (1954). Soon after, he had several hits—"The Banana Boat Song (Day-O)" and "Jamaica Farewell." In addition to his acting and singing career, Belafonte worked as a champion for many social and political causes.

Early Years

The oldest son of Caribbean immigrants, Harry Belafonte spent his early years in New York City. His mother worked as a dressmaker and a house cleaner, and his father served as a cook in the British Royal Navy. As a young child, Belafonte's parents divorced. The boy was sent to Jamaica, his mother's native country, to live with relatives. There, he saw firsthand the oppression of blacks by the English authorities, which left a lasting impression on him.

Belafonte returned to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1939 to live with his mother. They struggled in poverty, and Belafonte was often cared for by others while his mother worked. "The most difficult time in my life was when I was a kid," he later told People magazine. "My mother gave me affection, but, because I was left on my own, also a lot of anguish."

Career Beginnings

Dropping out of high school, Belafonte enlisted in the U.S. Navy in 1944. He served in the Pacific during the end of World War II. After being discharged from the service, Belafonte returned to New York City. He seemed directionless for a time, working a series of odd jobs. But Belafonte soon found his career inspiration after attending a performance of the American Negro Theater.

So moved by the performance, Belafonte decided that he wanted to become an actor. He studied drama at the Dramatic Workshop run by Erwin Piscator. His classmates included Marlon Brando, Walter Matthau and Rod Steiger. Belafonte appeared in numerous American Negro Theater productions, but he caught his first big break, singing for a class project. He impressed Monte Kay, who offered Belafonte the opportunity to perform at a jazz club called the Royal Roost. Backed by such talented musicians as Charlie Parker and Miles Davis, Belafonte became a popular act at the club. In 1949, he landed his first recording deal.

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First Successes

By 1950, Belafonte had switched his musical style, dropping popular music from his repertoire in favor of folk. He became an avid student of traditional folk songs from around the world, and started appearing in such New York City folk clubs as the Village Vanguard.

Debuting on Broadway in 1953, Belafonte won a Tony Award for his performance in John Murray Anderson's Almanac, in which he performed several of his own songs. He also appeared in another well-received musical revue, 3 for Tonight, in 1955.

Around this time, Belafonte launched his film career. He played a school principal opposite Dorothy Dandridge in his first movie, Bright Road (1953). The pair reunited the following year for Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones, a film adaptation of the Broadway musical. Oscar Hammerstein II had written the musical as a contemporary, African-American version of the opera Carmen, by Georges Bizet. Belafonte received an Academy Award nomination for his portrayal of Joe, a soldier who falls for the title character, played by Dandridge.

The success of Carmen Jones made Belafonte a star, and soon he became a music sensation. After signing with RCA Victor Records, he released Calypso (1956), an album featuring his take on traditional Caribbean folk music. "The Banana Boat Song (Day-O)" proved to be a huge hit. More than just a popular tune, it also had a special meaning for Belafonte. "That song is a way of life," Belafonte later told The New York Times. "It's a song about my father, my mother, my uncles, the men and women who toil in the banana fields, the cane fields of Jamaica."

Calypso introduced America to a new genre of music, and became the first album to sell more than one million copies. Belafonte also worked with other folk artists, including Bob Dylan and the legendary Odetta. The pair sang their version of the traditional children's song "There's a Hole in My Bucket." In 1961, Belafonte had another big hit with "Jump in the Line."

Belafonte proved to be a ground-breaker in another realm as well: He became the first African-American television producer, working on numerous musical shows. In the early 1970s, Belafonte teamed up with singer Lena Horne for a one-hour special.

Later Career

By the mid-1970s, Belafonte was no longer hitting the charts. On the big screen, Belafonte had some success with his collaborations with longtime friend Sidney Poitier, including 1972's Buck and the Preacher and 1974's Uptown Saturday Night. But despite this success, Belafonte decided to take a break from movie-making. He made numerous television appearances in the 1970s and 1980s, including a guest spot on The Muppet Show, on which he sang several of his most popular songs. Belafonte also worked with Marlo Thomas on the 1974 children's special Free To Be ... You and Me.

In the 1990s, Belafonte returned to the big screen with two films. He starred with John Travolta in White Man's Burden (1995), which was a commercial and critical disappointment. The following year, Belafonte played against type as a heartless gangster in Robert Altman's Kansas City. He also appeared in 2006's Bobby, a film about the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.

Social Activism

Always outspoken, Belafonte found inspiration for his activism from such figures as singer Paul Robeson; writer and activist W. E. B. Du Bois; and civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. In the 1950s, Belafonte met civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. The pair became good friends, and Belafonte emerged as a strong voice for the civil rights movement. He provided financial backing for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Council and participated in numerous rallies and protests. Belafonte was with King when the civil rights leader gave his famous "I Have A Dream" speech in Washington, D.C., and visited with him days before King was assassinated in 1968.

During the mid-1960s, Belafonte also began supporting new African artists. He first met exiled South-African artist Miriam Makeba, known as “Mama Africa,” in London in 1958 and together they won Grammy for Best Folk Recording in 1966. He helped introduce her to international and to American audiences, as well as call attention to life under apartheid in South Africa. Belafonte extended his voice as an activist for civil rights at home in America and abroad.

In the 1980s, Belafonte led an effort to help people in Africa. He came up the idea of recording a song with other celebrities, which would be sold to raise funds to provide famine relief in Ethiopia. Written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Ritchie, "We Are the World" featured vocals by such music greats as Ray Charles, Diana Ross, Bruce Springsteen and Smokey Robinson. The song was released in 1985, raising millions of dollars and becoming an international hit.

Over the years, Belafonte has supported for many other causes as well. In addition to his role as a goodwill ambassador for UNICEF, the performer has campaigned to end the practice of apartheid in South Africa, and has spoken out against U.S. military actions in Iraq.

Belafonte has sometimes landed in hot water for his candidly expressed opinions. In 2006, he made headlines when he referred to President George W. Bush as "the greatest terrorist in the world" for launching the war in Iraq. He also insulted African-American members of the Bush administration General Colin Powell and Condoleeza Rice, referring to them as "house slaves." Despite media pressure, he steadfastly refused to apologize for his remarks. In regards to Powell and Rice, Belafonte said "you are serving those who continue to design our oppression."

Personal Life

Belafonte lives in New York City with his third wife Pamela Frank. The couple wed in April 2008. Belafonte has two children with second wife, dancer Julie Robinson, to whom he was married for nearly 50 years. He also has two other children from his first marriage to Marguerite Byrd.
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