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Most recent 18 results returned for keyword: Main Sequence (Search this on MAP) nguyen dinh Son : The Iris Nebula - NGC 7023 In this image taken in September 2016, by +Ron Brecher using a 10″ f/6.8...
The Iris Nebula - NGC 7023

In this image taken in September 2016, by +Ron Brecher using a 10″ f/6.8 ASA Astrograph Telescope on a Paramount MX mount and a SBIG STL-11000M camera you can see the Iris Nebula (NGC 7023, Caldwell 4). It is a reflection nebula located in the constellation of Cepheus (, about 1,300 light-years away from Earth and measures six light-years across (the bright blue part of it).

The Iris Nebula is lit by the star SAO 19158 (HD 200775,, a Herbig Ae/Be star (HABe, Those HABe stars are young pre-main-sequence ( stars of spectral types A or B. SAO 19158 can be clearly seen in this image at the center of the Nebula.

The slightly brownish/reddish tint of the dust clouds surrounding the brightly lit reflective part of the nebula is caused by photoluminescence (, dust particles are converting the star's ultraviolet radiation to red light.

While usually called NGC 7023 this designation actually belongs to the star cluster ( within the nebula. The Nebula itself is LBN 487.

The Iris Nebula was discovered on October 18th, 1794, by the British astronomer William Herschel (

You can find more information on how this image was taken and processed here in this post on Ron Brecher's website:

More on the Iris Nebula:

Infrared observations have indicated that the nebula contains complex carbon molecules known as PAHs. Take a look here for an infrared view of the Iris Nebula and more information on that:

What is a reflection nebula?

A reflection nebula is a cloud of interstellar dust reflecting light from nearby stars. While those stars emit enough energy to make the dust visible they don't emit enough to ionize the gas which would then result in an emission nebula ( Sometimes you have mixed forms with parts of a nebula being a reflection nebula, others being an emission nebula. More here:

Image credit: The Iris Nebula - NGC 7023 +Ron Brecher Used with permission

More of Ron Brecher

If you like this image, you can find Ron on Facebook (, on G+ (+Ron Brecher), and on Twitter ( and see more of his work here on his website:

Thank you for your interest in this Astronomy/Astrophysics collection. Maybe add me on Google+ (+Pierre Markuse) and Twitter ( or have a look at the Space/Space Technology collection here:

#science #astronomy #astrophotograpy #irisnebula #ngc7023 #space #reflectionnebula #photography #sao19158 #hd200775 #lbn487
1 day ago - Via Reshared Post - View - Sophie W. Smith : Good Morning My Beautiful Germany :) Good Night My Beautiful America :) ==== The solar constant is the...
Good Morning My Beautiful Germany :)
Good Night My Beautiful America :)
The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. The solar constant is equal to approximately 1,368 W/m2 (watts per square meter) at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun (that is, on or near Earth). Sunlight on the surface of Earth is attenuated by Earth’s atmosphere, so that less power arrives at the surface (closer to 1,000 W/m2) in clear conditions when the Sun is near the zenith.Sunlight at the top of Earth’s atmosphere is composed (by total energy) of about 50% infrared light, 40% visible light, and 10% ultraviolet light. The atmosphere in particular filters out over 70% of solar ultraviolet, especially at the shorter wavelengths. Solar ultraviolet radiation ionizes Earth’s dayside upper atmosphere, creating the electrically conducting ionosphere.
The Sun’s color is white, with a CIE color-space index near (0.3, 0.3), when viewed from space or when the Sun is high in the sky. When measuring all the photons emitted, the Sun is actually emitting more photons in the green portion of the spectrum than any other. When the Sun is low in the sky, atmospheric scattering renders the Sun yellow, red, orange, or magenta. Despite its typical whiteness, most people mentally picture the Sun as yellow; the reasons for this are the subject of debate. The Sun is a G2V star, with G2 indicating its surface temperature of approximately 5,778 K (5,505 °C, 9,941 °F), and V that it, like most stars, is a main-sequence star. The average luminance of the Sun is about 1.88 giga candela per square metre, but as viewed through Earth’s atmosphere, this is lowered to about 1.44 Gcd/m2. However, the luminance is not constant across the disk of the Sun (limb darkening).
, #Morning #Walk, #Orient, #New #York, #sophie #wilhlemine #smith, #photographer, #nature, #photography, #long #island, #suffolk #county, #north #fork, #dry #grass, #winter, #trees, #water #surface, #flora, #path, #sunrise, #blue #sky, #white #clouds, #cold #season, #ecosystem, #environment, #united #states #america, #germany,
‘Sunrise | Orient, New York’ by © Sophie W. Smith
The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. The solar constant is equal to approximately 1,368 W/m2 (watts per square meter) at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun (that is, on or near Earth). Sunlight on the surface of Earth is attenuated by Earth’s atmosphere, so that less power arrives at the surface (closer to 1,000 W/m2) in clear conditions when the Sun...
2 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View - daniela f : Infrared view of Messier 78 In this near-infrared image taken by ESO’s Visible and Infrared Survey ...
Infrared view of Messier 78

In this near-infrared image taken by ESO’s Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) you can see Messier 78 (NGC 2068). It is a reflection nebula located in the constellation of Orion (, about 1,600 light-years from Earth.

In this image you can actually see two reflection nebulae, although their reflective nature is not as obvious in this infrared image. Take a look at the visible light image linked further down below to see that more clearly.

The top one in this image is NGC 2071 illuminated by the supergiant star HD 290861. The bottom one is Messier 78, illuminated by the two blue supergiants ( HD 38563A and HD 38563B.

Also visible in the image are young stars forming ( in the dust bands - which are showing up in orange and red in this image. Some of those young stars are T Tauri stars (, pre-main-sequence stars at the beginning of their evolutionary track that haven't started nuclear fusion, yet.

Messier 78 was discovered in 1780 by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain (

More information here:

Visible light image of Messier 78:

What is a reflection nebula?

A reflection nebula is a cloud of interstellar dust reflecting light from nearby stars. While those stars emit enough energy to make the dust visible they don't emit enough to ionize the gas which would then result in an emission nebula ( Sometimes you have mixed forms with parts of a nebula being a reflection nebula, others being an emission nebula. More here:

Image credit: Messier 78 ESO CC BY 4.0

Thank you for your interest in this Astronomy/Astrophysics collection. Maybe add me on Google+ (+Pierre Markuse) and Twitter ( or have a look at the Space/Space Technology collection here:

#science #astronomy #messier78 #m78 #ngc2068 #reflectionnebula #vista #space #infraredastronomy #ttauristar #starformation #dust
4 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View - Levi 2.0 : You may be asking yourself, "How could life develop on a main-sequence type B star? It's lifespan is...
You may be asking yourself, "How could life develop on a main-sequence type B star? It's lifespan is far too short for complex life forms to even begin to develop!" My answer is simple. Fuck off and you are big and stupid
5 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View - Daddy LongLegs : You may be asking yourself, "How could life develop on a main-sequence type B star? It's lifespan is...
You may be asking yourself, "How could life develop on a main-sequence type B star? It's lifespan is far too short for complex life forms to even begin to develop!" My answer is simple. Fuck off and you are big and stupid
5 days ago - Via Google+ - View - Steve Wall : A Star’s Moment in the Spotlight The glowing region in this new image from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope...
A Star’s Moment in the Spotlight

The glowing region in this new image from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope is a reflection nebula known as IC 2631. These objects are clouds of cosmic dust that reflect light from a nearby star into space, creating a stunning light show like the one captured here. IC 2631 is the brightest nebula in the Chamaeleon Complex, a large region of gas and dust clouds that harbours numerous newborn and still-forming stars. The complex lies about 500 light-years away in the southern constellation of Chamaeleon.

IC 2631 is illuminated by the star HD 97300, one of the youngest — as well as most massive and brightest — stars in its neighbourhood. This region is full of star-making material, which is made evident by the presence of dark nebulae noticeable above and below IC 2631 in this picture. Dark nebulae are so dense with gas and dust that they prevent the passage of background starlight.

Despite its dominating presence, the heft of HD 97300 should be kept in perspective. It is a T Tauri star, the youngest visible stage for relatively small stars. As these stars mature and reach adulthood they will lose mass and shrink. But during the T Tauri phase these stars have not yet contracted to the more modest size that they will maintain for billions of years as main sequence stars.

Read the full story>>

Image: A newly formed star lights up the surrounding cosmic clouds in this new image from ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile. Dust particles in the vast clouds that surround the star HD 97300 diffuse its light, like a car headlight in enveloping fog, and create the reflection nebula IC 2631. Although HD 97300 is in the spotlight for now, the very dust that makes it so hard to miss heralds the birth of additional, potentially scene-stealing, future stars.

