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Most recent 20 results returned for keyword: necrotizing fasciitis (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/100186933130275360423 Erik Leeman : One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes Vincent A. Fischetti, James B. ...
One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes

Vincent A. Fischetti, James B. Dale

Abstract

The ability to hide in the animal kingdom is essential for survival; the same is true for bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is considered one of the more successful stealth bacteria in its production of a hyaluronic acid capsule that is chemically identical to the hyaluronic acid lining human joints. It has also acquired the capacity to enter eukaryotic cells to avoid the onslaught of the host’s immune defenses, as well as drugs. From this intracellular vantage point, it may remain dormant from days to weeks, only to cause disease again at a later time, perhaps causing a relapse in a drug-treated patient. We now learn that it is able to enter macrophages as well, enabling the Streptococcus to use this “Trojan horse” approach to be transported to distant sites in the body.

Commantary

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) is a major human pathogen that causes a wide array of clinical syndromes, ranging from uncomplicated infections of the pharynx and skin to more serious infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock. S. pyogenes infections are, for the most part, human specific, and thus far, no reservoir besides humans has been identified. Additionally, the species comprises more than 120 different M/emm types that have somehow managed to be maintained in the human population. The classic view has been that acute infections eventually result in asymptomatic carriage of the organism on mucosal or skin surfaces, a process that permits survival of the species over time. Indeed, studies have shown that, at any given time, 5 to 25% of humans (depending on the time of year and the age of the person) are colonized with S. pyogenes. Exactly how the organisms maintain a presence in an otherwise hostile environment and generate new emm types has never been quite clear.

Read more at: http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/3/e00661-16.full

Download PDF: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B5zdx9y1FIkfVlY2ck56WjM0Z1E/view?usp=sharing
One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes
Next Section ABSTRACT The ability to hide in the animal kingdom is essential for survival; the same is true for bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is considered one of the more successful stealth bacteria in its production of a hyaluronic acid capsule that is chemically identical to the hyaluronic acid lining human joints. It has also acquired the capacity to enter eukaryotic cells to avoid the onslaught of the host’s immune defenses, as well as dr...
1 day ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/103164792956206187053 Talus Nemeth : Today, I unexpectedly stumbled across the List of Fictional Diseases. One of my favorites - the Life...
Today, I unexpectedly stumbled across the List of Fictional Diseases. One of my favorites - the Life Eater virus from Warhammer 40,000's eclectic universe:

"...a form of necrotizing fasciitis that causes all biological matter to break down into its component parts, releasing toxic, flammable gas that can be ignited with a single explosion".

I need to make this a real thing. Investors can contact me privately for cryptowallet drops.
List of fictional diseases - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/117173998815453374494 Emma Harte : I have read all 253 pages of “Complications” by Atul Gawande. The book is structured with anecdotes ...
I have read all 253 pages of “Complications” by Atul Gawande. The book is structured with anecdotes followed by questions raised and lessons learned. The final chunk is in Part III, “Uncertainty,” and it deals with my second essential question about how people deal with uncertainty. After reading about tolerance of ambiguity (TA), which is discussed in a psychology article from Scientific Research (http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091613521890.pdf), I learned that people with high TA are more open and mindful. When making decisions, they are comfortable with changing their mind if new evidence proves their original decision wrong. On the other hand, people with low TA are more likely to make rash, overconfident decisions and do not like to change their mind once they have already made a choice. After reading this article, I realized that Dr. Groopman’s ideas about how doctors can make better decisions align with the description of people with high TA. The other article I looked at deals with clinical uncertainty in particular and is called “Physician Responses to Ambiguous Patient Symptoms” (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1490139/). It describes a study in which researchers randomly presented doctors with patients displaying equivocal symptoms and analyzed the decision-making of the doctors. The researchers noticed two distinct ways that the doctors responded to the patients, which they call “usual care” (UC) and “high-partnering” (HP). Doctors who displayed UC denied the ambiguity by making a diagnosis without considering other options, whereas doctors who displayed HP acknowledged the ambiguity openly with the patient and used further questioning and tests to make a diagnosis. It seems to me that doctors who displayed HP in the study would have high TA, and doctors who displayed UC would have low TA. My working thesis is: Acknowledgement of uncertainty produces informed, thoughtful decisions, whereas denial of unceratinty causes rash decisions and a narrowed mindset.

In “Complications,” Gawande demonstrates a high TA through his complex decision making process. He describes a situation when a woman came into the ER with a bad case of cellulitis (skin infection); however, her infection looked severe enough to plant the idea of necrotizing fasciitis, known as flesh-eating bacteria, in his head. Gawande could have dismissed the slight possibility that the woman’s condition was not what he and other doctors thought it was, but he asked another surgeon to do a biopsy. Gawande writes, “[C]ould he say for sure that it was not necrotizing fasciitis? He could not. It is a reality of medicine that choosing not to do something- to not order a test, to not give an antibiotic, to not take a patient to the operating room- is far harder than choosing to do it. Once a possibility has been put in your mind- especially one as horrible as necrotizing fasciitis- the possibility does not easily go away” (Gawande 235). Doctors with low TA might dismiss the idea that their original diagnosis and first impression of the situation is wrong, but a better doctor will keep an open mind and consider all of the possibilities.

