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Most recent 20 results returned for keyword: perigee (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/114724350251296574381 Eugene. अमृत : Right so if you have a mobile device and want to stay fit (Note: fit does not mean thin or curvy or ...
Right so if you have a mobile device and want to stay fit (Note: fit does not mean thin or curvy or buff or whatever. It implies that your muscles are toned, you aren't stiff af, you don't get aches and pains randomly and you can stretch without breaking a bone, you can breathe well etc etc yadda yadda) there's this app called Seven which basically gives you a workout for 7 minutes.
There are 12 exercises of 30 seconds each that you can do right at home without any equipment and it exercise your entire body.
It hurts at first but it's a cool way to get exercise.

Here's the link to download it: http://perigee.se/apps/seven/
If you don't have a mobile device, here's the link for computers: http://7-min.com/
1 hour ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/104575587957252080559 Raghavendra Mudugal : PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update: May 03, 2016 - Orbit Determination results from fourth...
PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update:

May 03, 2016 - Orbit Determination results from fourth LAM firing are : apogee X perigee height was changed to 35811 km,35211 km,Inclination is 5.1 deg. Orbital period now is 23 hr 42 min 04 sec.

The fourth and the final LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 231sec has been successfully completed on 03.05.2016 starting from 01:27hr IST
Link: http://www.isro.gov.in/update/03-may-2016/fourth-and-final-lam-firing-of-irnss-1g-231sec-has-been-successfully-completed
Orbit Determination results from fourth LAM firing are : apogee X perigee height was changed to 35811 km,35211 km,Inclination is 5.1 deg. Orbital period now is 23 hr 42 min 04 sec - ISRO
A (4) / B (2) / C (6) / E (1) / G (22) / H (1) / I (34) / J (1) / K (1) / L (1) / M (2) / O (2) / P (39) / R (7) / S (9) / T (1) / Y (1). Spacecraft · Communication · Earth Observation · Navigation · Scientific Exploration · Experimental · Small Satellites · Student Satellites ...
15 hours ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/104575587957252080559 Raghavendra Mudugal : PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update: May 02, 2016 - Orbit Determination results from the third...
PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update:

May 02, 2016 - Orbit Determination results from the third LAM firing are: apogee X perigee height was changed to 35813km, 29050km, Inclination is 5.72deg. Orbital period now is 21hr 08m 09sec.
Orbit Determination results from the third LAM firing are: apogee X perigee height was changed to 35813km, 29050km, Inclination is 5.72deg. Orbital period now is 21hr 08m 09sec - ISRO
A (4) / B (2) / C (6) / E (1) / G (22) / H (1) / I (34) / J (1) / K (1) / L (1) / M (2) / O (2) / P (39) / R (7) / S (9) / T (1) / Y (1). Spacecraft · Communication · Earth Observation · Navigation · Scientific Exploration · Experimental · Small Satellites · Student Satellites ...
1 day ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/104575587957252080559 Raghavendra Mudugal : PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update: May 01, 2016 - Third LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 1609sec...
PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update:

May 01, 2016 - Third LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 1609sec has been successfully completed on 01.05.2016 starting from 06:59:07 hr IST.

Orbit Determination results from second LAM firing are:apogee X perigee height was changed to 35803km,7750km,Inclination is 10.77deg.Orbital period now is 13h 03m 35sec
Link: http://www.isro.gov.in/update/01-may-2016/orbit-determination-results-second-lam-firing-areapogee-x-perigee-height-was
Third LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 1609sec has been successfully completed on 01.05.2016 starting from 06:59:07 hr IST. - ISRO
A (4) / B (2) / C (6) / E (1) / G (22) / H (1) / I (34) / J (1) / K (1) / L (1) / M (2) / O (2) / P (39) / R (7) / S (9) / T (1) / Y (1). Spacecraft · Communication · Earth Observation · Navigation · Scientific Exploration · Experimental · Small Satellites · Student Satellites ...
2 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/104575587957252080559 Raghavendra Mudugal : PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update: Apr 30, 2016 - PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update : The first...
PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Post Mission Launch Update:

Apr 30, 2016 - PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update : The first apogee raise maneuver of IRNSS-1G has been successfully carried out for 1147 sec from 13:05 hrs IST on April 29,2016. Orbit Determination results from this LAM firing are: Apogee X perigee height was changed to 35903 kmX 317.74 km. Inclination is 17.86 deg. Orbital period is 10 hr 35 min.

PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update : Second LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, at apogee for 1581 sec has been successfully completed on April 30, 2016 starting from 04:52:17 hrs IST.
Link: http://www.isro.gov.in/update/30-apr-2016/pslv-c33-irnss-1g-update-second-lam-firing-of-irnss-1g-apogee-1581-sec-has-been
PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update : The first apogee raise maneuver of IRNSS-1G has been successfully carried out for 1147 sec from 13:05 hrs IST on April 29,2016. - ISRO
Orbit Determination results from this LAM firing are: Apogee X perigee height was changed to 35903 kmX 317.74 km. Inclination is 17.86 deg. Orbital period is 10 hr 35 min.
3 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/105673849396386661747 shannon Gilmour : Are you drawn to the water? Do you long to set your eyes on the ocean? Do you long to hear the waves...
Are you drawn to the water? Do you long to set your eyes on the ocean? Do you long to hear the waves crash against the shore as the sun kisses your cheeks? Do you enjoy listening to the sound of the rushing river, or the meandering creek? There's something about water that draws us closer to it as its very nature is soothing to our souls.

Personally, I enjoy the sound of the waves of the ocean. My first visit to the ocean was when I was 13, when my family went to Anahiem California. Then when I was 17 I was able to visit Cabo San Lucas. Oh how I've ALWAYS longed to go back.