#Universe, #MPG_ESO2_2_metre_telescope, #ESO , #HD97300 , #ChamaeleonComplex , #T_Tauri_star , #reflection_nebula_IC2631 , #HD_97300
5 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View - Covena White : MM #NGC2359 - Thors Helmet Submitted By: swag72 on February 23, 2016 18 2 2568 NGC2359 - Thors Helmet...
#NGC2359 - Thors Helmet
Submitted By: swag72 on February 23, 2016 18 2 2568
NGC2359 - Thors Helmet
NGC 2359 (also known as Thor's Helmet) is an emission nebula in the constellation Canis Major. The nebula is approximately 11.96 thousand light years away and 30 light-years in size. The central star is the Wolf-Rayet star WR7, an extremely hot giant thought to be in a brief pre-supernova stage of evolution. It is similar in nature to the Bubble Nebula, but interactions with a nearby large molecular cloud are thought to have contributed to the more complex shape and curved bow-shock structure of Thor's Helmet.
It is also catalogued as Sharpless 2-298 and Gum 4.
The nebula has an overall bubble shape, but with complex filamentary structures. The nebula contains several hundred solar masses of ionised material, plus several thousand more of unionised gas. It is largely interstellar material swept up by winds from the central star, although some material does appear to be enriched with the products of fusion and is likely to come directly from the star.The expansion rate of different portions of the nebula varies from 10km/s to at least 30km/s, leading to age estimates of 78,500 - 236,000 years. The nebula has been studied at radio and x-ray wavelengths, but it is still unclear whether it was produced at the class O main sequence stage of development, as a red supergiant, luminous blue variable, or mainly as a Wolf-Rayet star.
11 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View - Ooma HuntressProtectress : (the reality-reconstruct-mechanisms take over control of main-sequence and intiate-output pre-phase ...
(the reality-reconstruct-mechanisms take over control of main-sequence and intiate-output pre-phase of synthasense-flow)
Watch the video: Schrempf - Rohrwind
Artist: Schrempf Track: Rohrwind Label: Rohrmusik / ROHR002 Release: 2008
11 days ago - Via Google+ - View - Ooma HuntressProtectress : (shahabeddin intiates main-sequence to the reality-reconstruct-mechanisms)
(shahabeddin intiates main-sequence to the reality-reconstruct-mechanisms)
Watch the video: Chick Corea - Return to forever
Lp "Return to forever" 1972 Vizzzdeuh !
11 days ago - Via Google+ - View - REGO G. : Kepler-91b is a planet orbiting Kepler-91, a star slightly more massive than the Sun. Kepler-91 has ...

Kepler-91b is a planet orbiting Kepler-91, a star slightly more massive than the Sun. 
Kepler-91 has left the main sequence and is now a red giant branch star Kepler-91b is about 14% less massive than Jupiter 
while being more than 35% larger, making it less than half of the density of water. Kepler-91b orbits around the host star in 
about 6.25 days. Despite being one of the least edge-on orbits relative to Earth with inclination being about 68.5 degrees, 
transit was detected due to low semi-major axis to host star radius ratio.Kepler-91b is expected to be engulfed by the parent 
star within about 55 million years."Simulation of a dawn"
Watch the video: susnset~1.avi
Kepler-91b is a planet orbiting Kepler-91, a star slightly more massive than the Sun. Kepler-91 has left the main sequence and is now a red giant branch star Kepler-91b is about 14% less massive than Jupiter while being more than 35% larger, making it less than half of the density of water. Kepler-91b orbits around the host star in about 6.25 days. Despite being one of the least edge-on orbits relative to Earth with inclination being about 68.5
13 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View - Supergirl : ~Biographical information~ [Name] Kara Zor’El [Other names] Supergirl, Kara Danvers, Linda Lee [...
~Biographical information~

[Name] Kara Zor’El

[Other names] Supergirl, Kara Danvers, Linda Lee

[Age] Unknown

[Gender] Female

[Species] Kryptonian

Mother: Alura
Father: Zor-El
Cousin: Kal’el/Superman

[Personality] Kara is very headstrong and confident. Kara is kind, caring, selfless, intelligent, courageous, and has a sense of justice, honor and good morals. However, when she makes mistakes, she feels guilt and remorse for her actions

~Combat information~

Kryptonian Physiology: Like all Kryptonians, Kara possesses the power to absorb the light and radiation of young stars, specifically those in the main sequence yellow spectrum. Her body is constantly absorbing and storing energy from Earth's yellow sun, which in turn grants them incredible powers, such as superhuman strength, senses, impenetrable skin, and even the power to defy gravity.
Yellow Solar Energy Absorption: Like all Kryptoninans in Earth's environment, Kara is able to absorb solar energy from a yellow sun. Her Kryptonian body cells absorb, metabolize and store the energy like a living solar battery, which manifest as her various abilities.
Super strength: Chief among Kara's superpowers is her superhuman strength. As all Kryptonians under a yellow sun, Kara has an enormous level of superhuman strength, enough to easily kill a normal human if she were to punch them directly. After embracing her powers and becoming Supergirl, Kara's true potential started to manifest in a slow pace, allowing her to stop a train moving at Mach 1, or even more impressively, lift over a million tons of condensed star material. Additionally, Kara proved strong enough to literately lift Fort Rozz out of the Earth and into Outer Space. While not limitless, the extent of her super-strength is undetermined as of yet; making her among the strongest terrestrial beings in the known universe alongside her cousin and the Martian Manhunter. Despite her strength, Kara still must physically exert herself when fighting other superpowered beings of similar levels of strength and durability, such as other empowered Kryptonians.
Super speed: Kara possesses the ability to move at incredible super speeds, far greater than that of any normal human, essentially making her "faster than a speeding bullet"; able to exceed well over the Mach 1 - the speed of sound. Once she started to actually use her powers in a less restrained way, she was easily able to move at supersonic speeds surpassing Mach 3, even to the point where she can almost catch up with a speedster like Barry Allen who could go at mach 13. Additionally, James also implied that Kara is even faster the Clark.
Flight: As all Kryptonians under a yellow sun, Kara is able to fly at supersonic-speeds, faster than she can travel by foot, she does this by manipulating her own gravitational field.
Invulnerability: Kara is essentially invulnerable to all Earthly weapons, with bullets simply ricocheting whenever they come in contact with her skin. However, her durability has proved to be somewhat weaker than that of her cousin, Kal-El. This is probably due to the fact that he cousin has spent more time under the Earth's yellow sun than Kara has. She is immune to bullets, lasers, missiles, blades, radiation, cold, and has an extreme heat resistance. she can also survive the pressure of a vacuum.
Accelerated healing factor: Kara is able to heal much faster than a normal human. Also, Kara's body processes and burns calories much more faster than any other normal human, meaning she must eat a substantial amount of food depending on how much she exerts herself each day.
Super hearing: Kara has super-sensitive ears that can pick up sounds from miles away. She once heard a sound of over 60,000 Hz and can hear the extremely high pitched signal of Jimmy Olsen's watch.
Super breath: Kara is able to exhale powerful gusts of air from her mouth. She can also cause the temperature of her breath to drop, therefore able to freeze nearly anything.
X-ray vision: Kara is able to see through all solid objects; except for lead.
Heat vision: By concentrating every solar-energy reserve she has in her body, Kara can emit powerful heat lasers from her eyes.
Immunity: Like all Kryptonians, Kara is immune to all forms of diseases and illnesses.
Telepathic Immunity: Like all Kryptonians, Kara is immune to all forms of telepathy. However this is different from the Comics as Superman has been mind controlled by several people before.
Multilingual: Kara is capable of fluently speaking English and her native Kryptonese.
Expert Hand-to-Hand Combatant: Since joining the D.E.O., Alex has been teaching Kara to better handle herself in battle against opponents with formidable powers of their own, including how to use their own momentum against them. Ultimately, even with her powers temporarily disabled, Kara has become a highly proficient fighter, able to compete against the more experienced Alex and Astra. As the series went, Kara became even better at this, managing to equal indigo in their fight, also defeating Maxima.
Green Kryptonite: Like all Kryptonians, Kara can be weakened by green kryptonite, as it is a radioactive mineral from her home planet Krypton. Green Kryptonite leaves her vulnerable to weapons and anything in general that can kill a normal human. If she is exposed to it for too long, it will kill her.
Red Kryptonite: Like all Kryptonians, if Kara is exposed to red kryptonite, it gradually destroys her inhibitions. Gradually she will be left without morality, rationality, or any cares whatsoever. Left with only malice, pride and wrath, Kara will become malevolent and prone to hostility and aggression, making her a danger to everyone around her.
Lead: Kara can not see through lead, even with her X-ray vision.
Red sun energy: The energy from a red sun is known to be the Kryptonian's natural sun and therefore, exposure to it will strip them of their powers, rendering them equivalent to an ordinary human on Earth.
Extreme energy: Extreme amounts of energy, such as Livewire's electricity, can be enough to kill Kara.
Solar energy depletion: Using her powers to its maximum for an extended period can significantly drain her solar energy to the point where Kara loses all of her powers and is rendered more human like for at least a day. This renders her as weak as a human, allowing Kara to get injured and killed as easy as killing a human.
Magic: Like all Kryptonians, Kara can be affected by most forms of magic like any ordinary human. This is because her powers are derived from her natural physiology, not from the supernatural.
Super hearing: Though considered a strength, Kara's hearing does have its disadvantages. Since her hearing is more sensitive than a normal human, higher pitch noises (sonic screams, etc.) can disorient her and cause pain in her ears, leaving her vulnerable in a fight.

