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Most recent 19 results returned for keyword: booker t and the mgs (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/103914367069906924785 Lonesome Jukebox : Lightnin' Hopkins - Green Onions Booker T and the MGs cover https://youtu.be/Ke36JJ3mdSQ
Lightnin' Hopkins - Green Onions
Booker T and the MGs cover

https://youtu.be/Ke36JJ3mdSQ
Watch the video: Lightnin' Hopkins sings "Green Onions"
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/proxy/PUThONsE-fD1uvO0C1rFBmbBl58rzRe1PPrBxw8Li7lzf7lE7N532WVEeUBe-rdlf159oBJ3-aK702O2UXvhdw=w506-h379
Audio Only. by Booker T and the MG's.
8 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/115298317723169918267 DENIO VALE : Maurice White, founder of Earth, Wind & Fire, dies at 74 By Adam Bernstein and Terence McArdle - The...
Maurice White, founder of Earth, Wind & Fire, dies at 74
By Adam Bernstein and Terence McArdle - The Washington Post - 
February 4 at 7:30 PM 
Maurice White, a percussionist and singer who founded and led Earth, Wind & Fire, a crackling mainstay of 1970s dance music that leaned heavily on funk, soul and R&B, died Feb. 3 at his home in Los Angeles. He was 74.

The cause was complications from Parkinson’s disease, his brother and band bassist Verdine White told the Associated Press.

Earth, Wind & Fire was a major crossover act known for such hits as “Shining Star,” “September,” “Boogie Wonderland,” the conga-driven dance groove “Serpentine Fire,” “After the Love Has Gone,” “Sing a Song” and a cover of the Beatles’ “Got to Get You Into My Life” — songs defined by a rollicking beat, jangly electric bass lines, bracing trumpet breaks and soulful vocal choruses. They reflected Mr. White’s roots in Memphis, that seminal Mississippi River crossroads for rock, blues and jazz.

Earth, Wind & Fire — named for three elements of Mr. White’s astrological sign (Sagittarius) — was known for its elaborate stage shows filled with wild lighting and pyrotechnics; arrangements that combined the African percussion instrument kalimba (thumb piano); and lengthy, jazz-influenced brass solos. The group was also distinguished by its vocal harmonies and interplay between Mr. White, a tenor, and Philip Bailey, who sang in falsetto.

Mr. White saw the music almost totally in the service of creating good vibes and spiritual brotherhood — bridging the gap between black and white musical tastes while incorporating uplifting messages of black pride and African consciousness. The title cut of the group’s album “Open Our Eyes” was a rearrangement of an inspirational song earlier recorded by the Gospel Clefs in 1958.

“We live in a negative society,” he once told Newsweek. “Most people can’t see beauty and love. I see our music as medicine.”

Earth, Wind & Fire, which sold tens of millions of records, won six Grammy Awards and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. Its music was continually revived for films — from the spy farce “Austin Powers in Goldmember” (2002) to “Summer of Sam” (1999) — when a song was needed to instantly evoke an era.

Maurice White was born in Chicago on Dec. 19, 1941, and raised in Memphis in a family that included nine siblings. His father was a doctor, but he boasted of musical forebears, including a grandfather who was a New Orleans honky-tonk piano player.

At 6, Mr. White began singing in the church gospel choir but soon gravitated to drums and played an early professional date with organist Booker T. Jones, later known as the leader of the soul instrumental group Booker T. and the MGs.

After high school, he attended the Chicago Conservatory of Music and then worked at Chicago-based Chess records as a session drummer, accompanying Billy Stewart (on “Summertime”) and Fontella Bass (“Rescue Me”), among others.

During a brief tenure in the late 1960s with pianist Ramsey Lewis’s trio, Mr. White discovered the kalimba, which became a trademark part of the band’s sound. Touring at universities and club dates with Lewis sparked an awakening about changing tastes among young record-buyers.

“Being on the road with Ramsey and playing colleges for kids my own age, I saw there was a need for a different type of music — a type of music that was a little more inspirational for my age group,” Mr. White told the St. Petersburg Times.

In 1969, he decamped for Los Angeles and, with keyboardist-singers Wade Flemons and Don Whitehead, formed a group that evolved into Earth, Wind & Fire and were guided by Mr. White’s vision to defy musical categories and fuse jazz, rock and soul.

They were featured in the film soundtrack to “Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song” (1971), director Melvin Van Peebles’s underground hit, and were featured performers in the “That’s the Way of the World” (1975), a drama about the corporate music world that featured their megahit “Shining Star.” At its height, the band included such notable instrumentalists as saxophonist Ronnie Laws and Mr. White’s brother Verdine.

By the early 1980s, Mr. White said he felt drained by nonstop performing and touring. He returned to studio work, producing and arranging for acts including Barbra Streisand, Neil Diamond, the Emotions, El DeBarge and Jennifer Holliday.

He did not entirely give up recording his own music. He had a top-10 R&B cover of Ben E. King’s 1961 ballad “Stand by Me” in 1985 that was layered with electronic percussion. He also reunited his old band, sometimes singing but more often serving as composer, producer and guiding spirit.

One reason had been his worsening health. Just before his induction into the hall of fame, he publicly disclosed his struggle with Parkinson’s. A complete list of survivors was not immediately available.

“It’s important for me to communicate higher thought, higher spirit, higher ideas in my music as well as communicate emotionally,” he told the Chicago Tribune in 1985. “It’s important to put the emphasis on the positive aspect.”

“There are a lot of things wrong on this planet — starvation, poverty, negative thoughts, racism, a lot of weirdness,” he added. “So somebody has to communicate something to try and balance that, if it’s possible. . . . Spiritually, we don’t all have to walk the same path. I’m not speaking in terms of any denominational religion. I’m talking about a more universal thing. But people should make sure that whatever path they walk is a positive one to instill good things in yourself and others.”
Maurice White, founder of Earth, Wind & Fire, dies at 74
A major crossover act in the 1970s, the band had megahits with “Shining Star” and “September.”
9 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/100694472920816339331 Bill Warfield : A Booker T and the MGs cover by Bill Warfield and the Hell's Kitchen Funk Orchestra.
A Booker T and the MGs cover by Bill Warfield and the Hell's Kitchen Funk Orchestra.
Watch the video: Hell's Kitchen Funk Orchestra-"Hip Hug Her"-Zoellner Arts Center 9-19-2015.
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/QRAketdmBUgZuI9izp26f811GmvFDmD-TCNd9hxENVlJsDyDzJmczAzpsFqAl8D8W-n8gxJyMYjIbScfKm1-6g=w506-h284-n
The Hell's Kitchen Funk Orchestra performing R&B, Funk and Jazz from their first recording Mercy, Mercy, Mercy at The Zoellner Arts Center in Bethlehem, PA. ...
1 month ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/115544754108030948356 Eric Johnson : #SOTD      12.14.15 PAA Month - Day 14 - Georgetown Pottery G20 Scuttle - Brad Sears Custom Brush in...
#SOTD      12.14.15
PAA Month - Day 14
- Georgetown Pottery G20 Scuttle
- Brad Sears Custom Brush in Ebony and Screwbean with Silvertip Fibre
- Above The Tie Atlas S1 Razor with a Perma-Sharp Blade
- Phoenix Artisan Accoutrements - Gondolier Classic Shaving Soap
- Phoenix Artisan Accoutrements - Gondolier Aftershave & Cologne
Tunes
- Booker T and the MGs - Time Is Tight/Green Onions
- Ann Peebles - Troubles, Heartaches & Sadness
- Nick Waterhouse - Holly
- Amy Winehouse - Back To Black/You Know I'm No Good/Valerie
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-0gic-XuQkkg/Vm6n-YT3iLI/AAAAAAAAN_Y/KVtUkgnFxxA/w506-h750/SOTD%2B12-14-15.jpg
1 month ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/108931681270013513423 Karl Hildebrand : #SOTD      12.14.15 PAA Month - Day 14 - Georgetown Pottery G20 Scuttle - Brad Sears Custom Brush in...
#SOTD      12.14.15
PAA Month - Day 14
- Georgetown Pottery G20 Scuttle
- Brad Sears Custom Brush in Ebony and Screwbean with Silvertip Fibre
- Above The Tie Atlas S1 Razor with a Perma-Sharp Blade
- Phoenix Artisan Accoutrements - Gondolier Classic Shaving Soap
- Phoenix Artisan Accoutrements - Gondolier Aftershave & Cologne
Tunes
- Booker T and the MGs - Time Is Tight/Green Onions
- Ann Peebles - Troubles, Heartaches & Sadness
- Nick Waterhouse - Holly
- Amy Winehouse - Back To Black/You Know I'm No Good/Valerie
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-kMlgK3vwQwE/Vm6nsJMuFRI/AAAAAAAAN-4/eFvzNkTWL4o/w506-h750/SOTD%2B12-14-15.jpg
1 month ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/108931681270013513423 Karl Hildebrand : #SOTD    12.14.15 PAA Month - Day 14 - Georgetown Pottery G20 Scuttle - Brad Sears Custom Brush in Ebony...
#SOTD    12.14.15
PAA Month - Day 14
- Georgetown Pottery G20 Scuttle
- Brad Sears Custom Brush in Ebony and Screwbean with Silvertip Fibre
- Above The Tie Atlas S1 Razor with a Perma-Sharp Blade
- Phoenix Artisan Accoutrements - Gondolier Classic Shaving Soap
- Phoenix Artisan Accoutrements - Gondolier Aftershave & Cologne
Tunes
- Booker T and the MGs - Time Is Tight/Green Onions
- Ann Peebles - Troubles, Heartaches & Sadness
- Nick Waterhouse - Holly
- Amy Winehouse - Back To Black/You Know I'm No Good/Valerie
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-qSP7KvahXuU/Vm6bWSPwGyI/AAAAAAAAN-I/rWp4Z44OmWY/w506-h750/SOTD%2B12-14-15.jpg
1 month ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/110964886641165990045 Choose 901 : The Stax Museum of American Soul Music is hosting some very amazing musical guests to celebrate this...
The Stax Museum of American Soul Music is hosting some very amazing musical guests to celebrate this wonderful time of the year. The Maitre Ds are set to wow the crowd with selections from some of our season favorites from Booker T. and the MGs. DJs Zac…
Stax Presents In The Christmas Spirit 12/11

2 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/111053434719525485637 Yann Aymar : http://gu.com/p/3mk43/sgp Bob Dylan performs My Back Pages at his 30th anniversary concert - video ...
http://gu.com/p/3mk43/sgp

Bob Dylan performs My Back Pages at his 30th anniversary concert - video
Topics
Bob Dylan's 30th anniversary concert, from 1992, is being released on DVD and Blu-Ray and to mark it, we have this exclusive clip of the great man performing My Back Pages, joined by an all-star line-up including George Harrison, Tom Petty, Eric Clapton, Neil Young, Roger McGuinn and the house band of Booker T and the MGs. The DVD is available from 3 March, pre-order from Amazon.
Bob Dylan Neil Young
Tom Petty George Harrison
Roger McGuinn
Source: Columbia Records
Wednesday 12 February 2014 07.30 GMT
2 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/116850856561927035010 AntiHero Magazine : Album Review: DANZIG – Skeletons - The long anticipated Danzig cover album, Skeletons, finally makes...
Album Review: DANZIG – Skeletons - The long anticipated Danzig cover album, Skeletons, finally makes its unholy rounds to his adoring public on November 27, 2015 via Nuclear Blast Records. Danzig has done covers since the band’s 1988 self-titled debut album – which features a rendition of the blues classic “The Hunter,” written by Booker T and the MGs – and has always managed to take classic songs and give them his own spin. This also includes his industrial doom metal rendition of Black Sa...
Album Review: DANZIG - "Skeletons"
The long anticipated Danzig cover album, Skeletons, finally makes its unholy rounds to his adoring public on November 27, 2015 via Nuclear Blast Records.
2 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/100485234637087760323 Mike Baker : Mike Baker And The Forgotten 45s - Born on this date Booker T Jones (Booker T And The MGs)
Mike Baker And The Forgotten 45s - Born on this date Booker T Jones (Booker T And The MGs)
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-NfsI256cQ2E/VkSYd1J_OsI/AAAAAAABtRM/nBPYH--MaGA/w506-h750/Booker-T-Jones.jpg
3 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/113304726508697568264 Bla Bla :  October 21 Birthdays 1917:Dizzy Gillespie 1937:Norman Wright (Dell-Vikings) 1940:Jimmy Beaumont (Skyliners...
 October 21 Birthdays