The ocean calls to my heart like a burning ember and although at times I put it out of mind, it is something that I will never be able to erase from my heart. To walk along the sea shore and collect sea shells. To witness the perigee of the moon in the sky while looking out into the forever sea. Sigh The memories I'll keep forever, along with this longing.

What is it about water that captivates us? Why does water have such a hold within our hearts? I know for me, sitting by the waters edge listing to the roar of the overflowing creek after winter thaw affords me the BEST opportunity for writing for ministry. Do you have a desire to hear the water? Have you ever asked yourself why?

Water is therapeutic, and it isn't just because of the specific white noise and the tranquility water provides. There is something in water that allows us a deep connection.

Scientific discovery has shown that the brain creates five different specific energy patterns. Water is a means to connect to one specific brain wave pattern that allows us a direct connection with God. The sound of water calms us and immediately takes our conscious waking thoughts and allows us to relax to tap into the unknown energy and hidden thoughts.

"My people have committed two sins: They have forsaken me, the spring of living water, and have dug their own cisterns, broken cisterns that cannot hold water." Jeremiah 2:13 NIV

There's a deeper connection to water that we fail to see.

I was in a Theta brain wave exercise the other day ( I share this exercise in my online course ) the exercise is a trust exercise that you establish in your waking mind with God using scripture as your guide. I was using the scenario of Jesus walking on water, and I began to question that this scenario has a deeper meaning that we as God's children are not seeing. "Why was Jesus able to walk on water?" I asked out loud. With my eyes closed, I calmly waited for the answer.

"Because Jesus was one with the water."

We all know the properties of water; that it nourishes our cells, takes away our thirst, gives us energy and vitality. These are all qualities that Jesus does for us when we make the choice to live in daily obedience to His word. He washes us from the inside out.

But there's something deeper; It comes from the Hebrew side of scripture that most of us do not know. From a Christian stand point the Hebrew understanding of God's word is foreign and almost seems blasphemous. But that's only because we've changed the meaning of God's word to suit our modern day hearts and lifestyles.

Taking scripture back to its Hebraic roots is life changing and it is more profound and rewarding but I must stress I am not talking about bringing in the Jewishness of understanding into scripture. I'm talking about Hebrew; the language and the culture of Old Testament living, this is Torah teaching.

When you read the opening passage of Genesis, what do you read?

"Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters." Genesis 1:2 NIV

What do you notice? Water is older than the earth. This means that water was placed on the earth and not created from it. This also means something else, but we have to delve into Hebrew a bit to gain understanding.

The darkness mentioned in this scripture is a spiritual darkness. It by Hebrew definition means evil, ignorance, DESTRUCTION. The Hebrews knew this because the way the culture was, that every word was given a definition according to its function. There was no abstract meaning or intention. Because the darkness or 'Choshek' in the Hebrew language means destruction, it is why God hovered over the waters; to keep the spiritual darkness from destroying the waters.

Dr. Emoto performed modern day experiments on water, and noticed that water holds memory. When speaking positive and loving words directly to the water, the ice crystals that formed were beautiful perfectly formed structures that were colorful and complete and intricate in design.

The water that was subjected to negative and hateful words actually formed destructured ice crystals that were broken, dingy, bland and murky in color. The crystals were chaotic and less complex and in fact were unsightly, clearly showing something was characteristically wrong with the water itself.

What this shows us, is that what God's ancient word through the Hebraic language proves; that water can be destroyed. Scientific evidence shows us that water that is structurally sound is living water, but water that holds negative memory and has gone through any negative environment becomes dead although the water can still be utilized, it has less benefit that its beneficial counterpart.

While God held back the darkness from destroying the water. He was in the form of a wind. The Hebrew word for wind is "Ruah' . Our version bibles use the word 'hovering' or 'fluttering' instead.

"And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light." Genesis 1:3 NIV

When God called forth the light, it is often assumed that God created the sun, or some sort of luminary in the sky. But this is not so. In the sentence before, we read that the darkness was a spiritual darkness and in order to read and interpret God's word correctly, we need to keep it in context. Turning to the Hebrew language allows us to keep scripture in it's closest context as the light mentioned in Genesis 1:3 is a SPIRITUAL LIGHT.

" God is light, in Him there is no darkness." 1 John 1:5

Other scripture contexts help to solidify the intended Hebrew meaning. When God called forth the light, He did not created it as the light He was calling forth was from within Him. To deal with the spiritual darkness, God has to use its spiritual opposite. NOTHING else will work.

What happens when light shines? Darkness becomes separated from it. Darkness moves away; Darkness retreats and moves further from the light according to the light's brightness. Our focus is now off the water and onto the dynamic between light and darkness. God used the light to protect the water as light causes darkness to naturally go away. But what about the effect light has with the water? What kind of interaction does light have with water? Water absorbs the energy from light.

Remember light consists of more than just the spectrum of light we can see. What does this tell us then?

"For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself." John 5:26

It tells us that the LIGHT that is from God is life, as it gave LIFE to water as water gives life to us and renews us not just physically but spiritually. Water through scientific discovery has spiritual properties that scientists cannot explain and some are willing to accept that Divine intervention is by far the best explanation to the hidden dynamics of water.

Could it be the reason why we are drawn to water is because we who live for the Spirit who is Life, want that deep connection with God on earth? It seems the best earthly means other than prayer is to draw near to a water source. It turns out that when we put prayer and water sounds together, ( This also includes immersing ourselves in water; a shower, a bath, a hot tub, a swim in the lake, or ocean...) something profound happens that convinces us that God is the maker, and lover of our souls.