~Personal preferences~

[Likes] Superman, the Danvers, her friends

[Dislikes] Being interrupted by stray criminals or aliens, being considered weak, being lied to

~Historical information~

Life on Krypton
One night Kara stayed up late to see her mother. Questioning her mother as to why she had come home so late, Kara was told by Alura that a Hellgrammite had been brought before the citadel. When Kara mentioned that she wanted to help people like Alura did one day, she was told by her mother that she would, as she had the heart of a hero. After being told to get some rest by her mother, Kara researched Hellgrammites
Kara was given a spy beacon by her aunt, Astra, which could be used to call her. When Astra disappeared, Kara messaged her and Astra arrived, telling her that Krypton is dying. Unbeknownst to Kara, it was part of Alura's plan to lure Astra out of hiding to arrest her for her crimes.[2]
Phantom Zone
When she was thirteen years old, Kara was sent to Earth from the dying planet of Krypton, charged with protecting her baby cousin Kal-El. Her mother told her that due to Earth's yellow sun, she'd have extraordinary powers and go on to do amazing things. However, when Krypton exploded, Kara's ship was knocked off course by the shock wave, pushing it into the Phantom Zone.[3] She slept there for 24 years until she awoke and noticed computer console in her dashboard that lights up with a logo with three dots in a triangular shape, before Fort Rozz's engines activated.[4]
Sent to Earth
Kara's pod finally landed on Earth. Since time doesn't pass in the Phantom Zone, she still appeared as a 13-year-old girl. She was found by a then adult Kal-El, who had gone on to fame as Superman. She was then taken by Kal-El to live with Jeremiah andEliza Danvers, a pair of scientists who once helped him understand his own abilities.[3]
She was enrolled at Midvale Junior High School along with Alex. Kara was freaked out by her new world along with her developing powers. When they went to the beach she embarrassed Alex by staring at the birds as they did not have them onKrypton. When a car crashed close by Kara ran at super-speed to the rescue saving a mother and her child with her super-strength. However Alex was injured by a car door when it exploded. After that, Jeremiah and Kara decided that it was best for Kara to hide her powers, and Jeremiah gave her a pair of glasses she could wear to suppress her vision.[5]On the roof of the Danvers' house Kara convinced Alex to sneak out and go flying with her, despite the latter's initial protests. Kara and Alex were later caught sneaking in by Eliza and Jeremiah, and lectured about the rules. After someone knocked on the door, the girls were sent up to their room, with Eliza telling Kara not to use her super hearing to listen in on their conversation.[6]Kara was invited by Superman to see the Fortress of Solitude several times, though she rejected the offers as she thought it would remind her of Krypton.[4]
Embracing her powers
Deciding that the world didn't need another hero, for the next twelve years Kara decided to live a normal life[3]. She later went in for an interview at CatCo, meeting Winn Schott, and using her abilities during the interview to secure the job
After a failed date, Kara saw on the news that Flight 237, the one her sister Alex Danvers was flying on to go to her conference in Geneva, was going down. Attempting to save the flight, Kara used her abilities for the first time in years, successfully helping the plane land, though not without causing damage to Otto Binder Bridge. Though was later berated at her apartment by Alex, who was upset that she had revealed herself to the world, and couldn't take it back. Deciding to become a hero, Kara confided her secret in Winn the next the day, on the roof of CatCo. With Winn's help, a costume was made, and Kara was able to stop a bank robbery and car chase.
Kara was later subdued by the Department of Extra-Normal Operations while trying to stop a fire, the latter whom used Kryptonite darts. Meeting Director Hank Henshaw at the DEO base, it was explained to her that when her ship got loose from the Phantom Zone it dragged Fort Rozz, Krypton's maximum security prison with it to Earth. Though she offered to help, her offer was rejected by Henshaw. The next day, Kara was furious Cat Grant had dubbed her Supergirl, later being contacted by a Fort Rozz escapee, Vartox, and although she was defeated on their first encounter, she later convinced Henshaw to give her another try, in which she defeated him.[3] It was later revealed to Kara that Superman had asked James to come to National City, as Superman had asked him to come there to keep an eye on her. Kara was confused as to why he didn't just tell her he wanted her to be a hero himself, with James revealing to her that Superman wanted her to choose it for herself, the same way he had to, as that was what made a hero. Kara was then given the blanket Kal-El was wrapped in as a baby, that James had been entrusted to give to Kara for her to use as a cape.[3]
A week later, Kara tested her abilities with the D.E.O.. She later stopped a fire at the National City Port, and the next day at work, Kara was present at the meeting where Cat told her employees that she wanted an interview with Supergirl. However, Kara soon after told James that she wasn't going to do it, as Cat would recognize her. Kara was later contacted by Alex regarding an alien theft at Plastino Chemicals, with Kara identifying it as a Hellgrammite afterwards. Kara offered to subdue the Hellgrammite, though her offer was rejected by Henshaw who wanted her to prove that she could handle herself beforehand. Kara was then brought into the D.E.O. training room and swiftly defeated by Alex. Arriving into work the next day sore, Kara took advice given by Cat Grant of starting small and working her way up, and enlisted the help of both Winn and James. With their help, Kara was able to handle several situations. Later at her apartment, she thanked Winn and James for their help, and was soon after given an apology by Alex. The following day, Kara listened in on James' conversation with Cat, giving him a pep-talk after he was given a dilemma by Cat. Directly after, Kara was called by Henshaw who notified her that Alex had been abducted by the Hellgrammite. After criticizing Henshaw, Kara tracked down Alex at the warehouse she was being held captive at. There, she discovered her Aunt Astra was still alive, and a fight between the two ensued. Kara and Alex were saved from Astra by Henshaw, and later at the D.E.O. Kara was shown a room that had been setup for her to communicate with her own personal A.I.. Kara later carried Cat's car to a remote location for their interview, telling Grant that James Olsen had told her that Cat had wanted to talk to her.[1]
During her interview with Cat, Kara accidentally revealed that her and Superman were cousins, flying off afterwards. The next morning at Noonan's, Kara was teased about her crush on James by Alex, who also told her she had to stop telling people her identity as Supergirl. At CatCo, Cat told Kara that she would be writing an expose on Supergirl for a issue of their monthly magazine, and that'd they be having a big party to launch it. Kara was later alerted by Agent Vasquez of a multiple car collision on the highway. While there she encountered a masked villain who attacked her, after brief battle between the two, the man flew away after she damaged his suit. Back at the D.E.O. headquarters, the man was identified as Reactron, an old villain of Superman's. Afterwards Kara was told by Henshaw that the D.E.O. wasn't going to help her deal with him, as Reactron was human, and fell out of their jurisdiction. Later, Kara and James were shown Ed Flaherty's old office by Winn, who had turned it into a base for their Supergirl matters. While going over Reactron's powers and his history with Superman, James suggested that Kara call Superman for assistance, much to her reluctance. After being informed of Maxwell Lord's capture by Reactron, and discovering the latter's identity, Kara found out the location of Reactron's hideout, saving Maxwell though she was soon defeated by Reactron, and subsequently saved by Superman. The next day she discovered that Supergirl was being discredited by Lord in the media because of Superman's intervention, and dismissed James after discovering that James called him. At Cat's party, Kara danced with Winn and later James, though Reactron broke in interrupting them. As Supergirl, Kara stops him, successfully removeing the power core, powering his suit. Back at her apartment, Kara and Alex make up, with Alex suggesting that Kara asks James out. However when Kara goes to his office the next day, Kara sees Lucy Lane, James' ex, who arrived to talk to him. Kara overhears the conversation, leading her to believe that Lucy wants to get back with James. Upset about this, even giving Winn the cold shoulder, Kara received a texted apology from Clark.[7]