1917:Dizzy Gillespie
1937:Norman Wright (Dell-Vikings)
1940:Jimmy Beaumont (Skyliners)
1940:Manfred Mann
1941:Steve Cropper (Booker T. and the MGs)
1942:Elvin Bishop
1943:Ron Elliott (Beau Brummels)
1945:Kathy Young (Kathy Young and the Innocents)
1946:Lee Loughnane  trumpet, Chicago
1952:Brent Mydland (Grateful Dead)
1954:Eric Faulkner (Bay City Rollers)
1957:Steve Lukather (Toto)
3 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/101860166980542744060 stephen dwyer : Booker T and The MGs STAX or Truth Donald Duck Dunn on bass FUCK YEAH
Booker T and The MGs STAX or Truth Donald Duck Dunn on bass FUCK YEAH
Watch the video: Shirley Brown - Woman To Woman
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/i37HtcrFbur-uyPK936lqFyJIRkdHHFGjPisS3ylOq2-qFuJV8v_h0FYk8qsVlqtDfSHaKBpZM2xhhFUI9o_bw=w506-h379
Can't fault this. Simply superb from Shirley Brown.
3 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/109207459447478456499 luis Alarcon : Booker T. & the MG's developed this unusual 2/4 time song while they were waiting for rockabilly singer...
Booker T. & the MG's developed this unusual 2/4 time song while they were waiting for rockabilly singer Billy Lee Riley (a Sun artist) to show up for a session.

In an interview with National Public Radio (NPR), Booker T. Jones said: "That happened as something of an accident. We used the time to record a Blues which we called 'Behave Yourself,' and I played it on a Hammond M3 organ. Jim Stewart, the owner, was the engineer and he really liked it and wanted to put it out as a record. We all agreed on that and Jim told us that we needed something to record as a B-side, since we couldn't have a one-sided record. One of the tunes I had been playing on piano we tried on the Hammond organ so that the record would have organ on both sides and that turned out to be 'Green Onions.'"

As the guys were calling it a night after recording this song, Jim Stewart asked them to listen to what he'd recorded on one particular take. They listened but weren't as impressed as Jim, who asked: "If we released this as a record, what would you want to call it?" "Green Onions," was Booker T. Jones' reply. "Why 'Green Onions'" Jim asked. Booker T: "Because that is the nastiest thing I can think of and it's something you throw away."

The group's guitarist Steve Cropper brought this song to the Memphis radio station WLOK the day after they recorded it. The morning DJ, Rueben Washington, was a friend of Cropper's, and put the song on his turntable to hear off-air. After listening to just part of the song, he cut off the record that was on air and started playing "Green Onions" for his listeners. Says Cropper: "He played it four or five times in a row. We were dancing around the control room and believe it or not, the phone lines lit up. I guess we had the whole town dancing that morning."

The response to the song proved Cropper's point that it should be the A-side of the single instead of "Behave Yourself," and subsequent singles were pressed with the sides flipped.

The group was named after the British MG sports cars, but when the company expressed disapproval, they claimed the initials as "Memphis Group." Members of the band were Booker T. Jones, Steve Cropper, Al Jackson, and Lewie Steinberg (who was replaced in 1964 by Donald "Duck" Dunn). Jackson was killed in 1975, but the remaining members have gotten together often to play various events, including the "Bobfest" Bob Dylan tribute concert in 1992, and Neil Young's 1993 tour. The band was integrated, which was unusual at the time in Memphis: Three members were black, and one was white (Cropper). When Martin Luther King Jr. was shot in Memphis in 1968, igniting already high racial tensions, they had two white and two black members.

The sound is driven by the Hammond Organ played by Booker T. Jones, who was 17 when this was recorded. The Hammond organ was invented in 1934 by Laurens Hammond. Its mournful sound made it the instrument of choice for military chapels, but then in the 1960s the rockers got wind of it and the device became a standard keyboard instrument for jazz, blues, rock and gospel music.

In the UK, this was popular in dance clubs, but didn't become a chart hit until 1979, when it was used in the movie Quadrophenia. A character played by Sting danced to it in the movie. (thanks, Edward Pearce - Ashford, Kent, England)
In his book Seekers Guide To The Rhythm Of Yesteryear, Shiloh Noone writes about the UK impact of this song: "The 'Green Onions' groove has maintained an epic accountability filtering into a variety of styles, yet its roots have a double-edged sword. Let us chop up the onions and savor the stinging that shed its tears over the last forty years.

Strangely the infectious hook never charted in the '60s and took 17 years to reach UK #10. Admittedly Atlantic had slipped up failing to recognize that the instrumental 'Memphis Sound' had conjured a bluesy dance fashion in the '60s. The 1967 'Green Onions' single was backed by the badly recorded 'Bootleg.'

The riff took fashion during the mod revival in the '70s and found itself included on The Who's Quadrophenia soundtrack. For many it was the first introduction to Booker T. It was re-issued as a single in 1979 and cracked the UK #10 due to Steve Cropper and 'Duck' Dunn joining the Blues Brothers and featuring in the film of the same name.

The stinging riff again re-surfaced in 1985 on 'Old Gold Records,' this time backed by 'Chinese Checkers.' Some of the more definitive versions of 'Green Onions' were featured by Georgie Fame (Fame at Last), the Ventures (Lonely Bull), King Curtis (Memphis Hits). The irresistible groove also hooked the high and mighty as in 'Stoned' by the Rolling Stones that was issued as B-side to 'I Wanna Be Your Man.'

The rhythm would move from generation to generation starting with the Blues Brothers (Made in America - 1980), Johnny Thunders (eponymous album 1982) and the acid jazz Penthouse Suite (1990) by the James Taylor Quartet. Barring the original that kicks like a mule, their are four exhilarating interpretations: Live Adventures of Mike Bloomfield & Al Kooper, which has Mike improvising on the decisive Al Kooper Hammond drone.

Bloomfield's articulate tone frolics and jostles with absolute ease amazing the crowds at Bill Graham's Fillmore. England's Downliners Sect released the most authentic version and probably the only played purely on guitar in 1964, probably also the first British version and to my knowledge the first cover to wax the globe.

For the purists the frenzied guitar solos were reinforced by Muleskinner axeman Ian McLagan, future organist with the Small Faces. Guitar maestro Roy Buchanan recorded this one in 1967 for his Loading Zone. He shares the lead solos with none other than authors Steve Cropper and bassist Donald 'Duck' Dunn."

This song provides broadcasters with a wonderful instrumental bed which they can talk over or leave on its own without losing the audience. The NPR program Fresh Air uses it to great effect, and the song has also appeared in a number of films and TV shows, as well as in TV commercials for Mercedes. (thanks, Bertrand - Paris, France)

According to Q magazine, a few years after this was released, Georgie Fame met Booker T and told him that he thought the Hammond sound on this song was amazing and asked him what the levers on the organ were set to. Apparently Booker T had been unaware that the settings could be changed and he replied, "What, those things move?"

COMMENTS:

Hey, Barry (of Sauquoit, NY): While it's true that Booker T. & the M.G.s were booked and advertised for the December 1968 Miami Pop Festival, I've been looking for credible evidence that they actually performed and can find none (no photos, news reports or documents, etc.). I think they may have cancelled. Do you have documentation? If so, I'd be grateful if you can describe it. Thanks!!
Will - United States
On December 27th 1968, Booker T. & the MGs performed at the Miami Pop Festival in Hallandale, Florida...
At the time the group's "Hang 'Em High"* was at #40 on Billboard's Hot Top 100 chart; and six weeks later on February 2nd, 1969 it would peaked at #9 {for 2 weeks} and spent 18 weeks on the Top 100...
It reached #35 on Billboard's R&B Singles chart...
Between 1962 and 1971 they had seventeen Top 100 records; with two making the Top 10, their other Top 10 record was "Green Onions", which peaked at #3 {for 1 week} on September 23rd, 1962...
* Hugo Montenegro's original version of “Hang ‘Em High” peaked at #82 {for 2 weeks} on July 7th, 1968.
Barry - Sauquoit, Ny
Right on when you said bladder than bad. I can and often do just put it on repeat.
Chris - Norman, Ok
And then let's mention some other fine versions of Green Onions: Jon Lord and the Hootchie coochie men, Tom Petty and the Heartbrakers, Michaela Rae, Graham Bond, the Japanese Les Cappuccino and Kenny Bernard and the Wranglers and last but not leasr:Ray Harris and the Fusion Experience. All Great versions with a capital G!
Paul - Tilburg, Netherlands
And then there is the version of jazz organist and vibrafonist Milt Buckner from 1977 recorded shortly before his death. The writers of the song are called D Jones and S Crooner in stead of B.T. Jones and S. Cropper. This error is repeated over and over on numerous jazz compilations with Milt's version without somebody ever correcting it!
Paul - Tilburg, Netherlands
There is also a version of the Bobby Patrick Big Six from 1964 a version that nowhere can be found on CD but I found it on an LP in 1977 . Will this ever be re-released?
Paul - Tilburg, Netherlands
This also was a cover song for The Great Latin Jazz artist Mongo Santamaria!
Jorge - Bronx, Ny
One of the all time, easiest to listen to, very best instrumental tunes ever. Yep, years ago, radio stations would always have news at the top of the hour, and they'd use a tune like this to fill in time gaps. We'd always be swimming at the local pool and they'd have the radio on over the loudspeaker. So over a number of summers, I heard this song many times and associate it with innocent, easy-going, carefree days of youth. The group's other hit song, as Teresa from Mechelen, Belgium says, is "Time is Tight", another fabulous instrumental. Reminds me of music you'd hear at a skating rink in the old days......
Camille - Toronto, Oh
hey BRUCE FROM BOSTON-- interesting note. i like the way you think. i'm a Hammond guy, you seem like a guitar guy? get to me, threespeednerd@gmail.com
Trevor - Seattle, Wa
just got me an M3... oh yes. man i love the way "Booker T" made good use of a Hammond Thing-- percussive "key click"... all you Hammond lovers out there, take good note of this technique-- and the M3 is one Hammond you can kinda tweek, you can go either way with it. M3's are FUN TO TUNE. man i love that percussive key click.
Trevor - Seattle, Wa
Chopping onions... the "Hammond Chop" to great effect
Trevor - Seattle, Wa
This is an old favorite of mine. Listen to the original 1962 recording and you will be reminded that not everything needs digital multi-tracked effects to sound good.

BTW, there is an episode of the Brady Bunch where Peter has two dates on the same night. He dances with one of the girls in the family room to an instrumental record - not this song, but sounds like it could be Booker T & the MGs.
Jeff - Boston, Ma
this is one of the best instrumentel of all time no question. another top five song from the same studio ya"ll should listen to is last night by the markee.
Ed - Lake City, Fl
This was the walk-in music at my wedding. It was perfect.
Sebastian - Boston, Ma
This has been used in a variety of movies. One is one of my favorite mob flicks called Get Shorty.
Dylan - Dodge City, Ks
Badder than Bad!!
Craig - San Diego, Ca
This track is beyond bad.
The best instrumental there ever was, is,
or will ever be.
It says "don't f&@# with me" in every note.
Craig - San Diego, Ca
Roy Buchanan does a KILLER version of this tune on his 'Loading Zone' album
Lester - New York City, Ny
Maxi Priest and Shaggy sampled this song in "That Girl".
Jessica - Hamilton, Canada
In response to the question by Willie of Rivera Beach, FL: The original 1962 version of Green Onions(2:45) by Booker T. & the MG's is availabe on many CD compilations. These can be found at the allmusic.com website. I have it on Rhino's "Rock Instrumental Classics, Vol 4: Soul" which is widely available in stores or by mail-order.
John - New Orleans, La
This is the coolest baddest song there is ! I love the scene in American Garffiti . May very well be my favorite song and favorite movie.
Mike - Hueytown , Al
This song was also featured in the 1995 movie, Houseguest.
Chris - Cambridge, Canada
A very unusual feature of this song that is seldom mentioned is that the guitarist is actually cross-chording the chords of the song. It is as if he is playing in another key in the parts where he plays the single staccato chords, playing a C chord when the band plays a G chord, an F chord when the band plays a C chord, etc. This helps to make the song sound so tart.
Bruce - Boston, Ma
This song was also played in GTA: San Andreas. I used that song to perfection whenever it was on.
Matthew - East Brunswick, Nj
I remember Booker T. and The MGs, they had a great hit called "Time is Tight". Classic 21, a radiostation in Belgium uses "Green Onions" as tune for their program "California Dreaming".
Teresa - Mechelen, Belgium
i have owned a 55 chevy for 22 years now and had it painted green and called it "green onions"
Ray, England uk.
Raymund - Oxfordshire, England
Doesn't anyone remember this song being in drag racing scene in American Graffiti?
Cameron - Irvine, Ca
I always think of the movie Sandlot whenever i hear this song.
Easy - Kennesaw, Ga
Booker T. Jones was actually 16 when he recorded this. I saw them live at the Chesapeake Bay Blues Festival, 2005. they played this, and when they finished, they said "That is called Green Onions. Its one of my favorites. We recorded it when I was 16."
Ethan - Ridgely, Md
i seen jorma play green onions in the limelight at a benefit for hell's angels.it was awhile back,buthesmoked that toon it was awesome watching andlistening thanks.
John Mescall - Yonkers, Ny
For James in Rochester: Yes, Cropper and Dunn were in the Blues Brothers Band. Belushi and Aykroyd were blues fans. Their first "gig" on SNL was backed by the show's house band (led by Paul Shaffer at the time). Later "gigs" were backed by better-known musicians because John and Danny, while they both knew they weren't singers, wanted their shows to be as good, I guess you could say as authentic, as possible. Hence the inclusion of Cropper and Dunn, Tom Scott, Lou Marini, et al, all well known and rspected in music circles and among their fellow musicians. Shaffer, btw, played keyboards for all their shows but was unable to appear in the movie.
Shell - Riverdale, Ga
This Song was used in Sandlot
Bob - Mt. Laurel, Nj
Didn't Steve Cropper and Donald "duck" Dunn get together to play in The Blues Brothers movie?
James - Ragin' Rochester, Ny
I want to buy the song (GREEN ONIONS) by Booker T, & The MGs. on Video or C D. 1962. Can you hekp me? Thank You.
Willie - Riviera Beach, Fl
I am learning to playthe Piano, Please tell me if you have music books that have the letters in the notes. (Easy Play) I like JAZZ. Thank You

Source. .. http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=1516
Watch the video: Booker T & the M G 's - Green Onions (Original / HQ audio)
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/proxy/uGtmc-bLcaDlOwRqq2_csANNklOwbNnAcsiGpWHsrHmwkMCtgPPhTmQa981Y_m-P4xV-Su7nE48VTuDJOddPAQ=w506-h379
Exactly what the title says. :)
3 months ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/104924165119574500714 DJTees T-shirts that Rock : Albert King - Born Under A Bad Sign Born Under a Bad Sign was the first album that Albert King made ...
Albert King - Born Under A Bad Sign
Born Under a Bad Sign was the first album that Albert King made for Stax Records and his second album overall. His back band for it was the Stax house band Booker T. and the MGs, featuring the Memphis Horns.
Four of the album’s songs became modern blues classics: Born Under a Bad Sign, Oh...

Albert King - Born Under A Bad Sign
Albert King - Born Under A Bad Sign directly influenced almost every guitarist. It's one of rock's most important records.
4 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/104207722383330218511 Joe Samer : City of Memphis, Tennessee Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee...
City of Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers.

Memphis had a population of 653,450 in 2013, making it the largest city in the state of Tennessee, the largest city on the Mississippi River, the third largest in the greater Southeastern United States, and the 23rd largest in the United States.

The greater Memphis metropolitan area, including adjacent counties in Mississippi and Arkansas, had a 2010 population of 1,316,100.[6] This makes Memphis the second-largest metropolitan area in Tennessee, surpassed by metropolitan Nashville.

Memphis is the youngest of Tennessee's major cities, founded in 1819 as a planned city by a group of wealthy Americans including judge John Overton and future president Andrew Jackson.[7] A resident of Memphis is referred to as a Memphian, and the Memphis region is known, particularly to media outlets, as "Memphis & the Mid-South".
History[edit]
Main article: History of Memphis, Tennessee
See also: Timeline of Memphis, Tennessee
Early history[edit]

A Mississippian era priest (Digital illustration, 2004)
Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years. The area was known to be settled in the first millennium CE by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries and built earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds. The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants, later occupied the site. They were the ones to encounter European explorers to the area, beginning in the 16th century with Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle.[8]

In 1795 the Spanish governor of Louisiana, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, acquired land for a fort from the Chickasaw. Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas[9] was built in the summer of 1795 on the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, just south of the Wolf River. It gave Spain control of navigation on the Mississippi River in the region, but they abandoned it after Spain ceded the territory to the United States under Pinckney's Treaty.[10][11] The Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its lumber and iron to their other locations in Arkansas.

In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in the Southwest United States but the area was largely occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the Spanish had departed.[12] The fort's ruins went unnoticed twenty years later when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land.[13]

19th century[edit]

Memphis in the mid-1850s
The European-American city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 (incorporated December 19, 1826) by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson.[14][15] They named it after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River.[16] Memphis developed as a trade and transportation center in the 19th century because of its flood-free location high above the Mississippi River. Located in the low-lying delta region along the river, its outlying areas were developed as cotton plantations, and the city became a major cotton market and brokerage center.

The cotton economy of the antebellum South depended on the forced labor of large numbers of African-American slaves, and Memphis also developed as a major slave market for the domestic slave trade. Through the early 19th century, one million slaves were transported from the Upper South, in a huge forced migration to newly developed plantation areas. Many were transported by steamboats along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. In 1857, the Memphis and Charleston Railroad was completed, connecting the Atlantic Coast of South Carolina and this major Mississippi River port; it was the only east-west railroad constructed across the southern states prior to the Civil War. This gave planters and cotton brokers access to the Atlantic Coast for shipping cotton to England, a major market.

The city's demographics changed dramatically in the 1850s and 1860s under waves of immigration and domestic migration. Due to increased immigration since the 1840s and the Great Famine, ethnic Irish made up 9.9 percent of the population in 1850, but 23.2 percent in 1860, when the total population was 22,623.[17][18][19] They had encountered considerable discrimination in the city but by 1860, the Irish constituted most of the police force. They also gained many elected and patronage positions in the Democratic Party city government, and an Irish man was elected as mayor before the Civil War. At that time, representatives were elected to the city council from 30 wards. The elite were worried about corruption in this system and that so many saloonkeepers were active in the wards. German immigrants also made this city a destination following the 1848 revolutions; both the Irish and Germans were mostly Catholic, adding another element to demographic change in this formerly Protestant city.

Tennessee seceded from the Union in June 1861, and Memphis briefly became a Confederate stronghold. Union ironclad gunboats captured the city in the naval Battle of Memphis on June 6, 1862, and the city and state were occupied by the Union Army for the duration of the war. The Union Army commanders allowed the city to maintain its civil government during most of this period but excluded Confederate veterans from office, which shifted political dynamics in the city as the war went on.[20] As Memphis was used as a Union supply base, associated with nearby Fort Pickering, it continued to prosper economically throughout the war. Meanwhile, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest harassed Union forces in the area.

The war years contributed to additional dramatic changes in city population. The presence of the Union Army attracted many fugitive slaves who escaped from surrounding rural plantations. So many sought protection behind Union lines that the Army set up contraband camps to accommodate them. The black population of Memphis increased from 3,000 in 1860, when the total population was 22,623, to nearly 20,000 in 1865, with most settling south of what was then the city limits.[21] The white population was also increasing, but not to the same degree. The total population in 1870 was 40,220, after thousands of blacks had left the city; they numbered 15,000 that year, or 37.4% of the total.(See census table in Demographics section.)

Postwar years, Reconstruction and Democratic control[edit]
The rapid demographic changes, added to the stress of war and occupation, and uncertainty about who was in charge, resulted in growing tensions between the Irish policemen and black Union soldiers following the war.[20] In three days of rioting in early May 1866, the Memphis Riot erupted, in which white mobs made up of policemen, firemen, and other mostly ethnic Irish, attacked and killed 46 blacks, wounding 75 and injuring 100 persons; raped several women, and destroyed nearly 100 houses while severely damaging churches and schools in South Memphis. Much of the settlement was left in ruins. Two whites were killed in the riot.[21] Many blacks permanently fled Memphis after the riot, especially as the Freedmen's Bureau continued to have difficulty in protecting them. Their population fell to about 15,000 by 1870,[20] or 37.5% of the city, which then had a total population of 40,226.(See census table in Demographics section.)

Historian Barrington Walker suggests that the Irish rioted against blacks because of their relatively recent arrival as immigrants and the uncertain nature of their own claim to "whiteness"; they were trying to separate themselves from blacks in the underclass. The main fighting participants were ethnic Irish, decommissioned black Union soldiers, and newly emancipated freedmen from the African-American community. Walker suggests that most of the mob were not in direct economic conflict with the blacks, as by then the Irish had attained better jobs, but the Irish were establishing dominance over the freedmen.[19]

In Memphis, unlike disturbances in some other cities, ex-Confederate veterans were generally not part of the attacks against blacks. The outrages of the riot in Memphis and a similar one in New Orleans in September (the latter did include Confederate veterans) resulted in support in the North for Congress to pass the Reconstruction Act and the Fourteenth Amendment.[21]

In the 1870s, a series of yellow fever epidemics devastated Memphis, with the disease being carried by river passengers along the waterways. During the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878 in Memphis, Tennessee, more than 5000 people were listed in the official register of deaths between July 26 and November 27. The vast majority of them died of yellow fever, making the epidemic in the city of 40,000 people one of the most traumatic and severe in urban United States’ history. Within four days of the Memphis Board of Health’s declaration of a yellow fever outbreak, 20,000 residents had fled the city. The panic ensuing left the poverty-stricken, the working classes, and the African American community at the disposal of the epidemic. Those who remained in Memphis relied on volunteers from religious and physician organizations to tend to the sick. By the end of the year, more than 5,000 were confirmed dead in Memphis. The New Orleans health board listed "not less than 4,600" dead. The Mississippi Valley experienced 120,000 cases of yellow fever, with 20,000 deaths. The $15 million in losses caused by the epidemic bankrupted the city of Memphis, and as a result their charter was revoked.

By 1870, Memphis’s population of 40,000 was almost double that of Nashville and Atlanta, ranking it second only to New Orleans as the largest city in the South.[22] The population of Memphis continued to grow after 1870, even when the panic of 1873 hit the US, particularly the South, very hard. The panic of 1873 allowed Memphis’s underclasses to swell amidst the poverty and hardship the panic wrought, giving further credence to Memphis being a rough, shiftless city. Also, Memphis had a reputation for being a dirty city leading up to outbreak in 1878. Two yellow fever epidemics, cholera and malaria had given Memphis a reputation as a sickly city and a filthy one. It was unheard of for a city with a population as large as the one in Memphis to have no waterworks—the city still relied entirely on the river and rain cisterns to collect water, and there was no way to remove sewage.[22] The combination of a swelling population, especially of lower and working classes, and the abysmal health and sanitary conditions of Memphis made the city ripe for a serious epidemic.

The first case to go on record for the public was when Mrs. Kate Bionda, an owner of the Italian snack house, died of the fever on August 13.[22] Hers was officially reported by the Board of Health, on August 14, as the first case of yellow fever in the city.[22] A massive panic ensued. The same trains and steamboats that brought thousands into Memphis now carried away over 25,000 Memphians, more than half of the population, in a span of five days.[22] On August 23, the Board of Health finally declared a yellow fever epidemic in Memphis, and the city collapsed, hemorrhaging its population. In July of that year, the city boasted a population of 47,000. By September, 19,000 remained and 17,000 of them had yellow fever.[22] The only people left in the city were the lower classes, like the German and Irish immigrant workers, and African American Americans. Neither of these two groups had the capacity to flee the city like the middle and upper class whites of Memphis, and thus they were subjected to a city of death.

Immediately following the Board of Health’s declaration, a Citizen’s Relief Committee was formed by Charles G. Fisher, and proceeded to organize the city into refugee camps. The committee’s main priority was separating the poor from the city and isolating them into refugee camps.[22] Also, the Howard Association, formed specifically for yellow fever epidemics in New Orleans and Memphis, organized nurses and doctors within Memphis and throughout the country in response to the outbreak.[23] They stayed at the Peabody Hotel, the only hotel to keep its doors open during the epidemic (Crosby 60), and from there were assigned to their respective infected districts. Physicians of the epidemic reported seeing as many as 100 to 150 patients daily.[22] The sisters of St. Mary’s Hospital played an important role during the epidemic caring for the lower classes. Already home to a girl’s school and church orphanage, the sisters of St. Mary’s also sought to provide care for the Canfield Asylum, a home for black children. Each day, the sisters alternated caring for the orphans at St. Mary’s, delivering children to the Canfield Asylum and taking soup and medicine on house calls to patients.[22]

At long last, on October 28, a killing frost fell, and a message was sent to Memphians scattered all over the country to come home. Though yellow fever cases would continue to appear in the pages of Elmwood Cemetery’s burial record as late as February 29, the epidemic itself seemed quieted.[22] The Board of Health declared the epidemic, which caused over 20,000 deaths and financial losses of nearly $200 million, at an end.[24] On November 27, a general citizen’s meeting was called at the Greenlaw Opera House to offer thanks to those who had stayed behind to serve and die. Over the next year property tax revenues collapsed, and the city could not make payments on its municipal debts. As a result of this crisis, Memphis temporarily lost its city charter and was reclassified by the state legislature as a Taxing District from 1878–1893.[23] Despite the unfortunately losing its charter and 75% of its population, a new era of sanitation arose in Memphis. A new municipal government in 1879 helped form the first regional health organization and during the 1880s led the nation in sanitary reform and improvements.[24]

Perhaps the most significant effect the yellow fever had on Memphis was its demographic changes. Nearly all of Memphis’s upper and middle classes vanished, depriving the city of its general leadership and class structure that dictated everyday life similar to other large Southern Cities like New Orleans, Charleston, and Atlanta. This put Memphis in a unique position, one in which poorer whites and blacks fundamentally made up the city and played the greatest role in reestablishing the city. The epidemic had made Memphis a less cosmopolitan place, with an economy that serviced the cotton trade and a population drawn increasingly from poor white and black southerners.[25]

The 1890 election was strongly contested, resulting in opponents of the D. P. Hadden faction working to deprive them of votes by disenfranchising blacks. The state had enacted several laws, including the requirement of poll taxes, that served to disenfranchise many blacks. Although political party factions in the future sometimes paid poll taxes to enable blacks to vote, African Americans lost their last positions on the city council in this election and were forced out of the police force. (They did not recover the ability to exercise the franchise until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.) Historian Lynette Boney Wrenn suggests the heightened political hostility of the Democratic contest and related social tensions contributed to a white mob lynching three black grocers in Memphis 1892.[26] Journalist Ida B. Wells of Memphis investigated the lynchings, as one of the men killed was a friend of hers. She demonstrated that these and other lynchings were more often due to economic and social competition than any criminal offenses by black men. Her findings were so controversial and aroused so much anger that she was forced to moved away from the city. She continued to investigate and publish the abuses of lynching.[27]

Businessmen were eager to increase city population after the losses of 1878-79, and supported annexation of new areas to the city; this was passed in 1890 before the census. The annexation measure was finally approved by the state legislature through a compromise achieved with real estate magnates, and the area annexed was slightly smaller than first proposed.[28]

In 1893 the city was rechartered with home rule, which restored its ability to enact taxes, although the state legislature established a cap rate.[29] Although commission government was retained and enlarged to five commissioners, Democratic politicians regained control from the business elite. The commission form of government was believed effective in getting things done, but it reduced representation of the city's full population.[30]

20th century[edit]

Cotton merchants on Union Avenue (1937)
In terms of its economy, Memphis developed as the world's largest spot cotton market and the world's largest hardwood lumber market, both commodity products of the Mississippi Delta. Into the 1950s, it was the world's largest mule market.[31] Attracting workers from rural areas as well as new immigrants, from 1900 to 1950 the city increased nearly fourfold in population, from 102,350 to 396,000 residents.[32]

From the 1910s to the 1950s, Memphis was a place of machine politics under the direction of E. H. "Boss" Crump. He gained a state law in 1911 to establish a small commission to manage the city. The city retained a form of commission government until 1967 and patronage flourished under Crump. "This centralization of political power in a small commission aided the efficient transaction of municipal business, but the public policies that resulted from it tended to benefit upper-class Memphians while neglecting the less affluent residents and neighborhoods."[33] The city installed a revolutionary sewer system and upgraded sanitation and drainage to prevent another epidemic. Pure water from an artesian well was discovered in the 1880s, securing the city's water supply. The commissioners developed an extensive network of parks and public works as part of the national City Beautiful movement, but did not encourage heavy industry, which might have provided substantial employment for the working-class population. The lack of representation in city government resulted in the poor and minorities being underrepresented. The majority controlled the election of all the at-large positions.[33]

Memphis did not become a home rule city until 1963, although the state legislature had amended the constitution in 1953 to provide home rule for cities and counties. Before that, the city had to get state bills approved in order to change its charter and for other policies and programs. Since 1963, it can change the charter by popular approval of the electorate.[34]

During the 1960s, the city was at the center of civil rights issues, as its large African-American population had been affected by state segregation practices and disenfranchisement in the early 20th century. African-American residents drew from the civil rights movement to improve their lives. In 1968 a city sanitation workers' strike began for living wages and better working conditions; the workers were overwhelmingly African American. They marched to gain public awareness and support for their plight: the danger of their work, and the struggles to support families with their low pay. Their drive for better pay had been met with resistance by the city government.

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, known for his leadership in the non-violent movement, came to lend his support to the workers' cause. He stayed at the Lorraine Motel in the city, where he was assassinated by a sniper on April 4, 1968, the day after giving his prophetic I've Been to the Mountaintop speech at the Mason Temple.

Grief-stricken and enraged after learning of King's murder, many African Americans in the city rioted, looting and destroying businesses and other facilities, some by arson. The governor ordered Tennessee National Guardsmen into the city within hours, where small, roving bands of rioters continued to be active.[35] Fearing the violence, more of the middle-class began to leave the city for the suburbs.

In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Memphis' population as 60.8% white and 38.9% black.[36] Suburbanization was attracting wealthier residents to newer housing outside the city. After the riots and court-ordered busing in 1973 to achieve desegregation of public schools, "about 40,000 of the system’s 71,000 white students abandon[ed] the system in four years."[37] The city now has a majority-black population; the larger metropolitan area is narrowly majority white.

Memphis is well known for its cultural contributions to the identity of the American South. Many renowned musicians grew up in and around Memphis and moved to Chicago and other areas from the Mississippi Delta, carrying their music with them to influence other cities and listeners over radio airwaves.[38] These included such musical greats as Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Muddy Waters, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Robert Johnson, W. C. Handy, B.B. King, Howlin' Wolf, Isaac Hayes, Booker T. Jones, Eric Gales, Al Green, Alex Chilton, Justin Timberlake, Three 6 Mafia, the Sylvers, Jay Reatard, Zach Myers, and many others. Aretha Franklin was born in Memphis.

Geography[edit]
Main article: Geography of Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis is located in southwestern Tennessee at 35°7′3″N 89°58′16″W.[39] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 324.0 square miles (839.2 km2), of which 315.1 square miles (816.0 km2) is land and 9.0 square miles (23.2 km2), or 2.76%, is water.[40]

Cityscape[edit]

Memphis skyline as seen from Poplar Avenue (2010)
Downtown Memphis rises from a bluff along the Mississippi River. The city and metro area spread out through suburbanization, and encompass southwest Tennessee, northern Mississippi and eastern Arkansas. Several large parks were founded in the city in the early 20th century, notably Overton Park in Midtown and the 4,500-acre (18 km2) Shelby Farms. The city is a national transportation hub and Mississippi River crossing for Interstate 40, (east-west), Interstate 55 (north-south), barge traffic, Memphis International Airport (FedEx's "SuperHub" facility) and numerous freight railroads that serve the city.

In both 2011 and 2012, the magazine Travel + Leisure ranked Memphis among the top ten "America's Dirtiest City," for widespread visibly littered public spaces, with unremoved trash, based on surveys by both readership and local citizens.[41]

On a more positive note, in 2013 Forbes magazine ranked Memphis as one of the top 15 cities in the United States with an "emerging downtown" area.[42]

Also in 2013, USA Today readers voted Beale Street as America's Best Iconic Street and Graceland as the Best Iconic American Attraction. The National Civil Rights Museum (at the Lorraine Motel, the site of Rev. Martin Luther King's assassination) ranked third in the poll of national attractions.[43]

Riverfront[edit]

The American Queen docked at Beale Street Landing along the Memphis riverfront
The Memphis Riverfront stretches along the Mississippi River from the Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park in the north, to the T. O. Fuller State Park in the south. The River Walk is a park system that connects downtown Memphis from Mississippi River Greenbelt Park in the north, to Tom Lee Park in the south.

Aquifer[edit]
Shelby County is located over four natural aquifers, one of which is recognized as the "Memphis Sand Aquifer" or simply as the "Memphis Aquifer". This artesian water is pure and soft. This particular water source, located some 350 to 1,100 feet (110 to 340 m) underground, is estimated by Memphis Light, Gas and Water to contain more than 100 trillion US gallons (380 km3) of water.[44]

Climate[edit]
Memphis has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with four distinct seasons, and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 8.[45] Winter weather comes alternately from the upper Great Plains and the Gulf of Mexico, which can lead to drastic swings in temperature. Summer weather may come from Texas (very hot and humid) or the Gulf (hot and very humid). July has a daily average temperature of 82.7 °F (28.2 °C), with high levels of humidity due to moisture encroaching from the Gulf of Mexico. Afternoon and evening thunderstorms are frequent during summer, but usually brief, lasting no longer than an hour. Early autumn is pleasantly drier and mild, but can be hot until late October. Late autumn is rainy and cooler; precipitation peaks again in November and December. Winters are mild to chilly, with a January daily average temperature of 41.2 °F (5.1 °C). Snow occurs sporadically in winter, with an average seasonal snowfall of 3.9 inches (9.9 cm). Ice storms and freezing rain pose greater danger, as they can often pull tree limbs down on power lines and make driving hazardous. Severe thunderstorms can occur at any time of the year though mainly during the spring months. Large hail, strong winds, flooding and frequent lightning can accompany these storms. Some storms spawn tornadoes.

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Memphis was −13 °F (−25 °C) on December 24, 1963,[46] and the highest temperature ever was 108 °F (42 °C) on July 13, 1980.[47] Over the course of a year, there is an average of 4.4 days of highs below freezing, 6.9 nights of lows below 20 °F (−7 °C), 43 nights of lows below freezing, 64 days of highs above 90 °F (32 °C)+, and 2.1 days of highs above 100 °F (38 °C)+.

Annual precipitation is high (53.68 inches (1,360 mm)) and is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year, though the period August through October tends to be drier. Average monthly rainfall is especially high in March through May, November and December.

[show]Climate data for Memphis (Memphis Int'l), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1872−present[a]
Demographics[edit]
For historical population data, see: History of Memphis, Tennessee.

Historical population
Census Pop. %±
1850 8,841 —
1860 22,623 155.9%
1870 40,226 77.8%
1880 33,592 −16.5%
1890 64,495 92.0%
1900 102,320 58.6%
1910 131,105 28.1%
1920 162,351 23.8%
1930 253,143 55.9%
1940 292,942 15.7%
1950 396,000 35.2%
1960 497,524 25.6%
1970 623,988 25.4%
1980 646,174 3.6%
1990 610,337 −5.5%
2000 650,100 6.5%
2010 646,889 −0.5%
Est. 2014 656,861 [54] 1.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[55]
2013 Estimate[2]
According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the racial composition of the city of Memphis was:

Black or African American: 62.6%
White: 31.7% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 29.5%)
Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 5.0%
Asian: 1.7%
Native American: 0.2%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%
Some other race: 2.7%
Two or more races: 1.2%
As of the 2010 census, there were 652,078 people and 245,836 households in the city.[56] The population density was 2,327.4 people per sq mi (898.6/km2). There were 271,552 housing units at an average density of 972.2 per sq mi (375.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 63.33% African American, 29.39% White, down from 62.8% in 1950;[36] 1.46% Asian American, 1.57% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.45% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.49% of the population.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,285, and the median income for a family was $37,767. Males had a median income of $31,236 versus $25,183 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,838. About 17.2% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18, and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. In 2011, the U.S. Census Bureau ranked the Memphis area as the poorest large metro area in the country.[57] Dr. Jeff Wallace of the University of Memphis noted that the problem was related to decades of segregation in government and schools. He said that it was a low-cost job market, but other places in the world could offer cheaper labor, and the workforce was undereducated for today's challenges.[57]

The Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 42nd largest in the United States, has a 2010 population of 1,316,100 and includes the Tennessee counties of Shelby, Tipton and Fayette; as well as the northern Mississippi counties of DeSoto, Marshall, Tate, and Tunica; and Crittenden County, Arkansas, all part of the Mississippi Delta.

The total metropolitan area has a higher proportion of whites and a higher per capita income than the population in the city. The 2010 census shows that the Memphis metro area is close to a majority-minority population:

"the white population is 47.9 percent of the eight-county area’s 1,316,100 residents. The non-Hispanic white population, a designation frequently used in census reports, was 46.2 percent of the total. The African American percentage was 45.7. For several decades, the Memphis metro area has had the highest percentage of black population among the nation’s large metropolitan areas. The area has seemed on a path to become the nation’s first metro area of one million or more with a majority black population."[58]

In a reverse trend of the Great Migration, numerous African Americans and other minorities have moved into DeSoto County, and blacks have followed suburban trends, moving into the suburbs of Shelby County.[58]

Religion[edit]

Asian-American tombstones in Elmwood Cemetery
Since its founding, Memphis has been home to persons of many different faiths. An 1870 map of Memphis shows religious buildings of the Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, and other Christian denominations, and a Jewish congregation.[59] In 2009, places of worship exist for Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims.

The international headquarters of the Church of God in Christ, the second-largest Pentecostal denomination in the United States, is located in Memphis. Its Mason Temple was named after the denomination's founder, Charles Harrison Mason. This church is where Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his noted "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech in April 1968, the night before he was assassinated at his motel. The National Civil Rights Museum, located in Memphis at the Lorraine Motel and other buildings, has an annual ceremony at Mason's Temple of Deliverance where it honors persons with Freedom Awards.

Bellevue Baptist Church is a Southern Baptist megachurch in Memphis that was founded in 1903. Its current membership is around 30,000.[60] For many years, it was led by the late Adrian Rogers, a three-term president of the Southern Baptist Convention.

Other notable and/or large churches in Memphis include Second Presbyterian Church (EPC), Evergreen Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), Colonial Park United Methodist Church, Christ United Methodist Church, Idlewild Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), the Pentecostal Church (UPCI), First Baptist Broad, Temple of Deliverance and Calvary Episcopal Church.

Memphis is home to two cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Memphis, and St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of West Tennessee.

Memphis is home to Temple Israel, a Reform synagogue that has approximately 7,000 members, making it one of the largest Reform synagogues in the country. Baron Hirsch Synagogue is the largest Orthodox shul in the United States.[61] Jewish residents were part of the city before the Civil War, but more Jewish immigrants came here from Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Memphis is home to an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 Muslims of various cultures and ethnicities.[62]

A number of seminaries are located in Memphis and the metropolitan area. Memphis is home to Memphis Theological Seminary and Harding School of Theology. Suburban Cordova is home to Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary.

Economy[edit]
Main article: Economy of Memphis, Tennessee
The city's central geographic location has been strategic to its business development. Located on the Mississippi River and intersected by five major freight railroads and two Interstate Highways, I-40 and I-55, Memphis is ideally located for commerce in the transportation and shipping industry. Its access by water was key to its initial development, with steamboats plying the Mississippi river. Railroad construction strengthened its connection to other markets to the east and west.

Since the second half of the 20th century, highways and interstates have played major roles as transportation corridors. A third interstate, I-69, is under construction, and a fourth, I-22, has recently been designated from the former High Priority Corridor X. River barges are unloaded onto trucks and trains. The city is home to Memphis International Airport, the world's second busiest cargo airport (following Hong Kong). Memphis serves as a primary hub for FedEx Express shipping.

Memphis is the home of three Fortune 500 companies: FedEx, AutoZone, and International Paper.[63] Other major corporations based in Memphis include Allenberg Cotton, American Residential Services (also known as ARS/Rescue Rooter); Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz; Cargill Cotton, City Gear, First Horizon National Corporation, Evergreen Packaging, Fred's, GTx, Guardsmark, Lenny's Sub Shop, Perkins Restaurant and Bakery, ServiceMaster, Thomas & Betts, True Temper Sports, Varsity Brands, and Verso Paper. Corporations with major operations based in Memphis include Carrier, Merck & Co., Medtronic, Sharp Manufacturing, Smith & Nephew, and Technicolor Home Entertainment Services. Gibson guitars, based in Nashville, has a factory in Memphis, near Beale St. and the FedEx center. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis also has a branch in Memphis. Kruger Products, manufacturer of White Cloud tissue products, operates the largest tissue manufacturing facility under one roof in the Memphis area.

The entertainment and film industries have discovered Memphis in recent years. Several major motion pictures, most of which were recruited and assisted by the Memphis & Shelby County Film and Television Commission, have been filmed in Memphis, including Making the Grade (1984), Elvis and Me (1988), Great Balls of Fire! (1988), Heart of Dixie (1989), Mystery Train (1989), The Silence of the Lambs (1991), Trespass (1991), The Gun in Betty Lou's Handbag (1992), The Firm (1993), The Delta (1996), The People Vs. Larry Flynt (1996), The Rainmaker (1997), Cast Away (2000), 21 Grams (2002), A Painted House (2002), Hustle & Flow (2005), Forty Shades of Blue (2005), Walk the Line (2005), Black Snake Moan (2007), Nothing But the Truth (2008), Soul Men (2008), and The Grace Card (2011). The Blind Side (2009) was set in Memphis but filmed in Atlanta. The 1992 television movie Memphis, starring Memphis native Cybill Shepherd, who also served as executive producer and writer, was also filmed in Memphis.

Arts and culture[edit]
Main article: Culture of Memphis, Tennessee
Cultural events[edit]
One of the largest celebrations of the city is Memphis in May. The month-long series of events promotes Memphis' heritage and outreach of its people far beyond the city's borders. The four main events are the Beale Street Music Festival, International Week, The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, and the Sunset Symphony. The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest is the largest pork barbecue-cooking contest in the world.

In April, downtown Memphis celebrates "Africa in April Cultural Awareness Festival," or simply Africa in April. The festival was designed to celebrate the arts, history, culture, and diversity of the African diaspora. Africa in April is a three-day festival with vendors' markets, fashion showcases, blues showcases, and an international diversity parade.[64]

During June, Memphis is home to the Memphis Italian Festival at Marquette Park. For over 20 years, the festival has hosted musical acts, local artisans, and Italian cooking competitions. It also presents chef demonstrations, the Coors Light Competitive Bocce Tournament, the Galtelli Cup Recreational Bocce Tournament, a volleyball tournament, and pizza tossing demonstrations.

Carnival Memphis, formerly known as the Memphis Cotton Carnival, is an annual series of parties and festivities in June that salutes various aspects of Memphis and its industries. An annual King and Queen of Carnival are secretly selected to reign over Carnival activities. From 1935 to 1982, the African-American community staged the Cotton Makers Jubilee; it has merged with Carnival Memphis.[65]

A market and arts festival, the Cooper-Young Festival,[66] is held annually in September in the Cooper-Young district of Midtown Memphis. The event draws artists from all over North America and includes local music, art sales, contests, and displays.

Memphis sponsors several film festivals: the Indie Memphis Film Festival, Outflix, and the Memphis International Film and Music Festival. The Indie Memphis Film Festival is in its 14th year and was held April 27–28, 2013. [67] Recognized by MovieMaker Magazine as one of 25 "Coolest Film Festivals" (2009) and one of 25 "Festivals Worth the Entry Fee" (2011), Indie Memphis offers Memphis year-round independent film programming, including the Global Lens international film series, IM Student Shorts student films, and an outdoor concert film series at the historic Levitt Shell. The Outflix Film Festival, also in its 15th year, was held September 7–13, 2013. Outflix features a full week of LGBT cinema, including short films, features, and documentaries. The Memphis International Film and Music Festival is held in April; it is in its 11th year and takes place at Malco's Ridgeway Four.

On the weekend before Thanksgiving, the Memphis International Jazz Festival is held in the South Main Historic Arts District in Downtown Memphis. This festival promotes the important role Memphis has played in shaping Jazz nationally and internationally. Acts such as George Coleman, Herman Green, Kirk Whalum and Marvin Stamm all come out of the rich musical heritage in Memphis.

Formerly titled the W. C. Handy Awards, the International Blues Awards are presented by the Blues Foundation (headquartered in Memphis) for Blues music achievement. Weeklong playing competitions are held, as well as an awards banquet including a night of performance and celebration.

Music[edit]

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Memphis is the home of founders and pioneers of various American music genres, including Memphis soul, Memphis blues, gospel, rock n' roll, Buck, crunk, and "sharecropper" country music (in contrast to the "rhinestone" country sound of Nashville).

Many musicians, including Aretha Franklin, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Booker T. & the M.G.'s, Otis Redding, Isaac Hayes, Shawn Lane, Sam & Dave and B.B. King, got their start in Memphis in the 1950s and 1960s.

Beale Street is a national historical landmark, and shows the impact Memphis has had on American blues, particularly after World War II as electric guitars took precedence. Sam Phillips' Sun Studio, the most seminal recording studio in American popular music, still stands, and is open for tours. Elvis, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins and Roy Orbison all made their first recordings there, and were "discovered" by Phillips. Many great blues artists recorded there, such as W. C. Handy, Father of the Blues.

Stax Records created a classic 1960s soul music sound, much grittier and horn-based than Motown. Booker T. and the M.G.s were the label's backing band for most of the classic hits that came out of Stax, by Sam and Dave, Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, and many more. The sound still lives on in the Blues Brothers movie, in which many of the musicians starred as themselves.

Several notable singers are from the Memphis area, including Justin Timberlake, Ruth Welting and Kallen Esperian. The Metropolitan Opera of New York had its first tour in Memphis in 1906; in the 1990s it decided to tour only larger cities. Metropolitan Opera performances are now broadcast in HD at local movie theaters across the country.

Visual art[edit]
In addition to the Brooks Museum and Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis plays host to two burgeoning visual art areas, one city-sanctioned, and the other organically formed.

The South Main Arts District is an arts neighborhood in south downtown. Over the past 20 years, the area has morphed from a derelict brothel and juke joint neighborhood to a gentrified, well-lit area sponsoring "Trolley Night," when arts patrons stroll down the street to see fire spinners, DJs playing in front of clubs, specialty shops and galleries.[citation needed]

Another developing arts district in Memphis is Broad Avenue. This east-west avenue is undergoing neighborhood revitalization from the influx of craft and visual artists taking up residence and studios in the area.[citation needed] An art professor from Rhodes College holds small openings on the first floor of his home for local students and professional artists. Odessa, another art space on Broad Avenue, hosts student art shows and local electronic music. Other gallery spaces spring up for semi-annual artwalks.[citation needed]

Memphis also has non-commercial visual arts organizations and spaces, including local painter Pinkney Herbert's Marshall Arts gallery, on Marshall Avenue near Sun Studios, another arts neighborhood characterized by affordable rent.[citation needed]


Exhibit of Guy Cobb's "Braille paintings" for the blind at Christian Brothers University in 2006
Literature[edit]
Well-known writers from Memphis include Shelby Foote, the noted Civil War historian. Novelist John Grisham grew up in nearby DeSoto County, Mississippi, and sets many of his books in Memphis.

Many works of fiction and literature are set in Memphis. These include The Reivers by William Faulkner (1962), September, September by Shelby Foote (1977); Peter Taylor's The Old Forest and Other Stories (1985), and his the Pulitzer Prize-winning A Summons to Memphis (1986); The Firm (1991) and The Client (1993), both by John Grisham; Memphis Afternoons: a Memoir by James Conaway (1993), Plague of Dreamers by Steve Stern (1997); Cassina Gambrel Was Missing by William Watkins (1999); The Guardian by Beecher Smith (1999), "We are Billion-Year-Old Carbon" by Corey Mesler (2005), The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris, and The Architect by James Williamson (2007).

Tourism and recreation[edit]
Main article: Tourism in Memphis, Tennessee
Museums and art collections[edit]

Lorraine Motel in Memphis (2005)

Memphis Brooks Museum of Art in Memphis (2008)

Graceland

Mud Island Mississippi River Park (2006)

Stax Museum and Satellite Record Shop
 Media related to Museums in Memphis, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons

Many museums of interest are located in Memphis. National Civil Rights Museum
The National Civil Rights Museum is located in the former Lorraine Motel and related buildings, where Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in 1968. It includes a historical overview of the American civil rights movement and interpretation of historic and current issues.

Brooks Museum of Art
The Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, founded in 1916, is the oldest and largest fine art museum in the state of Tennessee.[68] The Brooks' permanent collection includes works from the Italian Renaissance and Baroque eras to British, French Impressionists and 20th century artists.

Belz Museum of Asian and Judaic Art
The Belz Museum of Asian and Judaic Art, founded in 1988, is located in downtown Memphis near the historic Peabody Hotel. It is sometimes locally referred to as "The Jade Museum" because of the large collection of Asian art made out of jade. In addition to its extensive collection of Asian artwork, it contains a sizable collection of Judaic art.

Dixon Gallery and Gardens
The Dixon Gallery and Gardens, founded in 1976, focuses on French and American impressionism and features works by Monet, Degas and Renoir, as well as pieces by Pierre Bonnard, Mary Cassatt, Marc Chagall, Honoré Daumier, Henri Fantin-Latour, Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, Berthe Morisot, Edvard Munch, Auguste Rodin and Alfred Sisley, as well as an extensive collection of works by French Impressionist artist Jean-Louis Forain. The museum also houses the Stout Collection of 18th century German porcelain. With nearly 600 pieces of tableware and figures, it is one of the finest such collections in the United States. The Dixon campus also contains a 17-acre public garden.

Children's Museum of Memphis
The Children's Museum of Memphis exhibits interactive and educational activities for children to take part in, including a skyscraper maze, an airplane cockpit (donated by FedEx), a fire engine, an art studio, grocery store, and, most recently, a mechanic's garage sponsored by AutoZone, Inc.

Graceland
Graceland, the former home of music legend Elvis Presley, is one of the most visited houses in the United States (second only to the White House), attracting over 600,000 visitors a year. Featured at Graceland are two of Presley's private airplanes, his extensive automobile and motorcycle collection and other Elvis memorabilia. On November 7, 1991, Graceland was listed in the National Register of Historic Places.[69]

Pink Palace
The Pink Palace Museum serves as the Mid-South's major science and historical museum, and features exhibits ranging from archeology to chemistry. It includes the third largest planetarium in the United States and an IMAX theater. One exhibit features a replica of the original Piggly Wiggly store, the first self-service grocery store, commemorating the invention of the supermarket by Memphian Clarence Saunders in 1916.

Memphis Walk of Fame
The Memphis Walk of Fame is a public exhibit located in the Beale Street historic district, which is modeled after the Hollywood Walk of Fame, but is designated exclusively for Memphis musicians, singers, writers and composers. Honorees include W. C. Handy, B.B. King, Bobby Blue Bland and Alberta Hunter, among others.

Mud Island River Park
Mud Island River Park and Mississippi River Museum is located on Mud Island in downtown Memphis. The park is noted for its River Walk, a 2112:1 scale working model showing 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of the Lower Mississippi River, from Cairo, Illinois to New Orleans, Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico. 30 inches (76 cm) in the model equal 1 mile (1.6 km) of the Mississippi River. The Walk stretches roughly 0.5 miles (800 m), allowing visitors to walk in the water and see models of cities and bridges along the way.

Victorian Village
Victorian Village is a historic district of Memphis featuring a series of fine Victorian-era mansions, some of which are open to the public as museums.

Cotton Museum
The Cotton Museum is a museum that opened in March 2006 on the old trading floor of the Memphis Cotton Exchange at 65 Union Avenue in downtown Memphis.

Stax Museum
The Stax Museum is a museum located at 926 McLemore Avenue, the former location of Stax Records. The original building, a converted movie theatre where artists such as Otis Redding, Isaac Hayes, Booker T. & the M.G.'s, Sam & Dave and many others recorded throughout the '60s and '70s, was torn down. The original facade was reconstructed on the original property. It is operated by Soulsville USA, which also operates the adjacent Stax Music Academy. The original Satellite Record Shop was reconstructed beside this building. It is the only museum in the United States to be devoted entirely to soul music.

Chucalissa Indian Village
Chucalissa Indian Village is a Walls Phase mound and plaza complex that was occupied, abandoned and reoccupied several times throughout its history, spanning from 1000 to 1550 AD. Civilian Conservation Corps workers discovered Native American artifacts on the site in 1938, and archaeological excavations of this Mississippian mound complex were initiated. The facility has been operated by the University of Memphis since 1962. In 1973 Chucalissa Indian Village was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 1994, it was declared a National Historic Landmark. It is the site of the Southeast Indian Heritage Festival held annually in October.

Cemeteries[edit]

Memphis National Cemetery (2006)
 Media related to Cemeteries in Memphis, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons

The Memphis National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in northeastern Memphis.

Historic Elmwood Cemetery is one of the oldest rural garden cemeteries in the South, and contains the Carlisle S. Page Arboretum. Memorial Park Cemetery is noted for its sculptures by Mexican artist Dionicio Rodriguez.

Elvis Presley was originally buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, the resting place of his backing band's bassist, Bill Black. After an attempted grave robbing, his body was moved and reinterred at the grounds of Graceland.

Sports[edit]
Main article: Sports in Memphis, Tennessee

FedExForum during a Memphis Grizzlies basketball game
Sports Franchise League Year Stadium
Memphis Sounds ABA 1970 - 1975 Mid-South Coliseum
Memphis Grizzlies NBA 2001–Present FedExForum
Memphis Redbirds MiLB 1998–Present AutoZone Park
Mississippi RiverKings SPHL 1992–Present Landers Center
Memphis Showboats USFL 1984 - 1986 Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium
Memphis Rogues NASL 1978 - 1980 Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium
Memphis Americans MISL 1981 - 1984 Mid-South Coliseum
Memphis Storm AISL 1986 - 1990 Mid-South Coliseum
Memphis Storm USISL 1990 - 1994 Shelby Farms Show Place Arena
Memphis Express USL PDL 2002 - 2005 Mike Rose Soccer Complex/Collierville High School
College Sport League Year Venue
Christian Brothers Buccaneers NCAA Division II 1950–Present Canale Arena
LeMoyne–Owen College Magicians NCAA Division II
Memphis Tigers NCAA Division I 1920–Present Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium (football)
FedExForum (basketball)
FedExPark (baseball)
Mike Rose Soccer Complex (soccer)
Rhodes College Lynx NCAA Division III
Southwest Tennessee Community College Saluqis NJCAA
The University of Memphis college basketball team, the Memphis Tigers, has a strong following in the city due to a history of competitive success. The Tigers have competed in three NCAA Final Fours (1973, 1985, 2008), with the latter two appearances being vacated. The current coach of the Memphis Tigers is Josh Pastner, who coached the Tigers to NCAA appearances in three of his first four seasons.

The Memphis Grizzlies of the National Basketball Association is the only team from one of the "big four" major sports leagues in the city; however, the minor leagues are well represented. The Memphis Redbirds of the Pacific Coast League is a Class AAA baseball farm team for the St. Louis Cardinals. The Mississippi RiverKings, formerly the Memphis RiverKings, is a professional hockey team of the Southern Professional Hockey League which plays its home games at Lander's Center in Southhaven, Mississippi

Memphis is home to Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, the site of University of Memphis football, the Liberty Bowl and the Southern Heritage Classic. The annual St. Jude Classic, a regular part of the PGA Tour, is also held in the city. Each February the city hosts the Regions Morgan Keegan Championships and the Cellular South Cup, which are men's ATP World Tour 500 series and WTA events, respectively.

Memphis has a significant history in pro wrestling. Jerry "The King" Lawler and Jimmy "The Mouth of the South" Hart are among the sport's most well-known figures who came out of the city. Sputnik Monroe, a wrestler of the 1950s, like Lawler, promoted racial integration in the city. Ric Flair also noted Memphis as his birthplace.

Memphis has been represented by several now-defunct professional sports franchises, including the Memphis Pharaohs of Arena Football, the Memphis Maniax of the XFL, the Memphis Xplorers of the AF2, the Memphis Showboats of the USFL, the Memphis Southmen of the WFL, the Memphis Houn'Dawgs of the ABA, the Memphis Sounds of the original ABA in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the Memphis Mad Dogs of the CFL.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, the former WFL franchise Memphis Southmen / Memphis Grizzlies sued the NFL in an attempt to be accepted as an expansion franchise. In 1993, the Memphis Hound Dogs was a proposed NFL expansion that was passed over in favor of the Jacksonville Jaguars and Carolina Panthers. Memphis also served as the temporary home of the former Tennessee Oilers while the city of Nashville worked out stadium issues.

Parks[edit]
 Media related to Parks in Memphis, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons

Major Memphis parks include W.C. Handy Park, Tom Lee Park, Audubon Park, Overton Park including the Old Forest Arboretum,[70] the Lichterman Nature Center (a nature learning center), the Memphis Botanic Garden,[71] and Jesse H Turner Park.

Shelby Farms park, located at the eastern edge of the city, is one of the largest urban parks in the United States.

Other points of interest[edit]
Main article: Geography of Memphis, Tennessee
See also: List of neighborhoods in Memphis, Tennessee

Beale Street (2010)

Peabody Hotel (2012)
Beale Street
Blues fans can visit Beale Street, which used to be the center of the Black community, where a young B.B. King used to play his guitar. He occasionally appears there at the club bearing his name, which he partially owns. Street performers play live music, and bars and clubs feature live entertainment until dawn.

Memphis Zoo
The Memphis Zoo, which is located in midtown Memphis, features many exhibits of mammals, birds, fish, and amphibians from all over the world. The zoo's giant panda exhibit is one of only five in North America. The Memphis Zoo is one of few that have successfully resulted in live births of rhinoceros in captivity. In 2014, USA Today's 10Best Contest voted the Memphis Zoo the #4 zoo in the nation.[72]

Peabody Hotel
The Peabody Hotel is well known for the "Peabody Ducks" that live on the hotel rooftop, making the journey to the hotel lobby in a daily "March of Ducks" ritual.

Sun Studio
Sun Studio is a highly influential recording studio opened on January 3, 1950, by rock pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue. It is available for tour, which is where Elvis Presley first recorded "My Happiness" and "That's When Your Heartaches Begin". Other famous musicians who got their start at Sun include Johnny Cash, Rufus Thomas, Charlie Rich, Howlin' Wolf, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis. It now contains a museum as well as the still-functioning and operating studio.

The Orpheum Theatre
The Orpheum Theatre was built in 1928 upon the former property of the Grand Opera House, which was burnt to the ground in 1923 during a strip tease performance by Blossom Seeley. After vaudeville's popularity waned, the building was purchased by the Malco Theatres theatre chain in 1940 and presented first-run films until Malco sold the building in 1976. The Orpheum is now managed by the Memphis Development Foundation and presents 10 to 12 Broadway shows each year. The theatre is also home to two of Memphis' local arts groups, Ballet Memphis and Opera Memphis.

The New Daisy Theatre
The New Daisy Theatre is an all-ages concert venue located on Beale Street. After 11 pm, only those at least 18 years of age are allowed on Beale—unless they are going to (or from) a destination point like the New Daisy. The New Daisy routinely presents some of the biggest acts to come to the Mid South. Possibly the most popular venue in Memphis, past acts have included Ani DiFranco, AFI, Cannibal Corpse, GWAR, Insane Clown Posse, Keller Williams, Lamb of God, Led Zeppelin, the Doors and Black Sabbath among many others. The venue also, on occasion, hosts the Gorilla Production Battle of the Bands as well as Mixed Martial Arts fights.

Mud Island Amphitheatre
Located on Front Avenue, the Mud Island Amphitheatre is a concert venue with an approximate capacity of 5,000 viewers. As one of the two major concert venues in Memphis, past acts have included the likes of R.E.M.,[73] Phish,[74] 311,[75] the Black Crowes, Fall Out Boy, Journey, New Kids on the Block, O.A.R., Pat Benatar, Smashing Pumpkins,[76] Steely Dan, and Willie Nelson.

The Pyramid
Formerly a sports arena and concert venue, The Memphis Pyramid is now home to the largest Bass Pro Shops in the world. In addition to the retail store itself, the building contains an observation deck, restaurants, bowling alley, aquarium, and hotel.[77] It is one of the first sights seen when entering the city from West Memphis via the Hernando DeSoto Bridge. Its unique structure plays on the city's namesake in Egypt, known for its ancient pyramids. At 321 feet (98 m), it is the sixth-largest pyramid in the world behind the Great Pyramid of Giza 456 ft (139 m), Khafre's Pyramid 446 ft (136 m), the Luxor Hotel 348 ft (106 m), the Red Pyramid 341 ft (104 m) and the Bent Pyramid 331 ft (101 m).

Other
Other Memphis attractions include the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, FedExForum, and Mississippi riverboat day cruises.

Law and government[edit]
Main article: Government of Memphis, Tennessee
Beginning in 1963, Memphis adopted a mayor-council form of government, with 13 City Council members, six elected at-large from throughout the city and seven elected from geographic districts. Following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, civil rights activists challenged the at-large is electoral system in court because it made it more difficult for the minority to elect candidates of their choice; at-large voting favored candidates who could command a majority across the city. In 1995, the city adopted a new plan. The 13 Council positions are elected from nine geographic districts: seven are single-member districts and two elect three members each.

As of 2014, A C Wharton, is the city's mayor, elected in a special election in 2009. He is the former Shelby County mayor. The previous mayor of the city of Memphis was W. W. Herenton, who resigned during his fifth term, effective July 30, 2009.[78] After Herenton's resignation, Myron Lowery served as Mayor Pro Tem for less than three months, one of the shortest terms in Memphis history.

Since the late 20th century, regional discussions have recurred on the concept of consolidating unincorporated Shelby County and Memphis into a metropolitan government, as Nashville-Davidson County did in 1963. Consolidation was a referendum item on the 2010 ballots in both the city of Memphis and Shelby County, under the state law for dual-voting on such measures. The referendum was controversial in both jurisdictions. Black leaders, including then-Shelby County Commissioner Joe Ford and national civil rights leader Al Sharpton, opposed the consolidation. According to the plaintiffs' expert, Marcus Pohlmann, these leaders “tried to turn that referendum into a civil rights issue, suggesting that for blacks to vote for consolidation was to give up hard-won civil rights victories of the past.”[79]

In October 2010 before the vote, eight Shelby County citizens had filed a lawsuit in federal court against the state and the Shelby County Elections Commission against the dual-voting requirement. Plaintiffs argued that total votes for the referendum should have been counted together, rather than as separate elections. City voters narrowly supported the measure for consolidation with 50.8% in favor; county voters overwhelmingly voted against the measure with 85% against.[80] The state argued that with the election decided, the lawsuit should be dismissed, but the federal court disagreed.[79]

By late 2013, in pre-trial actions, both sides were trying to disqualify the other's experts, in discussions of whether regional voting revealed racial polarization, and whether voting on the referendum demonstrated racial bloc voting. "The experts for both sides have clashed on whether racial bloc voting is inevitable in local elections and whether that would require some kind of court remedy."[79]

The defendants' expert, Todd Donovan, did not think that polarized voting as revealed for political candidates meant that "African-American voters and white voters have polarized interests when it comes to referendum choices on government administration, taxation, service provision and other policy questions.”[79] He noted, “In the absence of distinct political interests that create polarized blocs of referendum voters defined by race, there is no cohesive racial minority voting interest that can be diluted by a referendum."[79]

In 2014, the federal district court dismissed the lawsuit, on the grounds that the referendum would have failed when both jurisdictions' votes were counted together. (In total voting, 64% of voters opposed the consolidation.) In the last week of December 2014, the U.S. Sixth District Court of Appeals upheld that decision, ruling that, "“In this election, the referendum for consolidation did not pass and would not have passed even if there had been no dual-majority vote requirement (with the vote counts combined).”[80]

Before the referendum, the decision was made by the city and county to exclude public school management and operations from the proposed consolidation. As noted below, in 2011 the Memphis city council voted to dissolve its city school board and consolidate with the Shelby County School System, without the collaboration or agreement of Shelby County.[81] The city had authority for this action under Tennessee state laws that differentiate between city and county powers.

Crime[edit]
Main article: Crime in Memphis, Tennessee

A Memphis Police Department police car in Memphis, 2014
In the 21st century, Memphis has struggled to reduce crime. In 2001, it ranked as the second-most dangerous city, and in 2002 as most dangerous by the Morgan Quitno rankings.[82] In 2004, violent crime in Memphis reached a decade record low. However, that trend changed and in 2005, Memphis was ranked the fourth-most dangerous city with a population of 500,000 or higher in the U.S.[83] Crime increased again in the first half of 2006. By 2014, Memphis crime had substantially decreased, bringing the city's ranking up to eleventh in violent crime.[84] Nationally, cities follow similar trends, and crime numbers tend to be cyclical. Nationally, other moderate-sized cities were also suffering large rises in crime, although crime in the largest cities continued to decrease or increased much less.[85][86]

In the first half of 2006, robbery of businesses increased 52.5%, robbery of individuals increased 28.5%, and homicides increased 18% over the same period of 2005. The Memphis Police Department responded with the initiation of Operation Blue C.R.U.S.H. (Crime Reduction Using Statistical History), which targets crime hotspots and repeat offenders.[87]

Memphis ended 2005 with 154 murders, and 2006 ended with 160; in 2007 there were 164 murders, 2008 had 138, and 2009 had 132. Violent crimes dropped from 12,939 in 2008 to 12,047. Robbery dropped from 4,788 in 2008 to 4,137 in 2009. Aggravated assault dropped 53,870 in 2008 to 47,158 in 2009 (FBI's UCR). In 2006 and 2007, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked second-most dangerous in the nation among cities with a population over 500,000. In 2006, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked number one in violent crimes for major cities around the U.S., according to the FBI's annual crime rankings, whereas it had ranked second in 2005.[88]

Since 2006, serious crime has dropped in Memphis. Between 2006 and 2008, the crime rate fell by 16%, while the first half of 2009 saw a reduction in serious crime of more than 10% from the previous year. The Memphis Police Department's use of the FBI National Incident Based Reporting System, which is a more detailed method of reporting crimes than what is used in many other major cities, has been cited as a reason for Memphis' frequent appearance on lists of most dangerous U.S. cities.[89]

Education[edit]
Main article: Education in Memphis, Tennessee

Early nursing class in Memphis
The city is served by Shelby County Schools. On March 8, 2011, residents voted to dissolve the charter for Memphis City Schools, effectively merging it with the Shelby County School District.[90] After issues with state law and court challenges, the merger took effect the start of the 2013-14 school year. In Shelby County, six incorporated cities voted to establish separate school systems in 2013.

The Shelby County School System operates more than 200 elementary, middle, and high schools.

The Memphis area is also home to many private, college-prep schools: Briarcrest Christian School (co-ed), Christian Brothers High School (boys), Evangelical Christian School (co-ed), First Assembly Christian School (co-ed), Hutchison School (girls), Lausanne Collegiate School (co-ed), Memphis University School (boys), Saint Benedict at Auburndale (co-ed), St. George's Independent School (co-ed), St. Agnes Academy (girls), Immaculate Conception Cathedral School (girls), St. Mary's Episcopal School (girls), and Elliston Baptist Academy (co-ed). Also included in this list is Memphis Harding Academy, a co-ed school affiliated with the Churches of Christ.

Colleges and universities located in the city include the University of Memphis, including University of Memphis Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law, Rhodes College, Christian Brothers University, Memphis College of Art, LeMoyne–Owen College, Baptist College of Health Sciences, Memphis Theological Seminary, Harding School of Theology, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide (Memphis Campus),[91] Reformed Theological Seminary (satellite campus), William R. Moore College of Technology, Southern College of Optometry, Southwest Tennessee Community College, Tennessee Technology Center at Memphis, Visible Music College, Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Memphis also has campuses of several for-profit post-secondary institutions, including Concorde Career College, ITT Technical Institute, Remington College,[92] Vatterott College,[93] and University of Phoenix.

The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry was founded in 1878, making it the oldest dental college in the South, and the third oldest public college of dentistry in the United States.[94]

The Christian Brothers High School Band is the oldest high school band in America, founded in 1872.[95]

Media[edit]
Television[edit]
Major broadcast television affiliate stations in the Memphis area include, but are not limited to:

WREG, channel 3, CBS
WMC, channel 5, NBC
WKNO, channel 10, PBS
WHBQ, channel 13, Fox
WATN, channel 24, ABC
WLMT, channel 30, The CW
WPXX, channel 50, Ion
Cultural references[edit]
Memphis is the subject of numerous pop and country songs, including "The Memphis Blues" by W. C. Handy, "Memphis, Tennessee" by Chuck Berry, "Night Train to Memphis" by Roy Acuff, "Goin' to Memphis" by Paul Revere and the Raiders, "Queen of Memphis" by Confederate Railroad, "Memphis Soul Stew" by King Curtis, "Maybe It Was Memphis" by Pam Tillis, "Graceland" by Paul Simon, "Memphis Train" by Rufus Thomas, "All the Way from Memphis" by Mott the Hoople, "Wrong Side of Memphis" by Trisha Yearwood, "Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again" by Bob Dylan, "Memphis Skyline" by Rufus Wainwright, "Sequestered in Memphis" by The Hold Steady and "Walking in Memphis" by Marc Cohn.

In addition, Memphis is mentioned in scores of other songs, including "Proud Mary" by Creedence Clearwater Revival, "Honky Tonk Women" by the Rolling Stones, "Dixie Chicken" by Little Feat, "Who's Gonna Fill Their Shoes" by George Jones, "Daisy Jane" by America, "Life Is a Highway" by Tom Cochrane, "Black Velvet" by Alannah Myles, "Cities" by Talking Heads, "Crazed Country Rebel" by Hank Williams III, "Pride (In the Name of Love)" by U2, "M.E.M.P.H.I.S." by the Disco Biscuits, "New New Minglewood Blues" and "Candyman" by the Grateful Dead, "You Should Be Glad" by Widespread Panic, "Roll With Me" by 8Ball & MJG, and many others.

More than 1,000 commercial recordings of over 800 distinct songs contain "Memphis" in them. The Memphis Rock N' Soul Museum maintains an ever updated list of these on their website.

Infrastructure[edit]
Transportation[edit]
Main article: Transportation in Memphis, Tennessee
Highways[edit]

Hernando de Soto Bridge
Interstate 40, Interstate 55, and Interstate 240 are the main expressways in the Memphis area. Interstates 40 and 55 cross the Mississippi River at Memphis from the state of Arkansas. Interstate 69, Interstate 269, and Interstate 22 are all future interstates that, upon completion, will also serve Memphis.

Interstate 240 is the smaller, inner interstate loop immediately serving areas including Downtown, Midtown, South Memphis, Memphis International Airport, East Memphis, and North Memphis.

Interstate 269 is the nearly completed, larger, outer interstate loop immediately serving the suburbs of Millington, Eads, Arlington, Collierville, and Hernando, Mississippi. Expected to be completed in the next 5 to 7 years.

The nearly completed Interstate 22 will connect Memphis with Birmingham, Alabama, via northern Mississippi (including Tupelo) and northwestern Alabama. This road is already completed; however, is currently signed as U.S. Route 78. I-22 is expected to intersect I-269 near Byhalia.

Interstate 69 will follow Interstate 55 and Interstate 240 through the city of Memphis. Once completed, I-69 will link Memphis with Port Huron, Michigan and Brownsville, Texas

Other important federal highways though Memphis include the east-west U.S. Route 70, U.S. Route 64, and U.S. Route 72; and the north-south U.S. Route 51 and U.S. Route 61. The former is the historic highway north to Chicago via Cairo, Illinois, while the latter roughly parallels the Mississippi River for most of its course and crosses the Mississippi Delta region to the south, with the Delta also legendary for Blues music.

Railroads[edit]

Three bridges over the Mississippi (2012)
A large volume of railroad freight moves through Memphis, because of its two heavy-duty Mississippi River railroad crossings, which carry several major east-west railroad freight lines, and also because of the major north-south railroad lines through Memphis which connect with such major cities as Chicago, St. Louis, Indianapolis, Louisville, New Orleans, Dallas, Houston, Mobile, and Birmingham.

By the early 20th century, Memphis had two major passenger railroad stations. After passenger railroad service declined heavily through the middle of the 20th century, the Memphis Union Station was demolished in 1969. The Memphis Central Station[96] was eventually renovated, and it still serves the city.

The only inter-city passenger railroad service to Memphis is the daily City of New Orleans train, operated by Amtrak, which has one train northbound and one train southbound each day between Chicago and New Orleans.

Airports[edit]

FedEx aircraft at Memphis International Airport
Memphis International Airport is the global "SuperHub" of FedEx Express, and has the second largest cargo operations by volume of any airport worldwide, surpassed only by Hong Kong International Airport.[97][98]

Memphis International ranks as the 41st busiest passenger airport in the US and served as a hub for Delta Air Lines until September 3, 2013.[99] and had 4,390,000 boarding passengers (enplanements) in 2011, an 11.9% decrease over the previous year.[100] Delta has reduced its flights at Memphis by approximately 65% since its 2008 merger with Northwest Airlines and operates an average of 30 daily flights as of December 2013, with only one seasonal international destination (Cancún). Delta Air Lines announced the closing of its Memphis pilot and crew base in 2012. Other airlines providing passenger service are: Southwest Airlines; American Airlines; SeaPort Airlines; United Airlines and US Airways.[101]

There are also general aviation airports in the Memphis Metropolitan Area, including the Millington Regional Jetport, located at the former Naval Air Station in Millington, Tennessee.

River port[edit]
Main article: Port of Memphis
Memphis has the second-busiest cargo port on the Mississippi River, which is also the fourth-busiest inland port in the United States.[102] The International Port of Memphis covers both the Tennessee and Arkansas sides of the Mississippi River from river mile 725 (km 1167) to mile 740 (km 1191).[103] A focal point of the river port is the industrial park on President's Island, just south of Downtown Memphis.

Bridges[edit]
Four railroad and highway bridges cross the Mississippi River at Memphis. In order of their opening years, these are the Frisco Bridge (1892, single-track rail), the Harahan Bridge (1916, a road-rail bridge until 1949, currently carries double-track rail), the Memphis-Arkansas Memorial Bridge (Highway, 1949; later incorporated into Interstate 55), and the Hernando de Soto Bridge (Interstate 40, 1973).

Utilities[edit]
Memphis's primary utility provider is the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW). This is the largest three-service municipal utility in the United States, providing electricity, natural gas, and pure water service to all residents of Shelby County. Prior to that, Memphis was served by two primary electric companies, which were merged into the Memphis Power Company.[104] The City of Memphis bought the private company in 1939 to form MLGW,[104][105] which was an early customer of electricity from the Tennessee Valley Authority.

MLGW still buys most of its power from TVA, and the company pumps its own fresh water from the Memphis Aquifer, using more than 180 water wells.

Health care[edit]

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
The Memphis and Shelby County region supports numerous hospitals, including the Methodist and Baptist Memorial health systems, two of the largest private hospitals in the country.

Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare, the largest healthcare provider in the Mid-South, operates seven hospitals and several rural clinics. Modern Healthcare magazine ranked Methodist Healthcare[106] in the top 100 integrated healthcare networks in the United States. Methodist Healthcare operates, among others, the Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, which offers primary level 1 pediatric trauma care, as well as a nationally recognized pediatric brain tumor program.

Baptist Memorial Healthcare operates fifteen hospitals (three in Memphis), including Baptist Memorial Hospital. According to Health Care Market Guide's annual studies, Mid-Southerners have named Baptist Memorial their "preferred hospital choice for quality".

The St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, leading pediatric treatment and research facility focused on children's catastrophic diseases, resides in Memphis. The institution was conceived and built by the late entertainer Danny Thomas in 1962 as a tribute to St. Jude Thaddeus, patron saint of impossible, hopeless, and difficult causes.

Memphis is also home to Regional One Healthcare,[107] which is locally referred to as "The Med". In recent years, the hospital has experienced severe funding difficulties that nearly led to a reduction or elimination of emergency room services. In July 2010, The Med received approximately $40.6 million in federal and local funding to keep the Elvis Presley Trauma Center operational.

Memphis is home to Delta Medical Center of Memphis,[108] which is the only employee-owned medical facility in North America.

Notable people[edit]
Main article: List of people from Memphis, Tennessee
Sister cities[edit]
Memphis has two sister cities, as per Sister Cities, International:[109]

The Gambia - Kanifing (Gambia)
Senegal - Kaolack (Senegal)
See also[edit]
Portal icon Tennessee portal
Portal icon North America portal
Portal icon United States portal
1865 Memphis earthquake
List of mayors of Memphis, Tennessee
List of people from Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis Mafia
Memphis Summer Storm of 2003
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Official records for Memphis were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1939 and at Memphis Int'l since January 1940.[48]
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https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-8EVj7f_iNWQ/Vc0Lv1bZoBI/AAAAAAAAAiA/o5DEKPIBJHs/w506-h750/23.png
4 months ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/101301491175837080839 The Mad Music Asylum : Today in 1975, 39 year old Al Jackson, drummer for Booker T. And The MGs, was fatally shot by a burglar...
Today in 1975, 39 year old Al Jackson, drummer for Booker T. And The MGs, was fatally shot by a burglar at his home
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-rN6VFVeOoXs/Vg1dZ2nYr6I/AAAAAAAAuOA/UXy520_PC6w/w506-h750/0fb744ec-bd2c-4140-9f44-efd3c7e7d4eb
4 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/110681770517923715807 Classic Rock : 1st October 1975 : "Al Jackson" 39 year old Al Jackson, drummer for Booker T. And The MGs, was shot...
1st October 1975 : "Al Jackson"

39 year old Al Jackson, drummer for Booker T. And The MGs, was shot and killed by a burglar at his home. His wife was questioned about the killing because she was arrested in July for shooting her husband in the chest during a domestic dispute. He wasn't badly hurt and the charges were dismissed when his wife claimed self-defense. Jackson had returned home to what police described as a botched robbery attempt. According to Jackson's wife, an intruder made her answer the door and then threw her husband to the floor demanding money. Jackson was forced to lie face down and then was shot in the back five times. The identity of the culprit remains a mystery. Booker T had backed such artists as Otis Redding, Al Green and Sam and Dave.
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-ttFwOb13wPg/Vg0-NYhRf0I/AAAAAAAArks/uUS_9IUh45Q/w506-h750/aljackson.jpg
4 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/106605249484697185842 elisabeth sury : Booker T and The MGs Groovin 1967
Booker T and The MGs
Groovin
1967
Watch the video: Booker T and the MGs - "Groovin'" - '67
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/91hKALuDAaik0HrAu6OLxXslVeLuValRdOJW9LKAo1hWEXpO-DNMHT_ZIpImuuiyj2KMat5JtI5jOVX-To173g=w506-h379
Mr Jones' version of the dreamy classic. While you're listening to it, hit http://morpheusatloppers.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/morpheus-on-castaway-cartoons/ -...
4 months ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/109181748557001230484 John Bielecki : Check out this awesome live version of 'Green Onions' by Booker T And The MGs from 1962.
Check out this awesome live version of 'Green Onions' by Booker T And The MGs from 1962.
Watch the video: Booker T and The Mgs - Green Onions (Alternate Version Live in Norway)
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/proxy/EiQHwrJoBtcD6hm0NflXwdplMF0Q-JFu5kAWoNyJRySqCPal-H8RqvnirkPNfta599hg_Ejioq28pEfD4D4qsw=w506-h379
This version is not on youtube... the show is, but not in the way this is shot. It is not as crammed and shows Al Jackson Jr.(R.I.P.) a lot more! Enjoy, Rate...
4 months ago - Via Reshared Post - View -