Want to discover more? Pm me to get your copy of Designing You. A work book on how to change your life spiritually to live divinely in God's presence daily.
4 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/112296589871644167136 Akshay Kulkarni : [Very Good Read] India to complete homegrown navigational satellite system with launch of IRNSS-1G: ...
[Very Good Read] India to complete homegrown navigational satellite system with launch of IRNSS-1G:

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is about to launch its last navigational satellite for the indigenous IRNSS system, completing the series. The spacecraft, designated IRNSS-1G, will be launched Thursday, April 28, atop the country’s flagship PSLV rocket from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. Liftoff is currently scheduled for 3:20 a.m. EDT (07:20 GMT).

IRNSS, short for the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, will consist of seven satellites in orbit. The network is used to provide accurate real-time positioning and timing services over India and a region extending to 930 miles (1,500 km) around the country.

IRNSS-1G, the seventh satellite in the series, will be put into a sub-geosynchronous transfer orbit (sub-GTO), with a 176-mile (284-kilometer) perigee and a 12,836-mile (20,657-kilometer) apogee, inclined 17.86 degrees with respect to the equatorial plane.

The mission that will launch the final IRNSS satellite will employ India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in the ‘XL’ configuration. The flight is designated PSLV-C33 and will be the 35th launch of the booster.

The flight will last for about 20 minutes and 19 seconds, ending in the spacecraft’s separation at an altitude of approximately 309 miles (498 kilometers). After the injection into this preliminary orbit, the satellite will deploy its solar panels and ISRO’s Master Control Facility (MCF) will assume control over the spacecraft. The MCF will perform a series of orbit raising maneuvers to put the craft into the targeted orbit.

IRNSS-1G weighs about 1.5 tons (1.4 metric tons) and has dimensions of 5.18 by 4.92 by 4.92 feet (1.58 by 1.5 by 1.5 meters). It is based on ISRO’s I-1K (I-1000) bus and features two deployable solar arrays and one lithium-ion battery capable of generating 1,660 watts of power. The satellite is designed to be operational for up to 12 years.

The satellite has two payloads: a navigation payload and a CDMA ranging payload. The navigation payload will transmit navigation service signals to users of the system. It will be operating in L5-band and S-band. A highly accurate rubidium atomic clock is part of the navigation payload of the satellite. The ranging payload consists of a C-band transponder, which facilitates accurate determination of the range of the spacecraft. The design of the payloads makes the IRNSS system interoperable and compatible with both the U.S. GPS and European Galileo systems.

The configuration of IRNSS-1G is the same as its predecessors: IRNSS-1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E, and 1F. The first IRNSS satellite (IRNSS-1A) was launched by a PSLV rocket July 1, 2013, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre. The most recent satellite in the series, IRNSS-1F, was sent into orbit March 10, 2016, also by a PSLV booster.

The newest IRNSS satellite should provide accurate position information services to users in India as well as the surrounding region. It will deliver Standard Positioning Service (SPS) – responsible for navigation parameter generation and transmission – satellite control, ranging, and integrity monitoring, as well as timekeeping services.

IRNSS, approved in 2006, is a satellite-based positioning system for critical national applications. Its primary objective is to provide reliable position, navigation, and timing services over India and its neighborhood. It is expected to grant accuracy of better than 66 feet (20 meters) in the primary service area.

Once complete, the constellation should provide their services in a fixed orbit above the Indian region. While four satellites would be sufficient to start operations of the IRNSS system, seven would make it more accurate and efficient. All the satellites of the constellation are configured identically.

The four-stage PSLV booster is India’s most reliable launch vehicle. The rocket has been used to delivered more than 40 satellites into space for some 19 countries. PSLV is capable of lofting up to 3.58 tons (3.25 metric tons) to low-Earth orbit and about 1.57 tons (1.42 metric tons) to a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO).

The rocket uses an Earth-storable, liquid-fueled rocket engine for its second stage, known as the Vikas engine. It was developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre. The third stage of the PSLV is powered by a solid rocket motor that provides the upper stage’s high thrust after the atmospheric phase of the mission. The fourth stage is composed of two Earth-storable liquid-fueled engines.

The 144-foot (44-meter) tall XL version of the PSLV, which will be used for Thursday’s mission, is the upgraded variant of the rocket in its standard configuration. Its thrust is increased by more powerful, stretched strap-on boosters.

The vehicle has a mass of 353 tons (320 metric tons) at liftoff and uses the larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL) that provide the capability of hoisting heavier payloads into orbit. PSOM-XL uses the larger, 3.2-foot (1-meter) diameter, 44-foot (13.5-meter) length motors.

This version of the rocket carries 13.2 tons (12 metric tons) of solid propellants instead of the 9.9 tons (9 metric tons) that were used in an earlier configuration of the booster.

The PSLV rocket in its XL configuration was launched for the first time on Oct. 22, 2008, when it sent India’s Chandrayaan-1 lunar probe toward the Moon.

The launch of IRNSS-1G will be India’s third mission this year.
India to complete homegrown navigational satellite system with launch of IRNSS-1G
The Indian Space Research Organisation is set to launch the last of the IRNSS-1 series of navigation satellites.
6 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/115423264096697051746 linda wauneka :  Inner planet Venus and a thin crescent Moon are never found far from the Sun in planet Earth's skies...
 Inner planet Venus and a thin crescent Moon are never found far from the Sun in planet Earth's skies. Taken near dawn on April 6, this timelapse composite shows them both rising just before the Sun. The mountaintop Teide Observatory domes on the fortunate island of Tenerife appear in silhouette against the twilight. In fact, the series of telephoto exposures follows the occultation of Venus by the Moon in three frames. Far from Earth in its orbit and in a nearly full phase, Venus was 96 percent illuminated. Near perigee or closest approach to Earth, the Moon's slender crescent represents about 2 percent of the lunar disk in sunlight. Seen in the first two exposures, the brilliant morning star only vanishes in the third as it winks out behind the bright lunar limb. .