While flying in National City, Kara encountered a drone and destroyed it, afterwards blaming the D.E.O. for following her. Later at CatCo, Kara offered to watch Cat Grant's son after discovering that Grant had won the Siegel Award for Women in Media, and didn't have anyone to watch him. At Noonan's Kara talked with James about his relationship problems with Lucy Lane, leaving after finding out a bomb had went off in a building nearby. After saving the building, Kara was soon after reminded by a call from Cat Grant, that she was late to pick up Carter. After picking up Carter at St. Edmund Hall, Kara brought him back to CatCo, and later stopped James from venting to her about Lucy. Kara then received a call from Alex about the bomb at Lord Technologies, arriving there as Supergirl, and successfully getting the bomb clear of the city, being knocked unconscious from the bomb's explosion. She later awoke at the D.E.O., and was informed of the bomber's identity, Ethan Knox. Though she offered to help, Kara was ordered by Alex to sit out on the case, after falling from the height she had. While getting lunch from Noonan's, Kara encountered Lucy Lane who confided in her about her problems with James, which she later recounted to James. While going to protect Maxwell Lord's super train on it's opening, Kara was alerted to a bomb at Lord Air Terminal. Kara then received a call from Winn who told her both Carter and Knox were on the train, deducing that there two bombs, and telling Alex and Hank to handle the airport, and she'd handle the train. Arriving on the train, Supergirl alerted Lord of the bomb, and told him and Carter to get all of the passengers to the back of the train. After finding Knox, she pleaded with him to deactivate the bomb, though to no avail, having to deattach the train car that Ethan was in from the rest of the train, watching it blow up from a distance. The next morning she was berated by Cat for letting Carter get onto the train, and later that day confronted Maxwell Lord after discovering he was the true culprit behind the bombings.[8]
As Supergirl, Kara stopped an alien convict from escaping the D.E.O.. At her apartment, Kara along with Alex greeted Alex's mother, Eliza Danvers, with the Eliza complimenting Kara on her work as Supergirl. At CatcCo Kara invited Winn to her family's Thanksgiving dinner, after finding out he had no plans. Afterwards she listened in on Cat demoting Leslie Willis to the traffic chopper, and she later in the day had to save Leslie from the helicopter after lightning hit the aircraft. While doing so, lightning deflected off of Kara it deflected onto Leslie, putting her into the hospital. The next day, Kara went with Cat to visit Leslie inNational City Hospital. During Thanksgiving dinner, Kara announced that before everyone ate, she wanted them to go around saying what they were all grateful for. After going first, Kara excused herself to answer a call from James. After an argument between Eliza and Alex broke out, and Winn and Alex left, Kara left to handle an emergency for Cat Grant. While there, Livewire arrived and attacked both Kara and Cat, with Kara causing Leslie to flee as Supergirl. Later, Kara discussed what had happened with Henshaw, who deduced that Kara was the Element X in Leslie getting her powers. Back in Cat's office, the two had a conversation about the death of Kara's parents, her current family problems, and Cat's problems with her own mother. Kara agreed to ask the FBI for a direct line to Supergirl, as well as taking Cat's offer to go home. At the D.E.O. Kara was given a industrial capacitor to capture Leslie with, and working with Cat, she was able to grab a water pipe under the street and short out Leslie with it. Before leaving, Eliza revealed to Kara and Alex that Jeremiah died working for the D.E.O., under Hank Henshaw.[6]
Kara later broke up a road rage between two men, causing one of the men to confront her. Kara caught his punch, and twisted his arm, scaring children in the process. She was later criticized for her actions by both Maxwell Lord, and Hank Henshaw. Kara and Alex later persuaded Winn to hack into the D.E.O. mainframe to discover what had happened to Jeremiah Danvers. Both Kara and Alex were called by Henshaw, and at the D.E.O. base camp, General Lane arrived, demanding that Supergirl fight their field robot, Red Tornado. The next day, Kara as Supergirl flew to the D.E.O. base camp for her fight with Red Tornado. As the fight progressed, Supergirl lost her temper, breaking off Red Tornado's arm in the process. At CatCo, Kara lashed out at Cat, as she was frustrated with always being yelled at, despite working hard at her job. Kara and Cat later had drinks together at Noonan's, with Cat giving Kara advice on controlling her temper at work, furthermore find out why she was angry. Kara was alerted by James of Red Torando's appearance, with Kara arriving as Supergirl and engaging the android in combat. However, Kara had to diffuse a tornado Red Tornado caused, allowing it to escape. At a garage Kara and James blew off steam together, with Kara hitting a car, losing her temper, and soon after confiding in James that she thought she'd never find love or a normal life. At the D.E.O., Kara was informed by Alex that Morrow was still controlling Red Tornado. After the D.E.O. drew the robot out using hologram technology, Supergirl engaged Red Tornado and used her heat vision in an attempt to stop Red Tornado once and for all, causing the android to explode. While later cleaning up a glass from a cup she had dropped, Kara cut herself, much to her surprise.[9]
She was later informed by the A.I. hologram of her mother, that her powers had been drained after she used the full power of her heat vision. Though she is told that her abilities should return in a few days, and Kara is urged by Alex to enjoy her day without her powers. Kara is later sent home by Cat for the day, when Cat sees her sneeze. She later encounters James, and a earthquake occurs soon afterwards, with a car almost colliding with Kara, and although James knocks her out of the way, she sustains a broken arm. After Maxwell Lord criticized Supergirl's absence, Kara and James visit him, with him claiming that Supergirl no longer has her powers due to her recent fight with Red Tornado and may never get them back. Back on the streets, Kara is present when Maxwell attempts to save a woman's father, though in the absence of an X-ray machine to find a venous thrombosis, he fails. Without her power of X-ray vision, Kara is unable to save the man as well, making her feel helpless. Kara hears a robbery happening nearby, showing up as Supergirl, and talking the robber out of it, with James snapping a photo of the event. She is later informed by Winn, that an adrenaline rush will restore her powers. After James almost falls down an elevator shaft , the moment allows for Kara's powers to return. With her powers back, Kara stops several disasters, including a bus of children from falling off a bridge, and a fire at West National City Bank. Kara was later told by Winn that he was disappointed in her, for her actions with James, despite him having a girlfriend. She later thanked Cat Grant as Supergirl for her actions during her absence, and while flying, Kara was attacked by three Kryptonians, led by her Aunt Astra.[10]
Kara fights them off, and although Astra attempts to persuade Kara to join them, Kara refuses and leaves. She then returns to the D.E.O. to inform Alex and Hank, though they suggest she not rush anything, and get some rest. The following day, Kara is asked by Cat to bring in Winn and James for help after news broke of her leaked email server. At the D.E.O., Kara sparred with Alex, with the latter chiding her for hesitating during their session, and furthermore that she thought DEO should handle the Kryptonian threat, because of Kara's familial ties. Kara and James informed Cat that there wasn't anything in the emails that could be used to slander her, though Kara was later told by Cat to keep looking for any more leaks, as she suspected Dirk Armstrong was going to find some way to damage her reputation. Kara, using her hearing, listened to Armstrong admitting to having set Cat up. Kara then asked James to enlist Lucy's help in tracking a paper trail to clear Cat's name. Soon after Kara went to confront Astra, who had called her out publicly. During their battle, Kara eventually gains the upperhand, taking an unconscious Astra back to the D.E.O.. There, Kara discovers her mother used her to summon Astra in the past, to get the latter arrested. At CatCo, Kara learns about Adam Foster, an individual in Opal City Cat had been paying money to. She later finds out from Cat that Adam is her estranged son. Kara is later present when James, Winn, and Lucy arrived presenting her with evidence that Dirk was behind the leaks. Later, Kara goes to Cat, and is surprised to learn that Cat found out that she was Supergirl. During which, Kara gets a call from Alex, and excuses herself and arrives ready to battle Non.[2]