One example of how denial of uncertainty can affect doctors’ performance is SIDS, or sudden infant death syndrome. SIDS is not a disease but a name that lumps together any infant death that occurs suddenly and without a known cause. Gawande explains that the concept of SIDS is a way that doctors deny uncertainty: “One of the great appeals of science is the idea that it can erase uncertainties. But the truth of the matter is that it tends to raise as many questions as it answers” (Gawande 203). By using the term SIDS, doctors refuse to acknowledge that they don’t know exactly why an infant has died. It prevents them from digging deeper and keeping an open mind to other options. In “Complications,” Gawande describes a mother who had eight infants die suddenly. The deaths were ascribed to SIDS, but it was later found that she murdered the children.

One question that my research has raised is whether individuals with low tolerance of ambiguity can learn to become more tolerant. If the answer is yes, then maybe teaching doctors to acknowledge uncertainty could improve how they treat patients. If the answer is no, then maybe people with high tolerance of ambiguity are better suited to be doctors.
4 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/118049010536877833379 Alexander Hall :

7 days ago - Via Events - View -
https://plus.google.com/105229598786320114294 lost all hope : looking at all the hate and posts in the Anti Emo community gave me the following diseases: Achondroplasia...

looking at all the hate and posts in the Anti Emo community gave me the following diseases: Achondroplasia Acne AIDS Albinism Alcoholic hepatitis Allergy Alopecia Alzheimer's disease Amblyopia Amebiasis Anemia Aneurdu Anorexia Anosmia Anotia Anthrax Appendicitis Apraxia Argyria Arthritis Aseptic meningitis Asthenia Asthma Astigmatism Atherosclerosis Athetosis Atrophy Autism Bacterial meningitis Barack Obama syndrome Beriberi Black Death Botulism Breast cancer Bronchitis Brucellosis Bubonic plague Bunion Bella killer Calculi Campylobacter infection Cancer Candidiasis Carbon monoxide poisoning Celiacs disease Cerebral palsy Chagas disease Chalazion Chancroid Chavia Cherubism Chickenpox Child elongated penis syndrome Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis Cholera Chordoma Chorea Chronic fatigue syndrome Circadian rhythm sleep disorder Coccidioidomycosis Colitis Common cold Condyloma Congestive heart disease Coronary heart disease Cowpox Cretinism Crohn's Disease Dengue Diabetes Diphtheria Dehydration Ear infection Ebola Encephalitis Emphysema Epilepsy Erectile dysfunction Foodborne illness Gangrene Gastroenteritis Genital herpes GERD Goitre Gonorrhea Heart disease Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis F (Childhood Herpes) Histiocytosis (Childhood Cancer) HIV Human papillomavirus Huntington's disease Hypermetropia Hyperopia Hyperthyroidism Hypothermia Hypothyroid Hypotonia Impetigo Infertility Influenza Interstitial cystitis Iritis Iron-deficiencyanemia Irritable bowel syndrome Ignious Syndrome Jaundice Keloids Kuru Kwashiorkor Laryngitis Lead poisoning Leaking scrotum syndrome Legionellosis Leishmaniasis Leprosy Leptospirosis Listeriosis Leukemia Lice Loiasis Lung cancer Lupus erythematosus Lyme disease Lymphogranulomavenereum Lymphoma Malaria Marburg fever Measles Melanoma Melioidosis Metastatic cancer Ménière's disease Meningitis Migraine Mononucleosis Multiple myeloma Multiple sclerosis Mumps Muscular dystrophy Myasthenia gravis Myelitis Myoclonus Myopia Myxedema Morquio Syndrome Mattticular syndrome Neoplasm Niggeritis Non-gonococcal urethritis Necrotizing Fasciitis Night blindness Obesity Osteoarthritis Osteoporosis Otitis Palindromic rheumatism Paratyphoid fever Parkinson's disease Pelvic inflammatory disease Peritonitis Periodontal disease Pertussis Phenylketonuria Plague Poliomyelitis Porphyria Progeria Prostatitis Psittacosis Psoriasis PTSD Pubic lice Pulmonary embolism Pilia Q fever Ques fever Rabies Repetitive strain injury Rheumatic fever Rheumatic heart Rheumatism Rheumatoid arthritis Rickets Rift Valley fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rubella Salmonellosis Sandy vagina Scabies Scarlet fever Sciatica Scleroderma Scrapie Scurvy Sepsis Septicemia SARS Shigellosis Shin splints Shingles Sickle-cell anemia Siderosis SIDS Silicosis Smallpox Stevens-Johnsonsyndrome Stomach flu Stomach ulcers Strabismus Strep throat Streptococcal infection Swag Synovitis Syphilis Swine influenza Schizophrenia Taeniasis Tay-Sachs disease Tennis elbow Teratoma Tetanus Thalassaemia Thrush Thymoma Tinnitus Tonsillitis Tooth decay Toxic shock syndrome Trichinosis Trichomoniasis Trisomy Tuberculosis Tularemia Tungiasis Typhoid fever Typhus Tumor Ulcerative colitis Ulcers Uremia Urticaria Uveitis Vaginal warts Varicella Varicose veins Vasovagal syncope Vitiligo Von Hippel-Lindau disease Viral fever Viral meningitis Warkany syndrome Warts Watkins Yellow fever Yersiniosis Zygamantis
12 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/104688817948260893696 Francisco Cardinio : Take a look at this medical case on Figure 1. "necrotizing fasciitis of the upper posterior arm in a...
Take a look at this medical case on Figure 1. "necrotizing fasciitis of the upper posterior arm in a poorly controlled diabetic. Will post follow up as it occurs. ": https://app.figure1.com/rd/image?imageid=56a68965e3f8fe15646a673a&sb=56a7a01d2d2d3beb3bcb7e3e&st=s&utm_source=ishare&utm_medium=ImageLink
Figure 1

29 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/115656094506542678387 Mr. Blackhead's Weirdest People : Necrotizing Fasciitis Is Rarely Spread from Person to Person Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis occur...
Necrotizing Fasciitis Is Rarely Spread from Person to Person

Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis occur randomly and are not linked to similar infections in others. The most common way of getting necrotizing fasciitis is when the bacteria enter the body through a break in the skin, like a cut, scrape, burn, insect bite, or puncture wound.
Watch the video: Mr Blackhead's Fleash Eating Bacteria (NSFE)
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/-Ie095lh0R_lSYisgiA_tqOqdJ0R7BqAbMeJNcDNyq5KRMxyRJM6v3Ungt3E1h04OohDrF-6_AjRyhjK-Rs1tQ=w506-h284-n
Don't give germs a chance. Hand Sanitize from Amazon: http://amzn.to/1nVGMvw This video contains a loot at Flesh Eating Bacteria. It contains images of the condition. Viewer discretion is advised! Commonly called a "flesh-eating infection" by the media, this rare disease can be caused by more than one type of bacteria. These include group A Streptococcus (group A strep), Klebsiella, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aeromonas hydrophila, among others. Group A strep is considered the most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis. Usually, infections from group A strep bacteria are generally mild and are easily treated. But in cases of necrotizing fasciitis, bacteria spread rapidly once they enter the body. They infect flat layers of a membrane known as the fascia, connective bands of tissue that surround muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. The infection also damages the tissues next to the fascia. Sometimes toxins made by these bacteria destroy the ...
29 days ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/117482158150086761801 Michelle Holder : [CASE-STUDY] Oral Pathergy in Sweet’s Syndrome Following Food Bolus Injury. This is the FIRST documented...
[CASE-STUDY] Oral Pathergy in Sweet’s Syndrome Following Food Bolus Injury.

This is the FIRST documented case of SWEET’S SYNDROME presenting with ORAL PATHERGY.

A 68-year-old woman with MYELODYSPLASTIC syndrome (MDS) was admitted to hospital with a BLOCKED AIRWAY due to SWELLING OF THE THROAT. A tube was immediately inserted into her windpipe (intubation) to help her breathe. The woman was accompanied by her family who gave her medical history - a FEVER for the past 5 days, mouth pain and a swollen face. On admission, she had a fever of 39.1 degrees centigrade (102.38 degrees fahrenheit), a fast pulse rate, and slightly raised blood pressure. Physical examination showed a swollen throat and tongue, and BLISTERS in the mouth. CT SCAN of the neck showed what seemed to be a mass (abnormal growth of tissue). However, a BIOPSY (sample of tissue) taken from an affected area of the mouth showed NO cancerous or non-cancerous abnormal growth of tissue. The BLOOD TESTS C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were raised, indicating inflammation in the body.

ANTIBIOTICS were started along with intravenous dexamethasone (STEROIDS through a drip). After treatment started, the patient’s condition started to improve, and the fever and swelling resolved. The steroids were tapered (the dosage was slowly reduced and eventually stopped), and four days later, the tube was removed from her windpipe.

Three days after the steroids were stopped, red raised areas (PLAQUES) appeared on the woman’s trunk, and the skin on the right forearm had started to HARDEN. There was some concern that the latter was NECROTIZING FASCIITIS, a rare and serious bacterial infection that affects the superficial fascia - a layer of connective tissue that lies beneath the skin and between the muscles and organs in the body. After undergoing exploratory SURGERY to check for signs of infection, NO INFECTION was found. However, within 12 hours, PUSTULES had formed over the area where the surgery had been performed. This was recognized as PATHERGY – a response that is known to occur in some patients with Sweet’s syndrome, whereby skin lesions can develop in an area where the skin has been irritated or damaged. A biopsy was then taken from the trunk area which showed lots of white blood cells called NEUTROPHILS in the tissues and an absence of vasculitis (inflammation of the vessels). These results indicated SWEET’S SYNDROME. Later, the patient also mentioned that some FOOD had become ‘STUCK-IN-HER-THROAT’ before her symptoms first started. This suggested that the patient’s initial symptoms were part of an ORAL PATHERGY response, after experiencing some kind of tissue damage when the food became ‘stuck’.

After the patient had been diagnosed with Sweet’s syndrome, she was started on the STEROID prednisone 60mg per day, and her condition dramatically improved within a few days.

Klimpl, D., Manser. T. and Flemmer, M. (2016) Oral Pathergy in Sweet’s Syndrome Following Food Bolus Injury, Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, Apr; 5(4): 134-139 (online).

Link: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=65714  #SweetsSyndrome #Oral #Pathergy  
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1 month ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/100186933130275360423 Erik Leeman : Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages Alan M. O’Neill, Teresa L. M. Thurston...
Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages

Alan M. O’Neill, Teresa L. M. Thurston, David W. Holden

mBio 7(2):e00020-16 | doi:10.1128/mBio.00020-16 | 11 April 2016

Abstract

As key components of innate immune defense, macrophages are essential in controlling bacterial pathogens, including group A Streptococcus (GAS). Despite this, only a limited number of studies have analyzed the recovery of GAS from within human neutrophils and macrophages. Here, we determined the intracellular fate of GAS in human macrophages by using several quantitative approaches. In both U937 and primary human macrophages, the appearance over time of long GAS chains revealed that despite GAS-mediated cytotoxicity, replication occurred in viable, propidium iodide-negative macrophages. Whereas the major virulence factor M1 did not contribute to bacterial growth, a GAS mutant strain deficient in streptolysin O (SLO) was impaired for intracellular replication. SLO promoted bacterial escape from the GAS-containing vacuole (GCV) into the macrophage cytosol. Up to half of the cytosolic GAS colocalized with ubiquitin and p62, suggesting that the bacteria were targeted by the autophagy machinery. Despite this, live imaging of U937 macrophages revealed proficient replication of GAS after GCV rupture, indicating that escape from the GCV is important for growth of GAS in macrophages. Our results reveal that GAS can replicate within viable human macrophages, with SLO promoting GCV escape and cytosolic growth, despite the recruitment of autophagy receptors to bacteria.

Importance

Classically regarded as an extracellular pathogen, GAS can persist within human epithelial cells, as well as neutrophils and macrophages. Some studies suggest that GAS can modulate its intracellular vacuole to promote survival and perhaps replicate in macrophages. However, an in-depth single-cell analysis of the dynamics of survival and replication is lacking. We used macrophage-like cell lines and primary macrophages to measure the intracellular growth of GAS at both the population and single-cell levels. While CFU counts revealed no increase in overall bacterial growth, quantitative fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and time-lapse imaging revealed bacterial replication in a proportion of infected macrophages. This study emphasizes the importance of single-cell analysis especially when studying the intracellular fate of a pathogen that is cytotoxic and displays heterogeneity in terms of intracellular killing and growth. To our knowledge, this study provides the first direct visualization of GAS replication inside human cells.

Introduction

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of diseases in immunocompetent individuals, from localized skin infections and recurrent bouts of tonsillitis to more life-threatening invasive diseases, such as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Skin and pharyngeal epithelia represent the primary sites of GAS interaction with the host. Upon the invasion of epithelial cells, GAS can persist for several days. However, many strains fail to proliferate and there is evidence that autophagy and the endolysosomal pathway contribute to the intracellular clearance of GAS. Other studies have suggested that internalization of GAS in host cells provides a safe haven from host cell killing and antibiotic-mediated killing in vivo.

Read more at: http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/2/e00020-16.full

Download PDF: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B5zdx9y1FIkfbVRrYlcxMnZHajA/view?usp=sharing

Figure: SLO reduces association of LAMP1 with GAS. (A) U937 cells were infected with live or HK WT M49 NZ131 or the Δ slo mutant at an MOI of 5. Bacteria were labeled with anti-GAS antibody (green) and anti-LAMP1 antibody (red), and DNA was stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; blue). Representative confocal microscopy images obtained at 2 hpu are shown with higher magnifications of boxed areas (scale bars, 5 µm). (B) Quantification of the colocalization of the GAS strains indicated and LAMP1. Data represent the results of at least 100 infected cells in each of three independent experiments (mean ± SEM). (C) U937 cells were infected with live or HK WT M49 NZ131 or the Δ slo mutant at an MOI of 5. LysoTracker dye was added to infected cells 15 min prior to each time point. Bacteria were labeled with anti-GAS antibody (green). LysoTracker-positive acidic compartments are red, and DNA stained with DAPI is blue. Representative confocal microscopy images obtained at 2 hpu are shown with higher magnifications of boxed areas (scale bars, 5 µm). (D) Quantification of GAS colocalization with LysoTracker dye. Data shown represent the results of at least 100 infected cells in three independent experiments (mean ± SEM). 
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-O8pqhlxg9VQ/Vxgn6cYg39I/AAAAAAAASs8/4NZXsO0x2r4Q-jPLbcA-zkjOZcAx5KJpA/w506-h750/F4.large%2B%25282%2529.jpg
1 month ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/100583264059299031623 Kim Pederson : Gullible's Travels So remember back in 2000 when we were all freaked out about the flesh-eating bananas...
Gullible's Travels
So remember back in 2000 when we were all freaked out about the flesh-eating bananas? If you picked the wrong bunch of imported fruit, necrotizing fasciitis (NF) would leap onto your skin and turn it into livid purple boils before it all slid off into a ste...
Gullible's Travels
So remember back in 2000 when we were all freaked out about the flesh-eating bananas? If you picked the wrong bunch of imported fruit, necrotizing fasciitis (NF) would leap onto your skin and turn it into livid purple boils b...
1 month ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/113402064232463398327 Banoosh : Flesh-eating virus: Rare disease necrotizing fasciitis strikes unlucky British man twice
Flesh-eating virus: Rare disease necrotizing fasciitis strikes unlucky British man twice
Flesh-eating virus: Rare disease necrotizing fasciitis strikes unlucky British man twice - Banoosh TV
STANLEY, ENGLAND — A British man who survived a rare flesh-eating infection — only for it to return a second time — said his life has been ruined by the disease. Car salesman Lee Murphy has been infected twice with necrotizing fasciitis, which eats the body’s soft tissue. “I can’t walk, wash myself, or even …
1 month ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/116377526302971568522 BronyWriterFiM “Writer’s Block” : Necrotizing Fasciitis | Minor cuts and scrapes are a part of life—and for the most part, they are merely...
Necrotizing Fasciitis | Minor cuts and scrapes are a part of life—and for the most part, they are merely inconvenient. But in the presence of flesh-eating bacteria, the smallest of wounds can become life-threatening in mere hours. The bacteria do not actually “eat” the flesh, but release toxins that destroy tissue. The infection is treated with massive amounts of antibiotics, and all affected flesh must be removed to stop it from spreading. Surgeries often involve the amputation of limbs and other apparent mutilations. Even with medical care, necrotizing fasciitis is lethal in 30-40% of all cases.

source: listverse.com
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-AqWgel_2_2c/VwQXWDYu50I/AAAAAAAAZyE/dw0UO64Reo4SG7ITcte5oXdxbuU3DGCBw/w506-h750/16%2B-%2B1
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https://plus.google.com/102703257167093384866 Music Universe : SLAYER's KERRY KING: I Didn't Wanna Make JEFF HANNEMAN A Spectacle SLAYER  guitarist  Kerry King  was...
SLAYER's KERRY KING: I Didn't Wanna Make JEFF HANNEMAN A Spectacle SLAYER  guitarist  Kerry King  was interviewed on a recent episode of  "Talk Is Jericho" , the podcast of  Chris Jericho , the world champion pro wrestler, actor,  New York Times  best-selling author and lead vocalist of the metal band  FOZZY . You can now listen to the chat at  PodcastOne.com . A few excerpts follow (transcribed by  BLABBERMOUTH.NET ).On how late founding  SLAYER  guitarist  Jeff Hanneman , contracting necrotizing fasciitis, also known as flesh-eating disease, from a spider bite in his backyard:"I don't know where he was, but he was in some jacuzzi somewhere and that's the story I got. And that is not a lie — I have no better story."" Jeff 's the kind of guy that wouldn't have addressed it. He would've just been, like, 'Uh, whatever.' That was who  Jeff  was. And this time wasn't the time to say, 'Whatever.' Actually, his wife made him go to the hospital. And the doctor said, 'First, I'm gonna try to save your life. Then I'm gonna try to save your arm. Then I'm gonna try to save your career.' Because that's how messed up he was. Yeah, it was serious. And that was super weird, dude. But the funny part about it was  Jeff 's a guy that would let it get to that point. That's just who he was. I mean, he was a recluse — everybody knows that — and the poor dude just was sitting in his house letting his arm deteriorate. "I'm 50. We're invincible, right? We're invincible. We don't wanna go to the doctor. That's how  Jeff  was.  Jeff  didn't wanna go to the doctor. He was, like, 'Man, I've got this.' And he didn't."On the fact that he wasn't in regular contact with  Hanneman  when they were off the road:"When we're off tour, we scatter. So even though he's an hour away from me, he's an hour in a direction I don't go. You know how that is. People know how that is. I mean, I haven't seen my dad in a long time, 'cause he's a direction I don't go. And that's my dad."On hiring  EXODUS  guitarist  Gary Holt  to fill in for  Hanneman  after  Jeff  became ill: "I knew  Jeff  couldn't play. And I already had  Gary  in my back pocket for any future thing I ever do. And that's a hard conversation. I called  Gary Holt  probably in early 2010 and I said, 'Hey, man, if I ever do anything, would you be into doing it?' And he's, like, 'Man, I was hoping if this day ever came, you'd hit me up.' So we just kept it in our back pocket. There was nothing — there was no music, there was nothing. Then the  Jeff  thing went down, and I called  Gary Holt  again. And these are hard conversations, man. 'Cause even though  Gary 's my friend, I don't know… You know, it's like asking a girl out to the prom, kind of. If you get turned down, you're, like, 'Oh, man! We suck. Fuck!' And I said, 'Hey, dude, we're going to Australia and  Jeff 's not going.'  And I said, 'Would you like to play in  SLAYER ?' And he said, 'Absolutely.' And we've been going ever since."On whether he had a conversation with  Jeff  about  Gary Holt  replacing him in  SLAYER :"I didn't have a conversation, 'cause he was in the hospital and if we're scheduled to be somewhere, I have to cover our ass, and I did. And after the fact,  Jeff  and  Gary  took pictures and  Jeff 's, like, 'Man, [it] couldn't be a better pick.' And he's my only pick. I mean, I had a backup, but he's my only pick.""Me and  Jeff  and  Holt  go back thirty years… well, twenty-five-plus… And it's cool because he's from our era, he's our age, I've known him all my life. And he's the one — if anybody got left behind — he's the one that should be brought into prominence. 'Cause he's that good."On whether he ever talked to  Jeff  about him coming back to  SLAYER :"I talked to him a lot about it, and every time… We had sporadic tours, or a couple of shows here and there, to where our manager would say,' Hey, man, let's get  Jeff  involved.' And I'm, like, 'Yeah, let's get  Jeff  involved.' And I would bring him around, and I would watch him play. And it was good. But I said, ' Jeff , you've gotta understand,  Gary 's playing this stuff and he's playing it note for note.' I said, 'There's no room for gray area here, and I hope you understand what I'm saying.' And he was, like, 'Yeah, I get it.' And I'm, like, 'Man, I want you to be there, and I want you to be part of what we are, but you've gotta understand, if there's somebody doing your gig… I don't wanna say 'better'… but if there's somebody doing your gig and you are not up to par with what he's doing, you've gotta get better. And that's the hardest thing I had to say. It was tough. [And] he said, 'I know.'"On  Hanneman 's last performance with  SLAYER  in April 2011 at the "Big Four" show in Indio, California:"When he came out for the 'Big Four' at [the site of the]  Coachella  [festival], he was supposed to play four songs, and we rehearsed a little bit. And I said, 'Listen, man…' 'Cause I knew he wasn't where he needed to be, and I didn't wanna make him a spectacle. I said, 'Listen, dude. You're gonna play two songs.' He's, like, 'Well, I've got the four songs rehearsed.' I said, 'I know you've got the four songs rehearsed, dude.' I said, 'I don't want people to focus in on what you're doing, because I don't want them to think you're not as good as you are, because you  are  are good. And I'm sorry, but I think if you go out there for two songs, they'll notice it less. And I don't want people to have a bad memory of you.' Not even knowing that was gonna be his last gig. I said, 'You're my bro, man. I wanna protect what you are.' But that being said, when we're playing  Coachella , when we're in  Jeff 's backyard, I can't let him not be onstage. I'm, like, 'Yeah, I want you onstage.' But at the end of the day, it was me protecting who  Jeff  was." SLAYER 's first album without  Hanneman ,  "Repentless" , was released on September 11 via  Nuclear Blast .  
SLAYER's KERRY KING: I Didn't Wanna Make JEFF HANNEMAN A Spectacle
SLAYER guitarist Kerry King was interviewed on a recent episode of "Talk Is Jericho", the podcast of Chris Jericho, the world champion pro wrestler, actor, New York Times best-selling author and le...
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https://plus.google.com/105220797053945108930 FOAMed on the Sunny Coast : Another great short #FOAMed video concerning Necrotizing Fasciitis. Definitely worth a watch.
Another great short #FOAMed video concerning Necrotizing Fasciitis. Definitely worth a watch.
Necrotizing Fasciitis
EM in 5 is a series of 5 minute Emergency Medicine videos! Subscribe to our weekly video or check out the archives!
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https://plus.google.com/101384893664491752175 Zen Locust : Why are people so incredibly gullible? Our brains don’t let piddling little facts get in the way of ...
Why are people so incredibly gullible?
Our brains don’t let piddling little facts get in the way of a good story, allowing lies to infect the mind with surprising ease.
By David Robson

If you ever need proof of human gullibility, cast your mind back to the attack of the flesh-eating bananas. In January 2000, a series of chain emails began reporting that imported bananas were infecting people with “necrotizing fasciitis” – a rare disease in which the skin erupts into livid purple boils before disintegrating and peeling away from muscle and bone.

According to the email chain, the FDA was trying to cover up the epidemic to avoid panic. Faced with the threat, readers were encouraged to spread the word to their friends and family.

The threat was pure nonsense, of course. But by 28 January, the concern was great enough for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to issue a statement decrying the rumour.

Did it help? Did it heck. Rather than quelling the rumour, they had only poured fuel on its flames. Within weeks, the CDC was hearing from so many distressed callers it had to set up a banana hotline. The facts became so distorted that people eventually started to quote the CDC as the source of the rumour. Even today, new variants of the myth have occasionally reignited those old fears.

We may laugh at these far-fetched urban myths – as ridiculous as the ongoing theory that Paul McCartney, Miley Cyrus and Megan Fox have all been killed and replaced with lookalikes. But the same cracks in our logic allow the propagation of far more dangerous ideas, such as the belief that HIV is harmless and vitamin supplements can cure AIDS, that 9/11 was an ‘inside job’ by the US government, or that a tinfoil hat will stop the FBI from reading your thoughts.

Why do so many false beliefs persist in the face of hard evidence? And why do attempts to deny them only add grist to the rumour mill? It's not a question of intelligence – even Nobel Prize winners have fallen for some bizarre and baseless theories. But a series of recent psychological advances may offer some answers, showing how easy it is to construct a rumour that bypasses the brain’s deception filters.

One, somewhat humbling, explanation is that we are all “cognitive misers” – to save time and energy, our brains use intuition rather than analysis.
As a simple example, quickly answer the following questions:
“How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?”
“Margaret Thatcher was the president of what country?”
Between 10 and 50% of study participants presented with these questions fail to notice that it was Noah, not Moses, who built the Ark, and that Margaret Thatcher was the prime minster, not the president – even when they have been explicitly asked to note inaccuracies.

Known as the “Moses illusion”, this absentmindedness illustrates just how easily we miss the details of a statement, favouring the general gist in place of the specifics. Instead, we normally just judge whether it “feels” right or wrong before accepting or rejecting its message. “Even when we ‘know’ we should be drawing on facts and evidence, we just draw on feelings,” says Eryn Newman at the University of Southern California, whose forthcoming paper summarises the latest research on misinformation.

Based on the research to date, Newman suggests our gut reactions swivel around just five simple questions:

Does a fact come from a credible source?

Do others believe it?

Is there plenty of evidence to support it?

Is it compatible with what I believe?

Does it tell a good story?

Crucially, our responses to each of these points can be swayed by frivolous, extraneous, details that have nothing to do with the truth.

Consider the questions of whether others believe a statement or not, and whether the source is credible. We tend to trust people who are familiar to us, meaning that the more we see a talking head, the more we will begrudgingly start to believe what they say. “The fact that they aren’t an expert won’t even come into our judgement of the truth,” says Newman. What’s more, we fail to keep count of the number of people supporting a view; when that talking head repeats their idea on endless news programmes, it creates the illusion that the opinion is more popular and pervasive than it really is. Again, the result is that we tend to accept it as the truth.

Sticky nuggets

Then there’s the “cognitive fluency” of a statement – essentially, whether it tells a good, coherent story that is simple to imagine. “If something feels smooth and easy to process, then our default is to expect things to be true,” says Newman. This is particularly true if a myth easily fits with our expectations. “It has to be sticky – a nugget or soundbite that links to what you know, and reaffirms your beliefs,” agrees Stephan Lewandowsky at the University of Bristol in the UK, whose work has examined the psychology of climate change deniers.

A slick presentation will instantly boost the cognitive fluency of a claim, while raising its believability. In one recent study, Newman presented participants with an article (falsely) saying that a well-known rock singer was dead. The subjects were more likely to believe the claim if the article was presented next to a picture of him, simply because it became easier to bring the singer to mind – boosting the cognitive fluency of the statement. Similarly, writing in an easy-to-read font, or speaking with good enunciation, have been shown to increase cognitive fluency; indeed, Newman has shown that something as seemingly inconsequential as the sound of someone’s name can sway us; the easier it is to pronounce, the more likely we are to accept their judgement.
In light of these discoveries, you can begin to understand why the fear of the flesh-eating bananas was so infectious. For one thing, the chain emails were coming from people you inherently trust – your friends – increasing the credibility of the claim, and making it appear more popular. The concept itself was vivid and easy to picture – it had high cognitive fluency. If you happened to distrust the FDA and the government, the thought of a cover-up would have fitted neatly into your worldview.

That cognitive miserliness can also help explain why those attempts to correct a myth have backfired so spectacularly, as the CDC found to their cost. Lab experiments confirm that offering counter-evidence only strengthens someone’s conviction. “In as little as 30 minutes, you can see a bounce-back effect where people are even more likely to believe the statement is true,” says Newman.

The problem, she says, emerges from our deeply flawed memories. Correcting the facts “would work very well if we could play back our memories as if they were recorded on video, but years of research show the memory is not perfect – we fill in gaps and we lose information,” she says.

Fraying beliefs

As a result of these frailties, we are instantly drawn to the juicier details of a story – the original myth – while forgetting the piddling little fact that it’s been proven false. Worse still, by repeating the original myth, the correction will have increased the familiarity of the claim – and as we’ve seen, familiarity breeds believability. Rather than uprooting the myth, the well-intentioned correction has only pushed it deeper.

A debunked myth may also leave an uncomfortable gap in the mind. Lewandowsky explains that our beliefs are embedded in our “mental models” of the way the world works; each idea is interlinked with our other views. It’s a little like a tightly bound book: once you tear out one page, the others may begin to fray as well. “You end up with a black hole in your mental representation, and people don’t like it.” To avoid that discomfort, we would often rather cling to the myth before our whole belief system starts unravelling.

Fortunately, there are more effective ways to set people straight and make the truth stick. For a start, you should avoid repeating the original story (where possible) and try to come up with a whole alternative to patch up the tear in their mental model. “If I tell you the Moon is not made of cheese, then you find it difficult to give up on the belief – but if I say it’s not cheese but rock, you say ‘OK, fine’, because you still have an idea of what the Moon is like,” explains Lewandowsky.

Newman agrees it’s a helpful strategy. For instance, when considering the fears that MMR vaccines may be linked to autism, she suggests it would be better to build a narrative around the scientific fraud that gave rise to the fears – rather than the typical “myth-busting” article that unwittingly reinforces the misinformation. Whatever story you choose, you need to increase the cognitive fluency with clear language, pictures, and good presentation. And repeating the message, a little but often, will help to keep it fresh in their minds. Soon, it begins to feel as familiar and comfortable as the erroneous myth – and the tide of opinion should begin to turn.

At the very least, staying conscious of these flaws in your thinking will help you to identify when you may be being deceived. Both Newman and Lewandowsky point out that there is a flurry of misinformation flying around the forthcoming US presidential elections, as seen in Donald Trump’s claims that Mexican immigrants bring sexual violence and drug trafficking and Hillary Clinton’s opinion that Isis are using videos of Trump to recruit terrorists. (Neither statement held up to fact-checking.)

It’s always worth asking whether you have thought carefully about the things you are reading and hearing. Or are you just being a cognitive miser, persuaded by biased feelings rather than facts? Some of your dearest opinions may have no more substance than the great banana hoax of the year 2000.
http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160323-why-are-people-so-incredibly-gullible
Why are people so incredibly gullible?
Our brains don’t let piddling little facts get in the way of a good story, allowing lies to infect the mind with surprising ease.
2 months ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/108648392836001479419 Tony Xong : Why are people so incredibly gullible? If you ever need proof of human gullibility, cast your mind back...
Why are people so incredibly gullible?
If you ever need proof of human gullibility, cast your mind back to the attack of the flesh-eating bananas. In January 2000, a series of chain emails began reporting that imported bananas were infecting people with “necrotizing fasciitis” – a rare disease i...
Bonjour Planet Earth: Why are people so incredibly gullible?
If you ever need proof of human gullibility, cast your mind back to the attack of the flesh-eating bananas. In January 2000, a series of chain emails began reporting that imported bananas were infecting people with “necrotizing fasciitis” – a rare disease in which the skin erupts into livid ...
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https://plus.google.com/105369442574719069182 biokit cusabio : A crucial scale that is important to immune system http://www.cusabio.com/Recombinant-Protein/Recombinant...
A crucial scale that is important to immune system 
http://www.cusabio.com/Recombinant-Protein/Recombinant-human-Medium-chain-specific-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-mitochondrial-11089628.html

We know that both excessive immune response and immune response deficiencies could have fatal consequences. So, who can ensure the balance of immune response? The research team led by University of Vienna Pavel Kovarik has recently solved this problem. Their study is published in the Cell's own journal Cell Host & Microbe.

"We used a streptococci to conduct this study. This pathogen often causes tonsillitis, and sometimes causes fatal infections such as toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis," said the first author Dr. Virginia Castiglia. She and her colleagues detected a strep infection events at the molecular level, finding that IL-1β plays a key role in the immune defense. If the number of these molecules is too small, the bacteria will prevail and lead to blood poisoning; if these molecule are too much less, the body will be in excessive inflammation. No matter which side the scale tips, it will lead to disaster.

Further studies have shown that I interferon (IFN-I) guards the balance of life and death. "Before, people only knew that IFN-I helps the body resist the virus. We first demonstrated the important role of this molecule in bacterial infection: IFN-I can prevent excessive inflammation by reducing IL-1β," the study's leader Pavel Kovarik noted.

Our immune system will attack exogenous substances entering the body. Strictly speaking, food can be considered exogenous substances. But the body is able to withstand them to absorb nutrients. This is because that the internal mechanism of the immune system will prevent it react to beneficial antigen. If such tolerance mechanisms have problems, we will suffer a potentially fatal food allergy. In recent years, the incidence of food allergies is constantly increasing, but scientists are still unsure how food immune tolerance is established. South Korean scientists recently published an article in the journal Science, revealing the process of a key mechanism.

When facing with invading pathogens, immune system calls for the army of cells and peacekeepers. When the army of cells removes the invaders, peacekeeping missions cells will urge them ceasefire. If this signal is missing ceasefire, killer T cells will turn to attack the body itself, causing inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Salk Institute's research team found that a key fragment of Foxp3 gene determines whether peacekeeping cells issues a cease-fire peacekeeping cell signal. The findings are published this week in the journal Cell, helping people develop new drugs to treat autoimmune diseases and some cancers.

So far, it is believed that the autonomic nervous system and the innate immune system are not affected by the will of the individuals. But a new study shows that the two systems can be trained in short-term training. Yesterday, Nature website reported this interesting research. Celebrity Netherlands Wim Hof can be a long soak in ice water, wear shorts to climb Mount Kilimanjaro. His ability to resist cold can even be written in the Guinness Book of World Records. Recently the researchers at Dutch Radboud University recruited volunteers to receive mental and physical exercise of Hof. The results showed that the volunteers' immune response against inflammation had been adjusted.
Recombinant human Medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial |
Recombinant Protein,Short name: MCAD,Recombinant human Medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial | cusabio.com
2 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/100629917354766489908 Zyna Achay : Scary FLESH AETING BACTERIA- Necrotizing Fasciitis 
Scary FLESH AETING BACTERIA- Necrotizing Fasciitis 
5 Awful Truths About Surviving Flesh-Eating Bacteria
We sat down with a woman whose father contracted Fournier's Gangrene, an aggressive brand of flesh-eating bacteria famed for attacking its victims crotch-first.
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https://plus.google.com/109113346376962260624 Scirp Shu :


Neonatal Necrotizing Fasciitis after Circumcision: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft tissue infection that occurs predominantly in adults. Although rare, only 70 cases have been reported in neonates. This entity, most commonly caused by multiple organisms is often fatal, with 50% mortality. The combination of a low incidence and high mortality in this subgroup strengthens the need for early diagnosis, prompt recognition and immediate surgical treatment in order to improve survival. Aim:...
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