Full Venus and Crescent Moon Rise 
Image Credit & Copyright: A. Rosenberg, D. López (El Cielo de Canarias) / IAC 
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-iEZ4eqsrqKs/Vw-AhLs3dRI/AAAAAAAAOko/BRgfaSrYyXAZL8rjaBhb1-OuqEj4sxv5g/w506-h750/OccultVM_lopez_3frames6-4-16c1048.jpg
7 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/116277605037617613023 Ержан Орымбетов : Moon’s perigee and apogee influence Earthquakes
Moon’s perigee and apogee influence Earthquakes
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-Gf2Iz2vbQY8/Vx1Hlv8BbSI/AAAAAAAAATw/CuNnbuyTuRMnbQR0t8ev-xw98_pKkEFUg/w506-h750/Eartquake.jpg
9 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/109329251784408881601 Juana Leilani : THE MICRO-MOON: We've all heard of supermoons--full Moons that are extra big and bright because they...
THE MICRO-MOON: We've all heard of supermoons--full Moons that are extra big and bright because they occur close to Earth. This week's full moon was the opposite--a micro-moon. April's full Moon was as much as 14% smaller than other full Moons of 2016. Marek Nikodem photographed the shrunken orb over a cement factory in Piechcin, Poland:
"Hot smoke rising over the factory distorted the shape of the lunar disk and made it seem that the Moon was being drawn into the smokestack," says Nikodem. Not even a micromoon, however, is small enough to fit inside a chimney. Photos taken moments later reveal the disk floating free.
Full Moons vary in size because of the oval shape of the Moon's orbit. The Moon follows an elliptical path around Earth with one side ("perigee") about 50,000 km closer than the other ("apogee"). Full Moons that occur on the apogee side of the Moon's orbit seem a bit smaller and dimmer than usual. That's what happened on April 22nd. The Moon became full at 05:24 UT only 13 hours after apogee--a coincience that reduced the size of the lunar orb.
The supermoon will return on Nov. 14 when the Moon becomes full at perigee. Stay tuned for that.
spaceweather.com/images2016/23apr16/Marek-Nikodem-DSC_2309_1461390895_strip.jpg

9 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/108641410236166645856 The Space Collective Ltd : Perigee Moon & Apogee Moon.
Perigee Moon & Apogee Moon.
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-v6MeHlAzVe0/VxynU8HqKuI/AAAAAAAAUMY/qOCOzkMLXYIm1SibAnfYl_ZNJvTYtxBFw/w506-h750/f3d7e913-4b07-40f6-b6ec-fe4085aee4ee
9 days ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/111812957517398984002 Muc Muci : Just finished workout day 43 with Seven! #SevenApp market://details?id=se.perigee.android.seven
Just finished workout day 43 with Seven! #SevenApp market://details?id=se.perigee.android.seven
http://se.perigee.android.seven

11 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/108623430856492652138 George Leo : Mercury and Crescent Moon: View from Lisbon, Portugal Innermost planet Mercury and a thin crescent Moon...
Mercury and Crescent Moon: View from Lisbon, Portugal
Innermost planet Mercury and a thin crescent Moon are never found far from the Sun in planet Earth's skies. Taken near dusk on April 8, 2016, this colorful evening skyscape shows them both setting toward the western horizon just after the Sun. The broad Tagus River and city lights of Lisbon, Portugal run through the foreground under the serene twilight sky. Near perigee or closest approach to Earth, the Moon's bright, slender crescent represents about 3 percent of the lunar disk in sunlight. Of course as seen from the Moon, a nearly full Earth would light up the lunar night, and that strong perigee earthshine makes the rest of the lunar disk visible in this scene. Bright Mercury stays well above the western horizon at sunset for northern skywatchers in the coming days. The fleeting planet reaches maximum elongation, or angular distance from the Sun, on April 18. But Mercury will swing back toward the Sun and actually cross the solar disk on May 9, the first transit of Mercury since November 8, 2006.

Image Credit & Copyright: Miguel Claro
Image Date: April 8, 2016
Miguel's website: www.miguelclaro.com/wp/
TWAN: www.twanight.org
Dark Sky Alqueva: www.darkskyalqueva.com

+Astronomy Picture of the Day (APoD) 