During her fight with Non, Hank is abducted by Non. At D.E.O. headquarters, Kara asks Astra where Non took Hank, but she refuses to reveal anything. Kara tells James and Winn of Cat suspecting her to be Supergirl, a suspicion Cat continues to test through various challenges. Kara is present when Non contacts the D.E.O., offering to trade Hank for Astra. Much to her horror, Kara later has to sit by while General Lane tortures Astra with a Kryptonite injection. Kara later has to save Alex and another D.E.O. agent from an explosion after Astra's revelation of Hank's location turns out to be a trap. At CatCo, Kara is given the dilemma of proving that she isn't Supergirl, or Cat will fire her. Later, Kara thanks Cat for the opportunity to work with her and resigns, explaining that Cat's suspicions make it impossible for her to do her job. Afterwards, she discovers James' injuries that he had sustained, after investigating Maxwell Lord, announcing that she'd go after him. While visiting Astra, Astra tells her that going through with the exchange is the only way to rescue Hank. Kara agrees, though there is initial protest from General Lane. She is present when the trade is made, and though Non springs an ambush, Astra calls off the attack, demanding that Non honor the agreement. Hank later uses his shapeshifting ability to impersonate Supergirl so that Cat can see her and Kara at the same time, and Kara is offered her job back. Though Kara is offered full-time job at the D.E.O. by Hank, she rejects it because her relationships at CatCo are what humanizes her. She later has an online chat with Superman, who offers her both support, and assistance if she ever needs it
During a flight together, Kara attempts to convince a reluctant J'onn to embrace his powers and reveal himself to the world. The two are then joined by Alex and the three come up with a plan to find out what Maxwell is hiding at Lord Technologies. Kara is later present when Agent Cameron Chase arrives to question him about his father's whereabouts. Kara then confronts Winn, who tells her his father's crimes, and Winn then shows Kara a doll he received on his desk, from Winslow Sr.. Later, Kara questions Cat's reason for hiring Lucy, only to have Cat accuse her of making a move for James. Kara goes along with Winn, when the F.BI. has him go to an arcade to meet his father, in a trap. She later saves several agents and Winn from poisonous gas, inhaling the gas and dispersing it into the air. Back at CatCo, Kara is informed that Winslow Sr. must be hiding in an abandoned factory that he use to own and Kara flies off to capture him before the FBI does. When she arrives at the factory Kara is trapped in a box of quicksand, and overhears a girls voice from an overhead box that is about to be dropped into a shredder. She escapes but discovers a Supergirl doll in the box, allowing Winslow Sr. to escape. At her apartment, Kara is kissed by Winn while the two were talking, though she rejects him. At National City Toy Con, Kara later saves Winn from being shot by several F.B.I. agents, and uses her x-ray vision to see Winslow Sr. set bombs on a timer. She turns on the sprinklers and freezes the water to create a frozen shield that protects the Con's attendees, foiling Winslow Sr.'s plans and subduing him. Later at CatCo, Kara tries to apologize to Winn, who in turn apologized for kissing her, though isn't sure where they stood because of his feelings for her. Later that evening Kara flies in with her Supergirl costume into her apartment, confiding to Alex about Winn's feelings for her and admitting she felt guilty about it.[12]
Kara is later on the verge of being fired because Adam Foster arrives in National City, after receiving a letter written from Kara, who pretended she was Cat. However, Kara turns things around by offering to have the two dine together by getting them reservations. She later saves Senator Miranda Crane when a White Martian attacks the rally, and afterwards offers to J'onn to help take it down. Kara helps Cat out with getting to know Adam before their dinner, and is later shown photos by James of the White Martian's attack at the rally, who notices that some of them show Miranda's eyes glowing white—much like those of the White Martian. Kara calls Alex, telling her that the White Martian is at the D.E.O., disguised as Miranda. Kara shows up as the White Martian is about to attack, only for the White Martian to escape. At CatCo, Kara tends to Cat who is upset over the dinner earlier because of the letter, which prompts Kara to go see Adam personally. After a short talk and an admission from Kara about the letter, Adam agrees to meet with his mother on the condition that Kara joins them. During their dinner, Kara acts as a mediator and successfully helps mend their relationship. Later, Kara goes with J'onn to the desert to rescue Alex, and defeat the White Martian. During the battle, J'onn puts Kryptonite handcuffs on Kara so he can kill the White Martian, though Kara talks him out of it. At the D.E.O., Kara is thanked by the real Miranda Crane, and later Kara is asked out on a date by Adam, which she agrees to. At her apartment, Kara and Alex see a Supergirl impostor save a car from falling
At the D.E.O., Kara suggests the impostor is a clone. Kara later notices Cat being nice to her because she was dating Adam. During her date with Adam, Kara sees a news report of a stranded tram, prompting her to bail. Atop the tram, she was confronted by Bizarro, who ignores her questions and attacks her. During their fight, they broke the tram's support, causing it to fall. Supergirl catches it while Bizarro watches in slight puzzlement. Kara is later asked out on another date by Adam, which she was convinced to go on by Alex. On their date, Adam and Kara discussed their parentage, and Kara said it's hard for her to feel normal, though Adam told her no one feels normal and the two kiss. During which, Bizarro swooped down and dragged Kara away. The two fought and Bizarro gained the upper hand until Alex arrived, fireing at Bizarro with Kryptonite weapons, causing her biological structure to mutate and decay. Bizarro screamed her hatred for Supergirl before flying off. Kara realized that Bizarro came after her in her civilian identity and deduced that Max knew her secret identity. Kara stated they need to stop Max once and for all. Back at CatCo, Kara broke up with Adam, citing she didn't have room in her life for him. She was later alerted to James' position after he had been captured by Bizarro. Supergirl and Bizarro fought again and the latter tried to strangle Supergirl, though Alex got a clear shot and knocked Bizarro unconscious. Supergirl later got an apology from Bizarro before she was put under. Kara later went to confront Maxwell, telling him he'd never hurt anyone again, before the latter threatened her foster mother, angering Kara. At CatCo, Cat told Kara she wanted their relationship to go back to being strictly professional. Kara was later attacked by a creature when she arrived back at her apartment.
Kara woke up on a bed and was surprised to find herself on Krypton, with her mother Alura claiming that Kara had been suffering from "Argo fever". She later panicked as she did not have her powers or didn't understand what was happening. She was distracted by a carving she made for Zor-El when she was eight, but was conflicted over her memory of leaving Krypton as well. She was determined to get to the bottom of the mystery and go home. Kara's memories of Earth later faltered, and she was finally distracted and placated by a young Kal-El, who asked her to open an intricate orb, which she did. The orb opened a large holographic display of the cosmos. With Kal-El pointing out Krypton and Kara quietly agreeing with him that it was beautiful. When Alex arrived in the hallucination, Kara knocked her out with a sculpture, having no memory of her life on Earth. Kara's memories were later jogged when Alex was being sentenced, and she was freed from the Black Mercy. After she awoke, Kara angrily demanded to know who had done it to her, and angrily confronted Non, pummeling him. She later spoke to Astra during her last moments, while she was dying. She later arrived back at her apartment, to find Alex, Winn, and James waiting for her
Later at her apartment, Kara was summoned by Non to attend Astra's funeral. She was also told that there'd be a two week mourning period, and then Non would kill her. At the D.E.O., Kara refused to release Maxwell Lord, and the next day at CatCo, Kara was informed by Cat that she had hired a second assistant. After being one-upped by Cat's new assistant, Siobhan Smythe, Kara overheard Cat telling James and Lucy to investigate Maxwell Lord's disappearance. Soon after, Kara argued with James over the D.E.O.'s ethics, and holding Max without due process. She was later questioned by Siobhan about the nature of her and James' relationship via message, though Kara told her they were simply friends. She later confronted Master Jailer, eventually becoming entangled in chains, allowing him, along with the Fort Rozz escapee he was hunting, to escape. Back at the D.E.O., Hank identified the alien as Luzano, a former drug smuggler Alura had put away in the past. She was later once more confronted by James about the D.E.O.'s imprisonment of Maxwell Lord, though she told him that she did what needed to be done. Kara later discovered that Master Jailer was a police detective through Alex, and confronted him in his civilian guise. She was soon after captured by Master Jailer, finding herself in a cage without her powers. While there she talked with Professor Luzano, with him telling her, his story. The two however were saved by Alex and the D.E.O., and Kara was able to defeat Master Jailer. Kara and Alex later released Maxwell Lord, and later after unsuccessfully questioning her A.I. about Myriad, told Hank she didn't know how to work with him after what he had done to Astra.[16]
In the days following, Kara rejected Alex's offers of coming back to the D.E.O.. She later prevents an accident, after a hacker who appears on CatCo monitors, disrupts the city's traffic signals. Back at her apartment, the hacker teleports through a computer when Winn attempts to crack the hacker's code. However, Alex and Hank arrive, and after making the hacker retreat, she rejects another offer to come back to the D.E.O.. Kara is later taken to Superman's Fortress of Solitude by James, where she questions Kelex, telling it that she's looking for a Coluan. Kelex tells her the hacker is Indigo, a descendant of Brainiac and a prisoner at Fort Rozz for attempted genocide, and is considered the deadliest of all the escaped prisoners. She later tries to talk to Lucy after she gets mad at James for missing their date, recounting a story James told her about how he got his camera. Kara later arrives at a military site to fight Indigo, who was attempting to launch nuclear missions at National City. However, she is forced to abandon the fight when Indigo activates a missile. She attempts to push it off course, but it simply adjusts its path and continues to fly towards National City. With Hank's help however, she is able to successfully disarm the missile. Indigo attempts to launch more missiles though Kara returns to stop her. She is later defeated for good, after being infected by a virus that disabled her. Kara later tells James that he can tell Lucy her secret, though he reveals Lucy broke up with him. Kara later returns to work at the D.E.O., with Alex coming clean about killing Astra, causing the two to embrace
Kara is later infected with Red Kryptonite when she flies out to help a fireman trapped by debris in a fire. The next day, Kara smashes her alarm clock and arrives for work at CatCo wearing somewhat more stylish attire than normal. She later lets a K'hund Fort Rozz escapee go after defeating him, and afterwards criticizes Hank for hiding his abilities when him and Alex confront her. At CatCo, Kara gets Siobhan fired by luring her away from her desk long enough to print a copy of the email of her trying to sell the story of Supergirl letting the alien escape, to the Daily Planet. Kara invites Winn and James to celebrate at a club. Kara arrived late, and persuaded James to dance with her. She tried to come on to James, and trashed Lucy in the process. Kara later flies to CatCo, and tells Cat that she's no longer interested in being a hero. To prove her point, she throws Cat over the balcony, and flies down to catch her just in time. Later at her apartment, Kara adopts a new uniform, similar to what Astra and the rest of the Kryptonians wore, laying into Alex when she arrived, pouring out years of resentment. Flying off, Kara wreaked havoc on National City, causing Hank to reveal his true martian form, as J'onn J'onzz and engage her, allowing Alex to use an antidote on her. Kara is later horrified at her actions under the influence of Red Kryptonite, and attempts to soon after apologize to both James and Cat, though unsuccessfully.
Days after, Kara went to stop a bank intervention in the morning, though everyone fled when she arrived, due to her scaring everyone while under the influence of Red Kryptonite. She then took a sick day at work, and later fails at listening in on Colonel James Harper's interrogation of J'onn. Kara along with Alex later object when J'onn is taken into custody, though to no avail. She is later shocked, when Alex is also taken into custody, and the two are both being sent to Project Cadmus. Kara later has James explain what Project Cadmus is, and Kara is forced to reveal her identity to Lucy in an attempt to save J'onn and Alex. Both Kara and Lucy later break J'onn and Alex out while they were in route to Project Cadmus. Kara offers to hide Alex in the Fortress of Solitude while she finds Jeremiah, but Alex insists that she has to be the one to find him. Back at the D.E.O., she agrees to help Lucy, as Lucy is promoted to acting director of the D.E.O.. Upon being informed that a bank robbery is underway, Kara heads off to stop it. However, she didn't know if National City would ever trust her again, though Lucy reassures her that if she can win her trust, she can win back the city
Kara along with Winn later took Siobhan to the D.E.O. after she had fell from a roof, and exhibited powers to save herself. Later at CatCo, Kara is sent flying out of the window by Siobhan using her sonic scream. However, she is caught by The Flash. After The Flash accidentally runs her to the desert, Kara flies off, though after stopping to talk to him, he explains that he's from another universe, and needs her help to get back. Kara introduces Barry to Winn and James, and explains the concept of the multiverse. She later enlists Barry to help her defeat Livewire and Siobhan, promising afterwards she'd help him get home. At the D.E.O., Kara introduced Barry to Lucy, and Kara later insists that the two subdue Livewire and Siobhan after the two were tracked down at an abandoned warehouse. However, the two are unsuccessful, and Barry later gives Kara a pep talk, telling her to slow down and stop trying so hard, as he went through something similar. At the D.E.O., Kara is contacted by James and told that Livewire and Silver Banshee have kidnapped Cat. Supergirl and The Flash arrive, defeating the two villains utilizing ear-bud type devices Barry had created, and with the help of National City citizens and the fire department. Later, Kara helps Barry get home by combining their speed in a race, with Kara throwing him through it. Later at her apartment, Kara and James shared a kiss, though afterwards she is surprised to see him walk away with a blank stare, and join hundreds of other people marching blankly down the street, all under the control of Myriad.[18]
Kara arrives at the D.E.O., and attempts to stop a prisoner, Maxima, from escaping. However, Lucy stops her with Kryptonite bullets, though she is able to stop the rest of the prisoners from escaping by destroying the computer terminal, using the afterburners from her pod. After removing the bullet, she flies to the Fortress of Solitude to find her cousin Superman, but Kelex tells Kara that he is not on Earth and refuses to inform her about Myriad. However, the A.I. of Alura explains that Myriad was a mind-control system Astra and Non were arrested for trying to use against the people of Krypton, also learning Kara that once Myriad is in effect it can't be stopped. Back in National City, Kara is noticing everyone, even Winn and James, are now under the Myriad effect and watching Kryptonian codes on the screen, General Lane has placed the entire city under quarantine, but Kara informs him that she will help save his daughter. However, she soon finds out Maxwell Lord and Cat Grant are both unaffected, due to Max's technology. Non soon arrives, and forces James, Winn, and Kelly to jump to their deaths. Kara however is only able to save Winn and James. Soon after, she warns Alex not to come to National City, or else she'd be under the control of Myriad. She later agrees to go along with Maxwell Lord's plan, though Cat opposes to it. The two go to Lord Technologies to convince Lord not to launch his bomb, and the trio went to Cat's original broadcasting station intending to broadcast a counter signal to Myriad. However, Alex arrives under the control of Myriad, and in Kryptonite armor, engaging Kara in battle.[19]
During the fight, Kara was swiftly defeated by Alex, and almost killed, until J'onn arrived with Eliza, who talked Alex out of it, breaking Myriad's control over her. In the broadcasting station, Kara successfully broke Myriad's control over the people of National City, by giving a speech about hope. Later at the D.E.O., Maxwell Lord informed them that the Kryptonians were now using Myriad, increasing the frequency until every human's cranium exploded. Before she could leave, Maxwell Lord warned Kara that this was in fact a suicide mission as she had no backup. After hearing such, Kara gave Winn, Cat, and James goodbyes of sorts at CatCo. She later, identified the device Maxwell Lord had discovered that was powering Myriad, as a Omegahedron, energy devices used on Krypton. After being informed that the Non and the Kryptonians were hiding out in Nevada in Fort Rozz, Kara went to confront them, along with J'onn who the D.E.O. agreed to release. Before she left, Kara gave Alex the necklace her mother had given her, to keep it safe. There, Supergirl and Non fought each other, and Indigo and J'onn battled one another. Kara eventually defeated Non in a heat vision face off, and a dying Indigo revealed that she had locked Fort Rozz's system, so they couldn't fly away the ship, which was powering Myriad. Kara decided to fly the ship into space, telling her sister goodbye over her intercom. While doing so, Supergirl went unconscious. However she was saved by Alex who used her pod to rescue her. Back at the D.E.O., Kara was congratulated, and the next day at work Kara received praise from Clark via message, and was promoted by Cat. Later at her apartment, Kara had a celebratory dinner, though it was interrupted when a pod flying in the sky caught their attention, causing Kara and J'onn. At the crash site, Kara recognized the pod as identical to hers, and was surprised at what she found inside. After a blank in her memory, she found herself here.
16 days ago - Via Community - View - иσи-sтσρ! (sylvie) : WIP Name: Alexandra Kent Nickname: She's more commonly known as Lexie. Age: 21 Hero/Villain Name...
Alexandra Kent