#NASA #Astronomy #Space #Science #Mercury #Planet #Moon #Crescent #Astrophotography #Art #Earth #Earthshine #Lisbon #Portugal #Lisboa #Portuguesa #Skywatching #APoD
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12 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/113007857042255797077 Dd Tripathi : GEOSAT (Geodetic/Geophysical Satellite) GEOSAT was a pioneering research mission of the US Navy dedicated...
GEOSAT (Geodetic/Geophysical Satellite)
GEOSAT was a pioneering research mission of the US Navy dedicated to radar altimetry (the mission is also referred to as GEOSAT-A). The overall objectives were: Provision of a dense global grid of altimeter data for Navy use in the areas of geodesy (Earth's gravitational models), the study of fronts and eddies, winds, waves and ice topography, physical oceanography in the `Exact Repeat Mission' (ERM). 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
During the initial phase of general mission planning and design, it was recognized that valuable environmental data also could be obtained from the GEOSAT altimeter. The oceanographer of the Navy responded with the “Global Ocean Applications Program” to exploit the altimeter observations for operational physical oceanography during an extended mission following completion of the classified geodetic mission.
The Navy declassified the first set of GEOSAT data in 1990 that covered a doughnut-shaped area of ocean that surrounds Antarctica between 60º and 72º south latitude. In 1992, the Navy declassified all Geodetic Mission (GM) radar altimeter data acquired by the GEOSAT spacecraft over oceanic regions south of 30º South. The GEOSAT data for the entire global sea surface was declassified in July, 1995. 7)
NASA obtained GEOSAT data for extensive waveform modeling and ice sheet research. Under an agreement with the US Navy, NOAA/National Ocean Service produced the ERM Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) which are distributed by the NODC (National Oceanographic Data Center), Silver Spring, MD.
Overall, the GEOSAT mission provided ocean topography information in the time period 1985-1990. GEOSAT is considered to be the first altimeter mission to provide the research community with long-term global observations of sea level, wind speed, wave height, and ice topography. Although the mission was not designed specifically for oceanographic applications, the data provided significant advancement in marine geophysics since it gave oceanographers a first opportunity to experiment with a multi-year global data set. For instance, JHU/APL used the data for sea-bottom topography mapping by inverting sea surface slope data from height measurements provided by the GEOSAT radar altimeter. This ocean topography map offered twice the resolution of the best previous global map. 8) 9) 10) 11)
The oceanographic data from the ERM became a critical component of the Navy's operational mesoscale analyses. The extensive GEOSAT data validation program demonstrated the ability of the radar altimeter to measure the dynamic topography of the Western Boundary currents and their associated rings and eddies, to provide sea surface height data for assimilation into numerical models. These data were also used by the scientific community to determine sea-level variability and absolute dynamic height to scales of thousands of kilometers for studies of long-term sea-level variability in diverse regions of the globe, including the first-ever basin-wide synoptic view of sea-level change during El Niño. 12) 13)
Some background:
A detailed knowledge of topography is fundamental to the understanding of most Earth processes. On the land, weather and climate are controlled by topography on scales ranging from large continental landmasses to small mountain valleys. Since the land is shaped by tectonics, erosion, and sedimentation, detailed topography is essential for any geological investigation. In the oceans, detailed bathymetry is also essential for understanding physical oceanography, biology, and marine geology. Currents and tides are controlled by the overall shapes of the ocean basins as well as by the smaller sharp ocean ridges and seamounts. Sea life is abundant where rapid changes in ocean depth deflect nutrient-rich water toward the surface. Because erosion and sedimentation rates are low in the deep oceans, detailed bathymetry also reveals the mantle convection patterns, the plate boundaries, the cooling/subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere, the oceanic plateaus, and the distribution of off-ridge volcanoes. 14)
Topographic mapping with orbiting laser and radar altimeters has been the focus of current exploration of Venus, the Moon, and Mars and is providing very high resolution topographic maps of the Earth's land areas. However, since one cannot directly map the topography of the ocean basins from space, most seafloor mapping is a tedious process that has been carried out over a 30-year period by research vessels equipped with single or multibeam echo sounders.
Two developments have vastly improved our knowledge of seafloor topography. First, the careful efforts by scientists throughout the world to archive the digital sounding data and assemble the data into large databases has provided much improved access to the 30-year mapping effort Second, radar altimeters aboard the ERS-1 and the GEOSAT spacecraft have surveyed the marine gravity field over nearly all of the world's oceans to a high accuracy and moderate spatial resolution. In March of 1995, ERS-1 completed its dense mapping (~8 km track spacing at the equator) of sea surface topography between the latitudes of ± 81.5º.
Late in the Cold War, the United States Navy decided it would be a good idea to survey the altitude of the ocean surface, all over the world, to within a few centimeters. The point was not to measure waves. The ocean is not flat even where it is calm: it has hills and valleys that depart by as much as a few hundred feet from what we think of as sea level. The slopes of these features are so gentle--they extend over tens or even hundreds of km--that no ship ever feels them. Yet the Navy decided that submarine commanders, of all people, would benefit from precise measurements of this imperceptible topography.
The GEOSAT mission was originally managed by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), then was transferred to the Naval Electronics Systems Command, now referred to as Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). The spacecraft and the payload were designed and built by JHU/APL (Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory) of Laurel, MD, as prime contractor for the Navy. In addition, JHU/APL provided mission operations. The function of data reception, data handling and processing, archiving and distribution were provided by JHU/APL, the Navy [NSWC (Naval Surface Weapons Center), and NORDA (Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity)] and NOAA. 15)
 
Spacecraft:
The basic structure of the GEOSAT spacecraft is similar to the GEOS-3 satellite: The design consists of a conical structure below the core for the structural attachment of the velocity control system. The GEOSAT attitude control subsystem (gravity-gradient stabilization) was designed to point the radar altimeter to within 1º of nadir 98% of the time. The system components were a 6 m scissors boom with 45 kg end mass, redundant momentum wheels for roll and yaw stiffness, and pitch and roll attitude control thrusters. Attitude sensing was provided through the use of three digital sun-attitude detectors and a three-axis vector magnetometer. The on-orbit dry mass of the S/C was 635 kg, design life of 3 years. 16)
RF communications: GEOSAT was equipped with two dual-track high-density tape recorders (Odetics) that independently recorded the 10.205 kbit/s telemetry stream and played it back at 833 kbit/s for transmission to the ground (on-board recording up to 12 hours). Spacecraft command was accomplished via a VHF uplink from the APL ground station. The telemetry subsystem consisted of two S-band transmitters and two encryption units. The spacecraft also included redundant Doppler beacons for continuous tracking by a network of ground stations within the DMA (Defense Mapping Agency) and for a source of accurate timing to the radar altimeter and the telemetry subsystem. A C-band transponder was also included on GEOSAT.

Figure 1: Artist's view of the GEOSAT spacecraft (image credit: NOAA, JHU/APL)
Launch: The launch of the GEOSAT spacecraft took place on March 12, 1985 on an Atlas-E vehicle from VAFB (Vandenberg Air Force Base), Vandenberg, CA.
GEOSAT orbits:
1) GM (Geodetic Mission): Sun-synchronous polar orbit, inclination=108.1º, apogee = 814 km, perigee = 757 km, period = 100.6 minutes. The GM orbit was based on a 3-day near-repeat orbit which was permitted to drift, ultimately producing a tightly spaced ground track pattern. The main goal was to obtain a densely sampled map of the marine geoid. The average spacing of the ground-track grid was 4 km. The GM period was from March 31 1985 to Sept. 30, 1986.
2) ERM (Exact Repeat Mission): Upon completion of the geoid-mapping objective, GEOSAT was maneuvered into the SEASAT (launch of SEASAT on June 27, 1978 - it lasted 100 days) orbit in Sept. 1986, i.e. into an exact repeat orbit with a period of 17.05 days for the observation of geodetic parameters of the oceans (near-polar circular orbit, altitude of 800 km, inclination of 108º. period of 101 min). The ERM mission started officially on Nov. 8, 1986 and continued until January 1990, when the mission was terminated due to the degradation of the altimeter's output power. 17) 18)
 
Mission status:
GEOSAT operations consisted of two distinct mission phases:
• The primary mission was the classified Geodetic Mission (GM) with a mission duration of 18 months (until Sept. 30, 1986). The GM data remained classified until June 28, 1995.
• The second mission phase is known as the `Exact Repeat Mission' (ERM), which was unclassified; it started Oct. 1, 1986 and ended in January 1990 (partly due to failures of the two on-board tape recorders, the S/C batteries failed also at the same time). The ERM provided more than three years of precise altimeter data - which became also available to the scientific community.
GEOSAT was the first multi-year high-precision altimetry mission, and its height measurements have made valuable contributions in the fields of physical oceanography, geodesy, geophysics, and glaciology. It remains unique in terms of the dense spatial sampling of the Geodetic Mission, as well as being the only altimeter operating in the 1980s (Ref. 6).
 
Sensor complement: (GRA)
GRA (GEOSAT Radar Altimeter), designed and developed at JHU/APL (based largely on the Seasat altimeter design). Range measurement between the satellite and the subsatellite point (at nadir) of the orbit with high measurement precision (a range precision of a few decimeter was obtained); the objective was to study the marine gravity field as accurately as possible. Orbit determination was performed with a two-frequency Doppler Tracking System (Tranet). The Tranet data set was declassified in 1993. 19) 20)
The altimeter consists of two main subsystems: the RF section and the signal processor. The RF section in turn consists of a 5 cm thick honeycomb panel with various subsystems attached to one surface and a parabolic dish attached to the opposite surface. The signal system generates a linear FM (chirp) pulse waveform for transmission by a traveling wave tube 20 W amplifier. 21) 22)
Instrument center frequency
13.5 GHz (Ku-band, 2 cm wavelength), a single frequency instrument
Transmitter
Type: TWT (Traveling Wave Tube)
Peak RF power: 20 W (min)
Power consumption: 70 W
Bandwidth: 320 MHz
Receiver
Type: Dual conversion (500 MHz, 0 h)
AGC (Automatic Gain Control): 0 to 63 Db (1 decade steps)
Antenna
Type: 1.04 m parabolic dish
Gain: > 37.6 Db
Bandwidth: 2.0º
RF section envelope
1.04 m (diameter), 0.29 m (height)
Instrument mass, power
86.5 kg, 125 W
Table 1: Overview of GRA instrument parameters
GRA contained an onboard calibration mode that was invoked twice daily to track waveform sample gain and attitude, wave height, automatic gain control, and height.
• For waveform sample gain correction, the onboard tracker operated on a set of 60 waveform samples in the power spectrum outputs of a digital filter bank. Effects, such as in-band ripple and band-edge roll-off of anti-aliasing low-pass filters in the altimeter receiver were removed by individual waveform sample gain correction factors.
• The correction processes of the attitude determination (and related corrections) started with computation of a voltage proportional to attitude (VATT) based on the amplitude of the last eight waveform samples.
Overall, the data quality for the oceanographic applications was somewhat compromised due to the shortcomings in the system design owing to the military objectives of the mission (principally the lack of a water vapor radiometer, the lack of a dual-frequency altimeter for ionospheric corrections, and the use of a passive attitude control system). However, as an early altimeter mission, GEOSAT clearly demonstrated the wide range of potential oceanographic and geophysical applications of altimetric measurements of ocean topography. 23)
Data products:
Raw data were processed into Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) by APL and NOAA. The GDRs include height data derived from average echoes at a rate of 10Hz, and mean height values at 1 Hz (corresponding to a data point every 6.7 km on the surface). Although the primary objective of the GEOSAT mission was to operate over oceans, echoes were also collected over ice and land surfaces. 24) 25)
The data analysis employed the JGM-3 (Joint Gravity Model-3) developed at NASA/GSFC and the University of Texas.
NOAA/NODC in Washington, DC provides GEOSAT data of the ERM period on CD-ROM (GEOSAT altimeter crossover differences) as of Dec. 1992. A significantly improved version of the GEOSAT data was released in June 1997; it is available at NOAA/NODC.
In 2006, the 20th anniversary GEOSAT data set improvements are under way to extent the combined altimetric data set to include the GEOSAT data: 26)
• GEOSAT first long altimetry mission - played important role in geodesy, geophysics, oceanography & glaciology
• The mission remains unique in terms of its spatial coverage/resolution and providing altimetry in the era of the 1980s.
• Archiving of altimetric data sets is crucial, as future improvements cannot be fully anticipated:
- Weather model reanalysis
- Improved tidal and ionospheric models
- Improved gravity models and precise orbit determination
- New retracking methods and algorithms
• GEOSAT 20th anniversary data set:
- 5 cm orbits based on GRACE gravity model
- 10 Hz dataset with improved corrections
- Retracked SSH, SWH from 5-parameter & 1-parameter fits.
An early example of topographic applications in 1997:
Using satellite sensor data declassified by the Navy in combination with data from the ERS-1 mission of ESA (European Space Agency, launch of ERS-1 in 1991) and repeat-track coverage from the Topex/Poseidon altimeter (NASA/CNES mission, Launch Aug. 10, 1992)), Walter H. J. Smith (NOAA) and his colleague, David Sandwell of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA), have generated a computer model of the seafloor in unprecedented detail. The new map, which infers seafloor features from changes in the strength of gravity, provides the first detailed view of ocean floor structures in many remote areas of the Earth. 27) 28) 29)

Figure 2: Illustration of the first ocean seafloor map created from altimetric data (image credit: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, NOAA)
1) “The Navy GEOSAT Mission: An Overview,” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, Volume 8, No. 2, 1987
2) “The Navy GEOSAT Mission Radar Altimeter Satellite Program,” in Monitoring Earth's Ocean, Land, and Atmosphere from Space, Volume 97, 1985 AIAA, pp. 440-463
3) http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/met/geosat.htm
4) J. J. Jensen, F. R. Wooldridge, “The Navy GEOSAT Mission: An Introduction;” McConathy, D. R. and C. C. Kilgus, “The Navy GEOSAT Mission: An Overview,” and W. E. Frain, M. H. Barbagallo, R. J. Harvey, “ The Design and Operation of GEOSAT,” all in Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, Volume 8, No. 2, 1987
5) R. F. Gasparovic, R. K. Raney, R. C. Beal, “Ocean Remote Sensing Research and Applications at APL,” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, Vol. 20, No 4, 1999, pp. 600-610, URL: http://www.jhuapl.edu/techdigest/TD/td2004/gaspar.pdf
6) John Lillibridge, Walter H. F. Smith, David Sandwell, Remko Scharroo, Frank G. Lemoine, Nikita P. Zelensky, “20 Years of Improvements to GEOSAT Altimetry,” Symposium: 15 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry, Venice, Italy, March 13-18, 2006, URL: http://earth.esa.int/workshops/venice06/participants/509/paper_509_lillibridge.pdf
7) NOAA Report, Vol. IV, No 10, November 1995, URL: http://www.publicaffairs.noaa.gov/nr/pdf/nov1995.pdf
8) D. C. McAdoo, K. M. Marks, “Gravity fields of the Southern Ocean from Geosat data,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, 1992, pp. 3247-3260
9) G. H. Born, J. L. Mitchell, G. A. Heyler, “Geosat ERM-Mission Design,” Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 35, No 2, April 1987, pp. 119-134
10) W. H. F. Smith, D. T. Sandwell, “Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings,” Science 277, 1956-1961, 1997
11) F. M. Monaldo,“Expected Differences Between Buoy and Radar Estimates of Wind Speed and Significant Wave Height and Their Implications on Buoy-Altimeter Comparisons,” Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 93, 1988, pp. 2285-2301
12) L. Miller, R. E. Cheney, B. C. Douglas, “Geosat Altimeter Observations of Kelvin Waves and the 1986-87 El Niño,” Science 239, 52-54 1988
13) D. B. Chelton, M. G. Schlax, D. L. Witter, J. G. Richman, “Geosat altimeter observations of the sea surface circulation of the southern ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, 1990, pp. 17,887-17,903
14) D. T. Sandwell, W. H. F. Smith, “Bathymetric Estimation,” January 1999, URL: http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/chapter11/text.pdf
15) http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/geosat.htm
16) http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/gdrs/geosat_handbook/index.html
17) Bruce Shapiro, “The GEOSAT Orbit Adjust,” The Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 36, No 4, Oct.-Dec. 1988, pp. 407-424, URL: http://biomathman.com/pubs/1988.JAS.pdf
18) http://science.nasa.gov/missions/geosat/
19) M. J. Gabor, J. C. Ries, “A Systematic Approach to the Precision Orbit Determination of the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission Utilizing TRANET Doppler Data,” Proceedings of the AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Austin, TX, Feb. 12-15, 1996, Paper: AAS 96-166
20) http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/altimeter_instrument.gd.html
21) J. L MacArthur, P. C. Marth, Jr., J. G. Wall, “The GEOSAT Radar Altimeter,” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, Volume 8, No. 2, April-June 1987
22) http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/geosat_platform.gd.html
23) D. B. Chelton (editor), “Report of the High-Resolution Ocean Topography Science Working Group Meeting,” College Park, MD, March 28-29, 2001, Report as of Oct. 2001, URL: http://www.coas.oregonstate.edu/research/po/research/hotswg/HOTSWG_overview.pdf
24) http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/gdrs/geosat_handbook/docs/chap_1.htm
25) D. R. Mantripp, J. K. Ridley, C. G. Rapley, “Antarctic map from the Geosat Radar Altimeter Geodetic Mission,” ESA Earth Observation Quarterly, No. 37-38, May-June 1992, pp. 6-10
26) J. Lillibridge, W. H. F. Smith, D. Sandwell, R. Scharroo, F. Lemoine, N. Zelensky, “20 Years of Improvements to GEOSAT Altimetry,” Symposium: 15 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry, Venice, Italy, March 13-18, 2006, URL: http://earth.esa.int/workshops/venice06/participants/509/pres_venice_geosat_20.ppt
27) “Global Seafloor Topography Measured & Estimated from gravity data derived from satellite altimetry and shipboard depth soundings,” 1997, World Data Center for Marine Geology & Geophysics, Boulder, Announcement 97-MGG-03, URL: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/fliers/97mgg03.html
28) Walter H. F. Smith, “Seafloor tectonic fabric from satellite altimetry,” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 26, pp. 697-747, May 1998, (doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.26.1.697)
29) D. T. Sandwell, W. H. F. Smith, “Exploring the ocean basins with satellite altimetry data,” URL: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/predicted/explore.HTML#fyi

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https://plus.google.com/113409142504975483134 cynthia pinel : Mercury and Crescent Moon Set Image Credit & Copyright: Miguel Claro (TWAN, Dark Sky Alqueva) Explanation...
Mercury and Crescent Moon Set 
Image Credit & Copyright: Miguel Claro (TWAN, Dark Sky Alqueva) 




Explanation: Innermost planet Mercury and a thin crescent Moon are never found far from the Sun in planet Earth's skies.Taken near dusk on April 8, this colorful evening skyscape shows them both setting toward the western horizon just after the Sun. The broad Tagus River and city lights of Lisbon, Portugal run through the foreground under the serene twilight sky. Near perigee or closest approach to Earth, the Moon's bright, slender crescent represents about 3 percent of the lunar disk in sunlight. Of course as seen from the Moon, a nearly full Earth would light up the lunar night, and that strong perigeeearthshine makes the rest of the lunar disk visible in this scene. Bright Mercury stays well above the western horizon at sunset for northern skywatchers in the coming days. The fleeting planet reaches maximum elongation, or angular distance from the Sun, on April 18. But Mercury will swing back toward the Sun and actually cross the solar disk on May 9, the first transit of Mercury since November 8, 2006.
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https://plus.google.com/111459658208137241030 Cambren Resendiz : Full Venus and Crescent Moon Rise Image Credit & Copyright: A. Rosenberg, D. López (El Cielo de Canarias...
Full Venus and Crescent Moon Rise
Image Credit & Copyright: A. Rosenberg, D. López (El Cielo de Canarias) / IAC
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap160414.html

Inner planet Venus and a thin crescent Moon are never found far from the Sun in planet Earth's skies. Taken near dawn on April 6, this timelapse composite shows them both rising just before the Sun. The mountaintop Teide Observatory domes on the fortunate island of Tenerife appear in silhouette against the twilight. In fact, the series of telephoto exposures follows the occultation of Venus by the Moon in three frames. Far from Earth in its orbit and in a nearly full phase, Venus was 96 percent illuminated. Near perigee or closest approach to Earth, the Moon's slender crescent represents about 2 percent of the lunar disk in sunlight. Seen in the first two exposures, the brilliant morning star only vanishes in the third as it winks out behind the bright lunar limb. Five minutes of the dramatic occultation at dawn is compressed into 15 seconds in this timelapse video (vimeo).
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https://plus.google.com/116336034119942517971 LifeStyle6070 : Magnitude Reminder NI.BIRU While you go about your daily lives, daily routine, this weekend was a timely...
Magnitude Reminder
NI.BIRU
While you go about your daily lives, daily routine, this weekend was a timely reminder of an approaching event that we are already in.
Earthquakes have been on the rise for a long time also the volcanos that have been dormant are now awake, who switched them on and why now.
Hurricanes, typhoons, mud slides, tidal waves and so on+ have all increased by 410%, yet the Earth’s magnetic field has been decreasing, in the last 20 years or so the magnetic field has become erratic, now you know why, your governments have always known this knowledge, that is why FEMA is in place so that by the time the penny drops for the humans, they will drop you, at the same time there is a doubling of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field during the last 100years, yeah I check these shitty data,
>>Japan moved, the island was moved<<
HAARP, Geo-Engineering, Global warming, are all man made contributions, even the destruction of the Ozone Layer, Global warming is a media spin on a much more profound change happening throughout this solar system.
 
There is evidence to support the notion of Solar Evolution, and resultantly, evolution of all the planets and life on them.
 
Ascension, this evidence, a vast amount, all of which underscores the wisdom of the ancients, that the material, mental and spiritual realms are one unified system.
This process is the infusing of information from the higher to the lower, from the large to the small, the changes in our local universe continues unhindered, that means don’t ask about dates, look at the signs.
 
We are in the middle of a massive energetic influx, affecting life as you know it, and will ultimately lead to a shift of cosmic proportions.
 
 
NI.BIRU is approaching its perigee, getting closer to Earth, while moving in the Earths direction, its massive size produces great gravitational waves, which travel towards this solar system.
These gravitational waves interfere with the Sun's activity and can increase the seismic activity on Earth, this has been constantly been increasing in the past year.
The Seismic institutes are hiding this from us, hundreds of Earthquakes are occurring, USGS, is withholding data, or are taking it out, RSOE EDIS is slow.
 
 
The increasing seismic activity is the result of NI.BIRU approaching.
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https://plus.google.com/111812957517398984002 Muc Muci : Just finished workout day 41 with Seven! #SevenApp market://details?id=se.perigee.android.seven
Just finished workout day 41 with Seven! #SevenApp market://details?id=se.perigee.android.seven
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