She's more commonly known as Lexie.


Hero/Villain Name:
She doesn't have one quite yet. Her father's cousin already goes under tha allias "Super Girl", so Lexie is just waiting for her story to unfold--and hopefully an name with it.

• Super Man
• Super Girl
• Justice League

Lexie very much resembles her parents in terms of appearance. She has the same dark brown, glossy hair as her father, and the same facial features as her mother, Lois Lane. She has deep, chocolate brown eyes. Lexie has a slim build, and though she may not appear so, is very muscular from combat. She is of average height, standing at 5'6.

Kryptonian Physiology: Like all Kryptonians, Lexie possesses the power to absorb the light and radiation of young stars, specifically those in the main sequence yellow spectrum. Her body is constantly absorbing and storing energy from Earth's yellow sun, which in turn grants them incredible powers, such as superhuman strength, senses, impenetrable skin, and even the power to defy gravity.

Yellow Solar Energy Absorption: Like all Kryptoninans in Earth's environment, Lexie is able to absorb solar energy from a yellow sun. Her Kryptonian body cells absorb, metabolize and store the energy like a living solar battery, which manifest as her various abilities.

Super Strength

Super Speed


Heat and X-ray vision

18 days ago - Via Community - View - Jayanth Srinivasan : Once the Sun changes from burning hydrogen at its core to burning hydrogen around its shell, the core...
Once the Sun changes from burning hydrogen at its core to burning hydrogen around its shell, the core will start to contract and the outer envelope will expand. The total luminosity will steadily increase over the following billion years until it reaches 2,730 times the Sun's current luminosity at the age of 12.167 billion years. Most of Earth's atmosphere will be lost to space and its surface will consist of a lava ocean with floating continents of metals and metal oxides as well as icebergs of refractory materials, with its surface temperature reaching more than 2,400 K (2,130 °C; 3,860 °F). The Sun will experience more rapid mass loss, with about 33% of its total mass shed with the solar wind. The loss of mass will mean that the orbits of the planets will expand. The orbital distance of the Earth will increase to at most 150% of its current value.

The most rapid part of the Sun's expansion into a red giant will occur during the final stages, when the Sun will be about 12 billion years old. It is likely to expand to swallow both Mercury and Venus, reaching a maximum radius of 1.2 AU (180,000,000 km). The Earth will interact tidally with the Sun's outer atmosphere, which would serve to decrease Earth's orbital radius. Drag from the chromosphere of the Sun would also reduce the Earth's orbit. These effects will act to counterbalance the effect of mass loss by the Sun, and the Earth will probably be engulfed by the Sun.

The drag from the solar atmosphere may cause the orbit of the Moon to decay. Once the orbit of the Moon closes to a distance of 18,470 km (11,480 mi), it will cross the Earth's Roche limit. This means that tidal interaction with the Earth would break apart the Moon, turning it into a ring system. Most of the orbiting ring will then begin to decay, and the debris will impact the Earth. Hence, even if the Earth is not swallowed up by the Sun, the planet may be left moonless. The ablation and vaporization caused by its fall on a decaying trajectory towards the Sun may remove Earth's crust and mantle, then finally destroy it after at most 200 years. Following this event, Earth's sole legacy will be a very slight increase (0.01%) of the solar metallicity.

Alternatively, should the Earth survive being engulfed to the Sun, the ablation and vaporization mentioned before may strip both its crust and mantle leaving just its core.The energy generation of the Sun is based upon thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. This occurs in the core region of the star using the proton–proton chain reaction process. Because there is no convection in the solar core, the helium concentration builds up in that region without being distributed throughout the star. The temperature at the core of the Sun is too low for nuclear fusion of helium atoms through the triple-alpha process, so these atoms do not contribute to the net energy generation that is needed to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium of the Sun.[68]

At present, nearly half the hydrogen at the core has been consumed, with the remainder of the atoms consisting primarily of helium. As the number of hydrogen atoms per unit mass decreases, so too does their energy output provided through nuclear fusion. This results in a decrease in pressure support, which causes the core to contract until the increased density and temperature bring the core pressure into equilibrium with the layers above. The higher temperature causes the remaining hydrogen to undergo fusion at a more rapid rate, thereby generating the energy needed to maintain the equilibrium.[68]

The result of this process has been a steady increase in the energy output of the Sun. When the Sun first became a main sequence star, it radiated only 70% of the current luminosity. The luminosity has increased in a nearly linear fashion to the present, rising by 1% every 110 million years.[70] Likewise, in three billion years the Sun is expected to be 33% more luminous. The hydrogen fuel at the core will finally be exhausted in five billion years, when the Sun will be 67% more luminous than at present. Thereafter the Sun will continue to burn hydrogen in a shell surrounding its core, until the increase in luminosity reaches 121% of the present value. This marks the end of the Sun's main sequence lifetime, and thereafter it will pass through the subgiant stage and evolve into a red giant.[1]

By this time, the collision of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies should be underway. Although this could result in the Solar System being ejected from the newly combined galaxy, it is considered unlikely to have any adverse effect on the Sun or planets.[71][72]

Climate impact[edit]
The rate of weathering of silicate minerals will increase as rising temperatures speed up chemical processes. This in turn will decrease the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as these weathering processes convert carbon dioxide gas into solid carbonates. Within the next 600 million years from the present, the concentration of CO
2 will fall below the critical threshold needed to sustain C3 photosynthesis: about 50 parts per million. At this point, trees and forests in their current forms will no longer be able to survive,[73] the last living trees being evergreen conifers.[74] However, C4 carbon fixation can continue at much lower concentrations, down to above 10 parts per million. Thus plants using C4 photosynthesis may be able to survive for at least 0.8 billion years and possibly as long as 1.2 billion years from now, after which rising temperatures will make the biosphere unsustainable.[75][76][77] Currently, C4 plants represent about 5% of Earth's plant biomass and 1% of its known plant species.[78] For example, about 50% of all grass species (Poaceae) use the C4 photosynthetic pathway,[79] as do many species in the herbaceous family Amaranthaceae.[80]

When the levels of carbon dioxide fall to the limit where photosynthesis is barely sustainable, the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is expected to oscillate up and down. This will allow land vegetation to flourish each time the level of carbon dioxide rises due to tectonic activity and animal life. However, the long term trend is for the plant life on land to die off altogether as most of the remaining carbon in the atmosphere becomes sequestered in the Earth.[81] Some microbes are capable of photosynthesis at concentrations of CO
2 of a few parts per million, so these life forms would probably disappear only because of rising temperatures and the loss of the biosphere.[75]

Plants—and, by extension, animals—could survive longer by evolving other strategies such as requiring less CO
2 for photosynthetic processes, becoming carnivorous, adapting to desiccation, or associating with fungi. These adaptations are likely to appear near the beginning of the moist greenhouse (see further).[74]

The loss of plant life will also result in the eventual loss of oxygen as well as ozone due to chemical reactions in the atmosphere and volcanic eruptions, meaning less attenuation of DNA-damaging ultraviolet radiation,[74] as well as the death of animals; the first animals to disappear would be large mammals, followed by small mammals, birds, amphibians and large fish, reptiles and small fish, and finally invertebrates. Before this happened it's expected that life would concentrate at refugia of lower temperature such as high elevations where less land surface area is available, thus restricting population sizes. Smaller animals would survive better than larger ones because of lesser oxygen requirements, while birds would fare better than mammals thanks to their ability to travel large distances looking for colder temperatures.[11]

In their work The Life and Death of Planet Earth, authors Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee have argued that some form of animal life may continue even after most of the Earth's plant life has disappeared. Ward and Brownlee use fossil evidence from the Burgess Shale in British Columbia, Canada, to determine the climate of the Cambrian Explosion, and use it to predict the climate of the future when rising global temperatures caused by a warming Sun and declining oxygen levels result in the final extinction of animal life. Initially, they expect that some insects, lizards, birds and small mammals may persist, along with sea life. However, without oxygen replenishment by plant life, they believe that animals would probably die off from asphyxiation within a few million years. Even if sufficient oxygen were to remain in the atmosphere through the persistence of some form of photosynthesis, the steady rise in global temperature would result in a gradual loss of biodiversity.[81]

As temperatures continue to rise, the last animal life will be driven back toward the poles, and possibly underground. They would become primarily active during the polar night, aestivating during the polar day due to the intense heat. Much of the surface would become a barren desert and life would primarily be found in the oceans.[81] However, due to a decrease of the amount or organic matter coming to the oceans from the land as well as oxygen in the water,[74] life would disappear there too following a similar path to that on Earth's surface. This process would start with the loss of freshwater species and conclude with invertebrates,[11] particularly those that do not depend on living plants such as termites or those near hydrothermal vents such as worms of the genus Riftia.[74] As a result of these processes, multi-cellular lifeforms may be extinct in about 800 million years, and eukaryotes in 1.3 billion years, leaving only the prokaryotes.[82]After fusing helium in its core to carbon, the Sun will begin to collapse again, evolving into a compact white dwarf star after ejecting its outer atmosphere as a planetary nebula. In 50 billion years, if the Earth and Moon are not engulfed by the Sun, they will become tidelocked, with each showing only one face to the other.[95][96] Thereafter, the tidal action of the Sun will extract angular momentum from the system, causing the lunar orbit to decay and the Earth's spin to accelerate.[97]

Over time intervals of around 30 trillion years, the Sun will undergo a close encounter with another star. As a consequence, the orbits of their planets can become disrupted, potentially ejecting them from the system entirely.[98] If Earth is not destroyed by the expanding red giant Sun in 7.6 billion years and not ejected from its orbit by a stellar encounter, its ultimate fate will be that it collides with the black dwarf Sun due to the decay of its orbit via gravitational radiation, in 1020 (100 quintillion) years.[99]
21 days ago - Via Google+ - View - Vladimir Pecha : Northolt Branch Observatory: KIC 8462852 'Tabby's Star' is a main sequence 'F-type' star located in...
Northolt Branch Observatory: KIC 8462852

'Tabby's Star' is a main sequence 'F-type' star located in the constellation Cygnus, 1,480 light years from Earth.

Last night we imaged it to measure its magnitude. We measured a magnitude of +11.62 +/- 0.01 mag (V unfiltered), consistent with the predicted value of +11.7 (V filtered).
21 days ago - Via Google+ - View - Vladimir Pecha : Today In 1995 - the first discovery of EXOPLANET was announced! 51 Pegasi (abbreviated 51 Peg), also...
Today In 1995 - the first discovery of EXOPLANET was announced!

51 Pegasi (abbreviated 51 Peg), also named Helvetios, is a Sun-like star located 50.9 light-years (15.6 parsecs) from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus. It was the first main-sequence star found to have an exoplanet (designated 51 Pegasi b, unofficially dubbed Bellerophon, later named Dimidium) orbiting it.
21 days ago - Via Google+ - View - Laintal Sibornal : Hi Everyone Some new interesting research papers to read, Subjected to a much higher solar wind than...
Hi Everyone
Some new interesting research papers to read, Subjected to a much higher solar wind than here on Earth does Proxima b have an atmosphere? Can we discover more about this new planet from its Aurorae’s. There is also an update on Tabby’s star and a look at Brown Dwarfs.
The Space Weather of Proxima Centauri b
A planet orbiting in the "habitable zone" of our closest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri, has recently been discovered, and the next natural question is whether or not Proxima b is "habitable". Stellar winds are likely a source of atmospheric erosion that could be particularly severe in the case of M dwarf habitable zone planets that reside close to their parent star. Here we study the stellar wind conditions that Proxima b experiences over its orbit. We construct 3-D MHD models of the wind and magnetic field around Proxima Centauri using a surface magnetic field map for a star of the same spectral type and scaled to match the observed ~ 600 G surface magnetic field strength of Proxima. We examine the wind conditions and dynamic pressure over different plausible orbits that sample the constrained parameters of the orbit of Proxima b. For all the parameter space explored, the planet is subject to stellar wind pressures of more than 2000 times those experienced by Earth from the solar wind. During an orbit, Proxima b is also subject to pressure changes of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude on timescales of a day. Its magnetopause standoff distance consequently undergoes sudden and periodic changes by a factor of 2 to 5. Proxima b will traverse the interplanetary current sheet twice each orbit, and likely crosses into regions of subsonic wind quite frequently. These effects should be taken into account in any physically realistic assessment or prediction of its atmospheric reservoir, characteristics and loss.
The Pale Green Dot: A Method to Characterize Proxima Centauri b using Exo-Aurorae
We examine the feasibility of detecting auroral emission from the potentially habitable exoplanet Proxima Centauri b. This planet's active, late-type M dwarf host makes detection of aurorae more favorable than around a solar-type star, primarily by increasing auroral power and improving the planet-star contrast in the visible wavelength range due to strong TiO absorption in the star. Detection of aurorae would yield an independent confirmation of the planet's existence, constrain the presence and composition of its atmosphere, and determine the planet's eccentricity and inclination, thereby breaking the mass-inclination degeneracy. If Proxima b is a terrestrial world with an atmosphere and magnetic field, we estimate that its auroral power at the 5577\AA\ OI auroral line is on the order of 0.1 TW under steady-state stellar wind, or ~100 times stronger than that on Earth. This corresponds to a planet-star contrast ratio of 10−6−10−7 in a narrow band about the 5577\AA\ line, although higher contrast (10−4−10−5) may be possible during periods of strong magnetospheric disturbance (auroral power 1-10 TW). We searched the Proxima b HARPS data for the 5577\AA\ line, but find no signal, indicating that the OI auroral line power must be lower 3,000 TW, consistent with our predictions. We find that observations of 0.1 TW auroral emission lines are likely infeasible with current and planned telescopes. However, future observations with a large-aperture, space-based coronagraphic telescope or a ground-based extremely large telescope (ELT) with a coronagraph could push sensitivity down to terawatt oxygen aurorae (contrast 7×10−6) with exposure times of ~1 day at high spectral resolution. If a coronagraph design contrast of 10−7 can be achieved with negligible instrumental noise, a future concept ELT could observe steady-state auroral emission in a few nights.
New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks
We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082−4337102 (M4.5), J08561384−1342242 (M8γ), J12474428−3816464 (M9γ) and J02265658−5327032 (L0δ), and are candidate members of the TW Hya (∼10±3Myr), Columba (∼42+6−4Myr) and Tucana-Horologium (∼45±4Myr) associations, with masses of 120 and 13−18MJup. The M8−L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are potentially among the first substellar disk systems aged ∼40Myr. Estimates of the new candidates' mean disk temperatures and fractional luminosities are in the ranges ∼135−520K and 0.021−0.15, respectively. New optical spectroscopy of J0501−4337 reveals strong Hα emission, possibly indicating ongoing accretion, provides a detection of lithium absorption and a radial velocity measurement that is consistent with a membership to Columba. We also present a near-infrared spectrum of J0226−5327 that reveals Paschen β emission and shows signs of low surface gravity, consistent with accretion from a disk and a young age.
Our galaxy's most-mysterious star is even stranger than astronomers thought
KIC 8462852 Faded Throughout the Kepler Mission
KIC 8462852 is a superficially ordinary main sequence F star for which Kepler detected an unusual series of brief dimming events. We obtain accurate relative photometry of KIC 8462852 from the Kepler full frame images, finding that the brightness of KIC 8462852 monotonically decreased over the four years it was observed by Kepler. Over the first ~1000 days, KIC 8462852 faded approximately linearly at a rate of 0.341 +/- 0.041%/yr, for a total decline of 0.9%. KIC 8462852 then dimmed much more rapidly in the next ~200 days, with its flux dropping by more than 2%. For the final ~200 days of Kepler photometry the magnitude remained approximately constant, although the data are also consistent with the decline rate measured for the first 2.7 yr. Of a sample of 193 nearby comparison stars and 355 stars with similar stellar parameters, none exhibit the rapid decline by 2% or the cumulative fading by 3% of KIC 8462852. Moreover, of these comparison stars, only one changes brightness as quickly as the 0.341%/yr measured for KIC 8462852 during the first three years of the Kepler mission. We examine whether the rapid decline could be caused by a cloud of transiting circumstellar material, finding while such a cloud could evade detection in sub-mm observations, the transit ingress and duration cannot be explained by a simple cloud model. Moreover, this model cannot account for the observed longer-term dimming. No known or proposed stellar phenomena can fully explain all aspects of the observed light curve.
[1609.09076] The Space Weather of Proxima Centauri b
Abstract: A planet orbiting in the "habitable zone" of our closest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri, has recently been discovered, and the next natural question is whether or not Proxima b is "habitable". Stellar winds are likely a source of atmospheric erosion that could be particularly ...
22 days ago - Via Google+ - View - SETI Institute : Astronomers discover a potential new satellite of the Large Magellanic Cloud An international team ...
Astronomers discover a potential new satellite of the Large Magellanic Cloud

An international team of astronomers, led by Nicolas Martin of the Observatory of Strasbourg in France, has detected a new, very faint stellar system, designated SMASH 1. This compact, very faint system could be a satellite of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The findings are reported in a paper published Sept. 19 on arXiv.

In the continuous search for satellite systems of the Magellanic Clouds, the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH) has proved to be invaluable when it comes to finding very faint LMC-bound stellar systems. The survey investigates the complex stellar structures of the Magellanic system—the clouds themselves, the Magellanic Bridge and the leading part of the Magellanic Stream. The project employs the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) mounted on the 4 m Víctor M. Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile.

Martin's team found the new stellar system in the outskirts of the LMC while conducting a single field observation in January 2014 under the SMASH program. The system was discovered through a visual inspection of the stellar distribution of stars that could correspond to red giant branch or main sequence stars.

Read more at:

Full paper:
Astronomers discover a potential new satellite of the Large Magellanic Cloud

22 days ago - Via - View - Samantha Pearl : Astronomers find a planet through a never-before-used method They used pulsation to confirm a long-...
Astronomers find a planet through a never-before-used method

They used pulsation to confirm a long-period planet around a Kepler candidate world.

Astronomers find most exoplanets from indirect signals, noticing changes in the light of the planet’s host star instead of by seeing the planet itself. But some stars’ light changes all on its own, making these methods tricky at best. KIC 7917485b is the first exoplanet identified around a main sequence A-type star from its orbital motion, and the first found near an A -typestar’s habitable zone.

A-type stars are bigger and hotter than most stars in the Kepler catalog and tend to be noisy, changing brightness at regular intervals. This dimming and brightening can be hard to untangle from, for instance, a planet transiting and dimming its light. As such, while there’s no reason for A-type stars not to have planets, it’s been difficult for astronomers to identify them. So far, the few exoplanets found around A-type stars are either from direct imaging (which can only, where the planets are very far from their star, or from transits where the planets are very close to the star, where the signal is strong.
23 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -