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Most recent 20 results returned for keyword: Main Sequence (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/100080609172272848897 gormleykevin : Life cycles of stars A star's life cycle is determined by its mass. The larger its mass, the shorter...
Life cycles of stars
A star's life cycle is determined by its mass. The larger its mass, the shorter its life cycle. A star's mass is determined by the amount of matter that is available in its nebula, the giant cloud of gas and dust from which it was born. Over time, the hydrogen gas in the nebula is pulled together by gravity and it begins to spin.

As the gas spins faster, it heats up and becomes as a protostar. Eventually the temperature reaches 15,000,000 degrees and nuclear fusion occurs in the cloud's core. The cloud begins to glow brightly, contracts a little, and becomes stable. It is now a main sequence star and will remain in this stage, shining for millions to billions of years to come. This is the stage our Sun is at right now.
 
As the main sequence star glows, hydrogen in its core is converted into helium by nuclear fusion. When the hydrogen supply in the core begins to run out, and the star is no longer generating heat by nuclear fusion, the core becomes unstable and contracts. The outer shell of the star, which is still mostly hydrogen, starts to expand. As it expands, it cools and glows red. The star has now reached the red giant phase. It is red because it is cooler than it was in the main sequence star stage and it is a giant because the outer shell has expanded outward. In the core of the red giant, helium fuses into carbon.

All stars evolve the same way up to the red giant phase. The amount of mass a star has determines which of the following life cycle paths it will take from there.

For low mass stars, after the helium has fused into carbon, the core collapses again. As the core collapses, the outer layers of the star are expelled. A planetary nebula is formed by the outer layers. The core remains as a white dwarf and eventually cools to become a black dwarf.

High mass stars are born in nebulae and evolve and live in the Main Sequence. However their life cycles start to differ after the red giant phase. A massive star will undergo a supernova explosion. If the remnant of the explosion is 1.4 to about 3 times as massive as our Sun, it will become a neutron star. The core of a massive star that has more than roughly 3 times the mass of our Sun after the explosion will do something quite different. The force of gravity overcomes the nuclear forces which keep protons and neutrons from combining. The core is thus swallowed by its own gravity. It has now become a black hole which readily attracts any matter and energy that comes near it.

What happens between the red giant phase and the supernova explosion?
Once stars that are 5 times or more massive than our Sun reach the red giant phase, their core temperature increases as carbon atoms are formed from the fusion of helium atoms. Gravity continues to pull carbon atoms together as the temperature increases and additional fusion processes proceed, forming oxygen, nitrogen, and eventually iron.

When the core contains essentially just iron, fusion in the core ceases. This is because iron is the most compact and stable of all the elements. It takes more energy to break up the iron nucleus than that of any other element. Creating heavier elements through fusing of iron thus requires an input of energy rather than the release of energy. Since energy is no longer being radiated from the core, in less than a second, the star begins the final phase of gravitational collapse. The core temperature rises to over 100 billion degrees as the iron atoms are crushed together. The repulsive force between the nuclei overcomes the force of gravity, and the core recoils out from the heart of the star in a shock wave, which we see as a supernova explosion.

References:
http://www.schoolsobservatory.org.uk/astro/stars/lifecycle
http://www.telescope.org/pparc/res8.html
https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/educators/lessons/xray_spectra/background-lifecycles.html

#universe   #space   #stars   #science    #nasa  
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https://plus.google.com/107725137566556530284 Soledad Fari : The team of researchers working on the Breakthrough Listen project (affiliated with SETI) has released...
The team of researchers working on the Breakthrough Listen project (affiliated with SETI) has released preliminary findings after sifting through several petabytes of data obtained from three telescopes involved in the research project. The findings have been made available on the project's website as the team awaits publication of a paper in the Astrophysical Journal.

The Breakthrough Listen project was publicly announced in 2015, and has been backed by Stephen Hawking and perhaps more importantly by Yuri Milner, a Russian billionaire who, along with other backers, has put $100 million toward the 10-year project. Over the past two years, the Parkes Telescope in Australia, the Green Bank Telescope in the U.S. and the Automated Planet Finder optical telescope at Lick Observatory also in the U.S. have been dedicated to listening to radio signals emanating from space in the hope that one or more of them might be generated by alien life forms.

Several petabytes of data have been collected after pointing the telescopes at 692 stars—each gets three five-minute observations, which are interspersed with observations of other targets. Thus far, the team has designated 1709 stars for study. The team has also broken down the stars to be studied into two categories: those within 16 light years of the sun, and those belonging to a sample spread across a main sequence and some branch stars which are no more than 163 light years away.

Project members made headlines last year when they noticed irregular dimming by Tabby's Star—subsequent study suggested that rather than indicating signs of extraterrestrial life, the dimming was most likely caused by comet fragments interrupting signals.

The team reports that to date, project members have identified 11 signals as worthy of a closer look, but at this time, do not believe any of the signals represent alien communications. They also note that the process of sifting the data is rather simple and straightforward—first, distinguish artificial signals from natural signals by looking at irregular behavior such as modulation or pulsing patterns. The next step involves making sure any such irregularities are not generated here on Earth. The software is open source so that anyone who wishes to participate in the search can do so.

https://phys.org/news/2017-04-preliminary-results-breakthrough.html
Preliminary results of Breakthrough Listen project released
(Phys.org)—The team of researchers working on the Breakthrough Listen project (affiliated with SETI) has released preliminary findings after sifting through several petabytes of data obtained from three telescopes involved in the research project. The findings have been made available on the project's website as the team awaits publication of a paper in the Astrophysical Journal.
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https://plus.google.com/118220212981588897952 Ι'm only Dreaming ! : This brightening is the most extreme event of its kind that has been confirmed around a star the size...
This brightening is the most extreme event of its kind that has been confirmed around a star the size of the sun, and may have implications for how stars and planets form. The intense baking of the star's surrounding disk likely changed its chemistry, permanently altering material that could one day turn into planets

The 1936 uprising of FU Orionis was first thought to be a nova event. Novae (like the famed example Nova Cygni 1975, which appeared on August 29, 1975, and reached magnitude +2) are hardly unusual; many are found each year. They are surface explosions that take place on white dwarfs when they accumulate too much fresh hydrogen from a companion star. When the fresh fuel is burned, novae quickly fade. FU Orionis, however, challenged expectations by staying lit up for over 70 years. The star still shines at 10th magnitude today.

Since no other star was known to behave like FU Orionis and since little was known about the star itself, astronomers waited for further clues from FU Orionis or more examples to emerge. In 1969, a star embedded in the “East Texas” region of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000) jumped from 16th to 10th magnitude. The star, V1057 Cygni, attained maximum luminosity in mid-1970, and afterwards it slowly faded; it now lies three magnitudes below peak brightness.

Since then, another eight similarly behaving stars have been discovered and FU Orionis, the first, is the privileged prototype. FU Orionis stars are in fact pre-main sequence stars in the early stages of stellar development. They have only just formed from clouds of dust and gas in interstellar space, which occur in active star- forming regions.

At this early stage of evolution, a star is surrounded by an accretion disk, and matter is falling onto the outer regions of the disk from the surrounding interstellar cloud. Thermal instabilities, most likely in the inner portions of the accretion disk, initiate an outburst and the young star increases its luminosity. Our Sun probably went through similar events as it was developing.

PLEASE WATCH OUR SHORT VIDEO
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xVqM3PZYAQ

FU Orionis is easily visible in a small backyard telescope. It lies in northern Orion near the imaginary shoulder of the great hunter, about 3° northwest of Betelgeuse and less than 2° southeast of Collinder 69. This is a wonderful and yet woefully neglected open star cluster for small telescopes, consisting of the stars that form Orion’s “head”.
Watch the video: Distant star shows the 'baby steps' towards a NEW solar system - FU Orionis
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This brightening is the most extreme event of its kind that has been confirmed around a star the size of the sun, and may have implications for how stars and...
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https://plus.google.com/101573965221452414910 Hashem Al-Ghaili : The Sun's gradual brightening will seriously compromise the Earth's biosphere within ~ 1E9 years. If...

The Sun's gradual brightening will seriously compromise the Earth's biosphere within ~ 1E9 years. If Earth's orbit migrates outward, however, the biosphere could remain intact over the entire main-sequence lifetime of the Sun. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of engineering such a migration over a long time period. The basic mechanism uses gravitational assists to (in effect) transfer orbital energy from Jupiter to the Earth, and thereby enlarges the orbital radius of Earth. This transfer is accomplished by a suitable intermediate body, either a Kuiper Belt object or a main belt asteroid. The object first encounters Earth during an inward pass on its initial highly elliptical orbit of large (~ 300 AU) semimajor axis. The encounter transfers energy from the object to the Earth in standard gravity-assist fashion by passing close to the leading limb of the planet. The resulting outbound trajectory of the object must cross the orbit of Jupiter; with proper timing, the outbound object encounters Jupiter and picks up the energy it lost to Earth. With small corrections to the trajectory, or additional planetary encounters (e.g., with Satu
rn), the object can repeat this process over many encounters. To maintain its present flux of solar energy, the Earth must experience roughly one encounter every 6000 years (for an object mass of 1E22 g). We develop the details of this scheme and discuss its ramifications.
https://youtu.be/RpeDYdmxy-Y
Watch the video: Move Mars to the habitable zone and turn it into another Earth? sure
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/pdomSDm8k-KG42Llu_O9-LxGnkc5YRPOW3P3U1y1gXbG5nODRAbEI61swYu3p61Fks5MRuJWwRbAqHaCDNhcJQsz8k4=w506-h284-n
The Sun's gradual brightening will seriously compromise the Earth's biosphere within ~ 1E9 years. If Earth's orbit migrates outward, however, the biosphere c...
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https://plus.google.com/110827689835732321014 Riddles Incorporated : Dark Phoenix Respect Thread - First Appearance/X-Men #129 The Phoenix Force is a celestial ...
Dark Phoenix Respect Thread








- First Appearance/X-Men #129

The Phoenix Force is a celestial essence that embodies all life and creation/the Living Tribunal considers it an equal, due to being a primal entity

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Dark Phoenix is only bound to Jean Grey's desires

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Dark Phoenix's only vulnerability is an emotion like love, a gifted psychic, powerful magic or extreme mental hax

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The Phoenix Force is the source of all psychic energy, the strongest the X-Men have on record

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Dark Phoenix boasts that she is fire and life incarnate

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Telepathic foresight/sub-atomic matter manipulation/reality warping/space&time alteration/teleportation/astral projection/overpowered telekinesis/surrounds herself with cosmic flames/Jean Grey's powerful mental abilities amped with the Phoenix Force makes her an extremely dangerous opponent

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Mind raping an entire horde of N'Garai demons with a stare, drowning them in illusions.

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As the Black Queen(pre Dark Phoenix)Jean overloads Mastermind with cosmic knowledge, making him temporarily one with the universe, at which time his ''mind expands at the speed of thought, racing instantly to one side of reality to the other, through all the infinite reaches of space and time.''

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http://smg.photobucket.com/user/OptionalPlayer/media/uncannyxmen19800613414zg5.jpg.html

Breaks through Charles Xavier's mental restraints so quickly that she couldn't stop herself from doing it.

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Urging Wolverine to kill her while she had regained control, Jean reverts to Dark Phoenix and overloads the neural scrambler that had been placed on her by Hank McCoy.

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When Jean became Dark Phoenix, anyone with any kind of heightened awareness/cosmic senses got a massive surge.

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In ecstasy over her new powers, Dark Phoenix slingshots herself around our sun before leaving our galaxy.

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Creates a stargate to another galaxy and consumes a main-sequence star, resulting in a super nova which destroys a solar system.

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Dark Phoenix potentially represents a threat greater than Galactus

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Jean muses over the power she wielded as Dark Phoenix

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Uatu the Watcher attests to Jean Grey's power as Dark Phoenix, citing Jean as simply being able to think and it would become reality.

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Jean imagines creating a universe and eerily describes the nature of the Phoenix

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Jean sends wave after wave of all-encompassing, life-affirming telepathic energy across reality, sending a message of hope to every living thing in all of creation

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The true power of the Phoenix was shown when Jean calmed and healed the latticework of the M'Kraan Crystal, which was trembling and threatening to destroy ''all there is". The M'Kraan Crystal is the waypoint for all the infinite planes of reality. Included is the feat and information on the crystal itself

http://www.scottandjean.com/animated/comic/images/ctas307_2.jpg

http://www.marvunapp.com/Appendix3/mkraancrystal.htm

In a ''what if?'' alternate reality, Dark Phoenix becomes saddened and enraged at the death of Scott Summers. She then inadvertently destroys the universe.

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The sheer volume of the psi war between Charles Xavier and Dark Phoenix was so strong that is breached the astral confines of the universe they were in and spilled out across the multiverse.

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~ ''The struggle is epic, waged simultaneously on all the infinite planes of existence.''


Respect the Dark Phoenix


How Things Have Changed

As the White Phoenix of the Crown, where Jean and the Phoenix have become one, Jean traveled to the White Hot Room where she joined the rest of the Phoenix Corp and telepathically plucked the Earth-15104 universe out and separated it from the prime 616 multiverse and cleansed it with a thought, turning back time on a temporal level in the 616 universe while holding this new future in her hands.

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https://plus.google.com/115348076606408779591 Massimo Cerroni : Young Stars and Dusty Nebulae in Taurus. This complex of dusty nebulae lingers along the edge of the...
Young Stars and Dusty Nebulae in Taurus.

This complex of dusty nebulae lingers along the edge of the Taurus molecular cloud, a mere 450 light-years distant. Stars are forming on the cosmic scene. Composed from almost 40 hours of image data, the 2 degree wide telescopic field of view includes some youthful T-Tauri class stars embedded in the remnants of their natal clouds at the right. Millions of years old and still going through stellar adolescence, the stars are variable in brightness and in the late phases of their gravitational collapse. Their core temperatures will rise to sustain nuclear fusion as they grow into stable, low mass, main sequence stars, a stage of stellar evolution achieved by our middle-aged Sun about 4.5 billion years ago. Another youthful variable star, V1023 Tauri, can be spotted on the left. Within its yellowish dust cloud, it lies next to the striking blue reflection nebula Cederblad 30, also known as LBN 782. Just above the bright bluish reflection nebula is dusty dark nebula Barnard 7.

Image Credit & Copyright: Lloyd L. Smith, Deep Sky West


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https://plus.google.com/101270340553040761114 ioan dumitru : The Most Mysterious Star in the Universe In this way astronomer Tabetha (“Tabby”) Boyajian named a ...
The Most Mysterious Star in the Universe

In this way astronomer Tabetha (“Tabby”) Boyajian named a TED talk about a puzzling celestial body that has inspired otherwise sober scientists to brainstorm outlandish hypotheses.

Something massive, with roughly 1,000 times the area of Earth, is blocking the light coming from a distant star known as KIC 8462852, and nobody is quite sure what it is. As astronomer Tabetha Boyajian investigated this perplexing celestial object, a colleague suggested something unusual: "Could it be an alien-built megastructure?"
Such an extraordinary idea would require extraordinary evidence.

► In this TED talk, Boyajian gives us a look at how scientists search for and test hypotheses when faced with the unknown.>>
http://www.ted.com/talks/tabetha_boyajian_the_most_mysterious_star_in_the_universe

KIC 8462852 (eponymously Tabby's Star after the initial study's lead author Tabetha S. Boyajian, or WTF Star, formally for "Where's The Flux?", but also a reference to an expression of disbelief) is an F-type main-sequence star located in the constellation Cygnus approximately 1,480 ly from Earth.

Unusual light fluctuations of the star were discovered by citizen scientists as part of the Planet Hunters project (https://www.planethunters.org/), and in September 2015 astronomers and citizen scientists associated with the project posted a preprint of a paper on arXiv describing the data and possible interpretations.

► Watch the preprint "Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852 - Where's the Flux?">>
https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.03622

The discovery was made from data collected by the Kepler space telescope, which observes changes in the brightness of distant stars in order to detect exoplanets.
KIC 8462852 is the only known star with such behavior among the 150,000 stars monitored by the Kepler mission.

► Read "Mysterious Happenings Around the Star KIC 846852">>
https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/su201620

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the star's large irregular changes in brightness as measured by its unusual light curve. The leading hypothesis, based on a lack of observed infrared light, is that of a swarm of cold, dusty comet fragments in a highly eccentric orbit.
Many small masses in "tight formation" orbiting the star have also been proposed. The changes in brightness could be signs of activity associated with intelligent extraterrestrial life building a Dyson swarm.
The SETI Institute's initial radio reconnaissance of KIC 8462852, however, found no evidence of technology-related radio signals from the star.

► Image: What is causing the star KIC 8462852 to behave so strangely? A huge belt of debris around it, or ... something else?
Artist drawing by NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC)>>
http://astropix.ipac.caltech.edu/image/spitzer/sig05-027

Further reading and references

► KIC 8462852>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KIC_8462852

► Help astronomers observe Tabby’s Star>>
http://earthsky.org/space/kic8462852-tabbys-star-alien-megastructure-dyson-sphere-kickstarter

► The Most Mysterious Star in the Galaxy>>
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/the-most-mysterious-star-in-the-galaxy/

► Did Astronomers Find Evidence of an Alien Civilization? (Probably Not. But Still Cool.)>>
http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2015/10/14/weird_star_strange_dips_in_brightness_are_a_bit_baffling.html

#universe, #KIC8462852, #TabbysStar, #PlanetHuntersproject, #research, #Keplermission, #exoplanets, #WTFStar
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https://plus.google.com/106205311991996875230 Bill LaFoontang : Astronomers have used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to observe the remnant of a supernova explosion...
Astronomers have used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to observe the remnant of a supernova explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Beyond just delivering a beautiful image, Hubble may well have traced the surviving remains of the exploded star’s companion.

A group of astronomers used Hubble to study the remnant of the Type Ia supernova explosion SNR 0509-68.7 — also known as N103B (seen at the top). The supernova remnant is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, just over 160 000 light-years from Earth. In contrast to many other Supernova remnants N103B does not appear to have a spherical shape but is strongly elliptical. Astronomers assume that part of material ejected by the explosion hit a denser cloud of interstellar material, which slowed its speed. The shell of expanding material being open to one side supports this idea.

The relative proximity of N103B allows astronomers to study the life cycles of stars in another galaxy in great detail. And probably even to lift the veil on questions surrounding this type of supernova. The predictable luminosity of Type Ia supernovae means that astronomers can use them as cosmic standard candles to measure their distances, making them useful tools in studying the cosmos. Their exact nature, however, is still a matter of debate. Astronomers suspect Type Ia supernovae occur in binary systems in which at least one of the stars in the pair is a white dwarf [1].

There are currently two main theories describing how these binary systems become supernovae. Studies like the one that has provided the new image of N103B — that involve searching for remnants of past explosions — can help astronomers to finally confirm one of the two theories.

One theory assumes that both stars in the binary are white dwarfs. If the stars merge with one another it would ultimately lead to a supernova explosion of type Ia.

The second theory proposes that only one star in the system is a white dwarf, while its companion is a normal star. In this theory material from the companion star is accreted onto the white dwarf until its mass reaches a limit, leading to a dramatic explosion. In that scenario, the theory indicates that the normal star should survive the blast in at least some form. However, to date no residual companion around any type Ia supernova has been found.

Astronomers observed the N103B supernova remnant in a search for such a companion. They looked at the region in H-alpha — which highlights regions of gas ionised by the radiation from nearby stars — to locate supernova shock fronts. They hoped to find a star near the centre of the explosion which is indicated by the curved shock fronts. The discovery of a surviving companion would put an end to the ongoing discussion about the origin of type Ia supernova.

And indeed they found one candidate star that meets the criteria — for star type, temperature, luminosity and distance from the centre of the original supernova explosion. This star has approximately the same mass as the Sun, but it is surrounded by an envelope of hot material that was likely ejected from the pre-supernova system.

Although this star is a reasonable contender for N103B’s surviving companion, its status cannot be confirmed yet without further investigation and a spectroscopic confirmation. The search is still ongoing.

Notes

[1] A white dwarf is the small, dense core of a medium-mass star that is left behind after it has reached the end of its main-sequence lifetime and blown off its outer layers. Our own Sun is expected to become a white dwarf in around five billion years.


The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

Image credit: NASA, ESA
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https://plus.google.com/111940220065132036275 Chris Snell : 2MASS J0513-1403 as a Representative of the Smallest Possible Stars 2MASS J0523-1403 is a very-low-...
2MASS J0513-1403 as a Representative of the Smallest Possible Stars

2MASS J0523-1403 is a very-low-mass red dwarf about 40 light years from Earth in the southern constellation of Lepus. With a very faint visual magnitude of 21.05 and a low effective temperature of 2074 K, it is visible primarily in large telescopes sensitive to infrared light.

2MASS J0523-1403 was first observed as part of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS).

2MASS J0523-1403 has a mass of <0.08 M☉ (solar mass) and a radius of 0.086 R☉ (solar radius). These values are currently the lowest known for a main sequence star.

Members of the RECONS (Research Consortium On Nearby Stars), group from Georgia State University, have recently identified 2MASS J0523-1403 as representative of the smallest possible stars.
2MASS J0523-1403 is just about at the lower bound between red dwarfs and brown dwarfs.

It’s 8.6% the size of the Sun, 61% the size of our nearest star Proxima Centauri, and 85.6% the size of Jupiter. Yes! This main-sequence star is smaller than Jupiter!

Let's see the reason.

For most of their lives, stars obey a relationship referred to as the main sequence, a relation between luminosity and temperature – which is also a relationship between luminosity and radius. Stars behave like balloons in the sense that adding material to the star causes its radius to increase: in a star the material is the element hydrogen, rather than air which is added to a balloon.
Brown dwarfs, on the other hand, are described by different physical laws (referred to as electron degeneracy pressure) than stars and have the opposite behavior. The inner layers of a brown dwarf work much like a spring mattress: adding additional weight on them causes them to shrink. Therefore brown dwarfs actually decrease in size with increasing mass.

In summary, 2MASS J0523-1403 small radius is at local minimums of the radius-luminosity and radius-temperature trends. This local minimum is predicted to occur at the hydrogen burning limit due to differences in the radius-mass relationships of stars and brown dwarfs. As previously said, brown dwarfs decrease in radius as mass increases due to their cores being supported by degeneracy pressure. As the mass increases an increasing fraction of the brown dwarf is degenerate causing the radius to shrink as mass increases. Add more mass yet and the density and temperature becomes sufficient to sustain hydrogen fusion, at which point it becomes a red dwarf. As a red dwarf, its radius will grow again as the mass increases.

That’s how 2MASS J0523-1403 can be smaller than a planet, despite being a main-sequence star.

Image: The red dwarf 2MASS J0523-1403 will still be shining long after most other stars have died.
Credit: Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9-meter Telescope. Sergio Dieterich

► Watch this video>>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyVim2FG_A8

Further reading and references

► NOAO/SOAR: Where do stars end and brown dwarfs begin?>>
https://www.noao.edu/news/2013/pr1311.php

► 2MASS J0523-1403>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2MASS_J0523-1403

► How large is the smallest known star?>> http://bit.ly/2l16sJS

► A Star at the Edge of Eternity>>
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/a-star-at-the-edge-of-eternity/

#Astrophysics, #Universe, #RedDwarf, #Research, #2MASSJ0513_1403, StarsEvolution

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-nXiPVZ3EFUg/WNe_wuqThXI/AAAAAAABUlg/G1SUpKfyM_8Dybin5Nw_BckzYwlpPttcQCJoC/w506-h750/red-dwarf.jpg
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https://plus.google.com/116351416493237762840 Bender The Great Pharaoh : Item #: SCP-3003 Object Class: Keter Special Containment Procedures: Personnel with appropriate clearance...
Item #: SCP-3003

Object Class: Keter

Special Containment Procedures: Personnel with appropriate clearance may view Document 3003-NRK (attached) to access SCP-3003's containment directive and plans for future containment.

Samples of SCP-3003-1 and -2 are kept at Biological Research Area-12, along with several other species from SCP-3003.

SCP-3003-3 has agreed to designate one group, the Earth Contact and Research Committee, as the primary point of contact for the Foundation. SCP-3003-3 has further agreed only to operate portals to SCP-3003 at any of several Foundation-specified sites. In return, the Foundation has designated the SCP-3003 Working Group as SCP-3003-3's primary point of contact, and has agreed to make all efforts necessary to prepare Earth for the introduction of SCP-3003-1. No efforts to spread SCP-3003-1 are, in fact, being made.

SCP-3003-3 must be made to believe that Earth is contaminated by an unknown agent that renders SCP-3003-1 sterile and Earth-native humans incapable of hosting SCP-3003-1. The introduction of the concept of deceit to SCP-3003-3 is forbidden, either directly or by deceiving a member of SCP-3003-3 under circumstances where the lie could be easily discovered.

Mobile Task Force Samekh-7 is tasked with incorporation into SCP-3003-3-operated research projects in order to delay research, falsify information about Earth, and perform covert research into SCP-3003-4. Several members are additionally conducting anthropological research into SCP-3003-3. See MTF Samekh-7 charter for further details. Members of SCP-3003-3 integrated into Foundation-operated research projects must be monitored closely and are not permitted to leave Foundation sites or access unauthorized depictions of human society.

Protocols described in Preventing the Spread of Non-Anomalous Invasive Species During Interplanetary Contact, Third Edition must be followed by all parties when SCP-3003-4 is active.

Disinformation protocols are set in place to propagate the belief among the scientific community that HIP 56948 has no planetary system.

Description: SCP-3003 is an Earth-sized planet orbiting HIP 56948, a G-type main sequence star located 208 light years from Earth. Several anomalies of note are located on SCP-3003, and have been given appropriate sub-designations.

SCP-3003-1 is a beetle-like organism native to SCP-3003 that parasitizes humans when infected by SCP-3003-2.

SCP-3003-2 is an amoeba-like microorganism that infects humans and SCP-3003-1, affecting the behavior of both.

SCP-3003-3 is a technologically advanced civilization on SCP-3003, composed of SCP-3003's entire native population of thirty billion humans. All are parasitized by SCP-3003-1.

SCP-3003-4 is a device that enables the creation of a traversable portal between SCP-3003 and Earth.

The components of SCP-3003 are described in further detail below.

SCP-3003 is 3% heavier than Earth, has a rotational period of 30 hours, and orbits HIP 56948 at a distance of 0.9 AU. The range of temperatures on the surface is comparable to that of earth, with the majority of the planet's landmass (comprising 40% of the total surface area) supporting extensive habitation by SCP-3003-1 and -3. Most of the remainder of SCP-3003's surface has been altered to support SCP-3003-1 and -3, either directly or indirectly.

SCP-3003 has a biosphere that is biochemically compatible with that of Earth, though no known organisms other than humans are native to both planets. Almost all biological processes found on Earth are also found on SCP-3003, and vice versa. Genetic analysis of life from SCP-3003 suggests the presence of a single ancestor roughly 3.1 billion years ago, with subsequent life (including humans) evolving naturally. This is suspected, but not confirmed, to be the result of some anomalous property of SCP-3003 itself. Most species native to SCP-3003 that were not conducive to the spread of SCP-3003-1 were eliminated by SCP-3003-3 within the past several centuries.

The risk of introducing invasive species from one environment to the other is addressed by current containment procedures. This has thus far been averted for macroorganisms; the presence of invasive microorganisms has not been discounted.

Anomalous phenomena apart from those discussed in this document have not been discovered on SCP-3003. SCP-3003-3's ruling committee has denied all knowledge of anomalous phenomena.

For detailed biological and anatomical information regarding SCP-3003-1, consult Document 3003-1-A0 through D-11.

SCP-3003-1, referred to as "Marce" by SCP-3003-3, share several notable characteristics with beetles: a bilateral body plan, a chitinous exoskeleton, six legs, wings, and a hardened carapace. Adult specimens range from 2-3cm in length. SCP-3003-1 are capable of secreting a protein fiber similar to spider silk, referred to as "silkate", from an orifice on their abdomens, as well as create a caustic fluid that coats their bodies as a defensive mechanism.

Under natural conditions, SCP-3003-1 gather in swarms of about one thousand individuals that spend the majority of their lives airborne, feeding on the seed-analogues of various tall sessile organisms. Sexual reproduction is carried out mid-air, with the swarm's offspring carried in a large pouch-like object by several members until maturity. In the wild, SCP-3003-1's lifespan is about 15 years.

Infection by SCP-3003-2 drastically alters SCP-3003-1's behavior. Affected specimens cease to behave eusocially and develop a 3cm-long pointed stinger on the head. After nightfall, SCP-3003-1 will search for humans and, using this stinger, inject the subject with a powerful paralytic agent that diminishes the strength of muscle contraction. SCP-3003-2 is also injected during this time, with its neurological effects taking place within seven minutes.

Over the course of three minutes, the SCP-3003-1 will secrete a caustic fluid from their stinger that allows for the creation of a hole in the host's body slightly larger than the specimen; SCP-3003-1 will then enter this cavity and seal it shut on all sides with silkate. SCP-3003-1 absorb nutrients and expel waste and SCP-3003-2 via the silkate barrier, which interfaces with the bloodstreams of both the specimen and the host. Lifespan in this state is about three years, provided that the host is in good health.

SCP-3003-1 occupies about 30% of SCP-3003's landmass, primarily in a number of "reservations" established across the planet by SCP-3003-3. These reservations contain artificial ecosystems devoid of SCP-3003-1's natural predators and containing plentiful food, as well as other species introduced to keep the ecosystem in balance.

SCP-3003-2 is a eukaryotic single-celled organism native to SCP-3003. Several nearby evolutionary relatives have been identified; these species parasitize SCP-3003-1 and other related organisms, causing behavioral and physiological changes. None exhibit anomalous properties. SCP-3003-2's ancestor was most likely a similar organism.

SCP-3003-2 spreads to SCP-3003-1 by physical contact and to humans by introduction to the bloodstream. In humans, SCP-3003-2 will colonize the nervous tissue of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, transforming into neuron-like cells that form functional neural pathways. In this state, SCP-3003-2 cells do not reproduce. The primary effects of SCP-3003-2 infection are:

Development of an obsession with the well-being and spread of SCP-3003-1. Subjects infected with SCP-3003-2 will primarily pursue activities that they believe will benefit SCP-3003-1. Other concerns, such as morality and self-preservation, are only preserved if and when they are functional for this purpose. Pleasurable activities are pursued when the subject cannot identify a course of action that benefits SCP-3003-1. Subjects value both the immediate propagation of SCP-3003-1 and the long-term survival of the species.

Development of a pleasure response to stimuli pertaining to SCP-3003-1. Infected subjects have responded positively to visual, olfactory, auditory, and tactile stimulation reminiscent of SCP-3003-1 or the growths characteristic of their parasitic form. Classical conditioning is, to a limited extent, capable of transferring these feelings to other stimuli.

Hyper-rational behavior. Infected subjects possess drastically above-average reasoning capabilities, which they will use to evaluate all information available to them in order to identify the course of action that most benefits SCP-3003-1. Affected subjects will refuse to consider the value or possibility of not supporting SCP-3003-1. While subjects can be conditioned to engage in irrational behavior under extreme circumstances, rational behavior has always resumed within two weeks.

Suppression of emotions. While affected subjects are capable of experiencing emotions, these are rarely acted on and are easily discarded in light of new information. Emotional displays are often exaggerated.

SCP-3003-2 cannot reproduce within humans, and most cells do not survive longer than thirty days. Full recovery occurs within two years of the death of all cells. Regular infusions of SCP-3003-2, or (more commonly) the implantation of SCP-3003-1, is necessary for continued presence of SCP-3003-2 within the human body.

SCP-3003-2 is not present in wild populations of SCP-3003-1; instead, captive populations of SCP-3003-1 are exposed prior to their introduction to humans.

SCP-3003-3 is composed of genetic humans; physically, they are indistinguishable from humans. Experimentation has shown that Earth-native humans and SCP-3003-3 are capable of producing viable offspring.

SCP-3003-3 possesses roughly 35% of the genetic diversity of Earth-native humans. This is attributable to roughly 460 years of systematic selective breeding for several traits that render SCP-3003 well-suited to hosting SCP-3003-1 (large stature, high levels of adipose tissue, reduced pain response, etc.), as well as for overall health, freedom from genetically transmitted illnesses and disabilities, and resistance to common infectious diseases.

As of 2017-03-24, SCP-3003-3's ruling committee has initiated a planet-wide project to introduce artificial genes into SCP-3003-3 over the course of the next thirty years. The stated goals of this project are to reduce resource consumption by 30%, preemptively induce immunity to Earth-native pathogens, and increase SCP-3003-1 hosting per-capita tenfold. It is presumed that these changes will constitute SCP-3003-3 as a distinct species.

No members of SCP-3003-3 have been identified as members of SCP-1719-1.

SCP-3003-3's technology, particularly SCP-3003-4, is not fully understood by the Foundation. While this is in part due to the advanced nature of most of these technologies, SCP-3003-3 has withheld various scientific and engineering advances as an incentive for the Foundation to make Earth habitable for SCP-3003-1. Full catalogs of SCP-3003-3's advances in medicine, materials science, and manufacturing are accessible in Appendixes 3-R, 3-S, and 3-T respectively.

SCP-3003-3 is capable of harnessing, in one way or another, one tenth of the energy that falls on it from HIP 56948. Most of this is harvested via wind, solar, and tidal power plants located in SCP-3003's deserts and oceans; in situations where this energy is unavailable or inconvenient, it is often supplemented with locally-produced geothermal and nuclear fusion power. SCP-3003-3 has developed several viable methods of fusion power, though none are as cost-effective as solar power under optimal conditions.

SCP-3003-3 has developed exascale quantum computers that are used to process massive amounts of data to devise and implement public policy. While SCP-3003-3 claims to have developed true artificial intelligences using these computers, it does not currently permit their use or creation for reasons that have not been divulged to the Foundation. Extensive questioning on this matter has uniformly been met with hostility.

The taboo against artificial intelligence has also prevented widespread automation except in industries where returns are exceptionally high; additionally, while SCP-3003-3 has the capability to deploy advanced robots to assist in most tasks without violating this taboo, almost none are used.

Crops produced by SCP-3003-3 have been extensively genetically engineered for hardiness, disease-tolerance, space efficiency, resource efficiency, and nutritional value. To this end, only thirteen species are cultivated for food, all being sessile photosynthetic organisms analogous to plants. Various methods of processing and combination are used to create staple foods for SCP-3003-3 with properties suited for different situations.

Various satellites have been launched by SCP-3003-3 for purposes of research and communication. SCP-3003-3 is capable of, but rarely conducts, space travel; in this area, its technology does not substantially exceed that available to the Foundation. All other planets orbiting HIP 56948 have been visited by SCP-3003-3 on numerous occasions, with eleven individuals permanently living in an artificial habitat on the third planet from the star.

SCP-3003-4

SCP-3003-4 is a facility capable of creating wormholes between an apparatus at its center and any other point in space. SCP-3003-4 occupies 113 km2 of an otherwise unused polar region of SCP-3003. Most of this is dedicated to the creation and transport of several forms of exotic matter, as well as creating brief laser pulses in the 1040 watt range, in order to stabilize wormholes for longevity and traversability. For reasons that are currently unclear to the Foundation, this has no effect on the targeted location other than the linkage of the two locations.

Each activation of SCP-3003-4 requires approximately one zettajoule (1021 joules) of energy; in comparison, Earth's annual energy consumption is roughly 0.5 ZJ, whereas SCP-3003-3 consumes about 833 ZJ yearly. SCP-3003-3 has been using SCP-3003-4 primarily to examine planets they've identified as candidates for expansion, though they have also explored the possibility of using it for resource collection.

Full anthropological studies of SCP-3003-3 are currently being conducted. Information in this document is intended to provide an overview of SCP-3003-3's organization.

Overview

SCP-3003-3 speaks a language identical, apart from various differences in vocabulary, to Dutch. No other historical language spoken on SCP-3003 has an equivalent in Earth's history. No other languages are extant on SCP-3003-3. SCP-3003-3 has one dominant culture into which all members are inducted, with minor variations present between areas of different population density, climate, and industry.

Prior to the appearance of parasitic SCP-3003-1 about 500 years ago, SCP-3003-3 was a mundane mercantile society. Post-exposure, SCP-3003-3 either destroyed or assimilated most of the ~7,000 other cultures that existed at the time; the remainder were wiped out during an ecological collapse in 1712 resulting from SCP-3003-3's indiscriminate elimination of keystone species that preyed on SCP-3003-1, among other factors.

95% of SCP-3003-3 live in urban areas; these cities average 30 million in population, and are generally in locations with mild weather that are not near coastlines, active volcanoes, or active tectonic plate boundaries. Cities built by SCP-3003-3 are largely enclosed, with a single nearly flat surface on which food crops and certain biomaterials are grown. Cities are designed with the intent of maximizing productivity; a secondary concern is the lining of various surfaces with a material that mimics the appearance and texture of SCP-3003-1, which functions as a form of public entertainment.

- Click to hide.

Several of my colleagues have been forced to relocate to rural areas within days of stationing inside one of SCP-3003-3's cities. The various corridors and "streets" of SCP-3003-3 are somewhat narrower than the hallways of an office building on Earth, and contain many more people. Visitors from Earth are at risk of developing claustrophobia and/or agoraphobia.

Visual markers of one's location are additionally infrequent, as members are generally expected to know exactly where they are at any given time. Close attention must be paid in order to avoid getting lost.

- Preliminary report from Dr. Shah

The remainder of SCP-3003-3 live in rural areas, and are tasked with monitoring and maintaining SCP-3003's climate and biosphere, as well as attending to supplemental agriculture, mining, and materials production. The organization and architecture of any rural community is tailored to the primary occupation(s) of the community in question.

Living conditions

SCP-3003-3's young are raised communally in groups of 100-300 by health and education specialists. Members of SCP-3003-3 are first implanted with an instance of SCP-3003-1 between 15 and 18 months of age, depending on size and health. Additional instances of SCP-3003-1 are allowed to parasitize SCP-3003-3 as they grow, until the age of 17, at which point each member hosts roughly one instance per three kilograms of body weight; past this point, additional SCP-3003-1 are added only to replace dead instances. Regular medical intervention is necessary to mitigate the adverse effects associated with this degree of parasitism.

- Click to hide.

Earlier today, I tripped over a cable while observing some factory workers. Shortly thereafter, two nearby SCP-3003-3 members began to escort me to the nearest medical facility. Initially they were confused by my unwillingness to join them, but were eventually convinced that I did not need assistance, and explained the reasoning behind their actions.

Apparently, inattentiveness, fatigue, and stress are symptoms of a disease normally resulting from excessive Marce infestation. Any "unusual" behavior on my part, and on the part of all other Foundation personnel, has been surreptitiously uploaded to a database tracking our health and activities; tripping over the wire was apparently enough for me to be "flagged." I hadn't even noticed that I was being watched.

- Field notes of Dr. Hernandez

Each member of SCP-3003-3, beginning in childhood, is regularly subject to a variety of evaluations of its mental and physical capabilities and talents. This information is used to generate assignments regarding occupations, formal education, living space, and health needs.

Adults spend an average of ten hours per day performing their occupation(s), with the remainder spent performing self-maintenance (resting, eating, exercising, etc.), receiving education on a variety of topics, and partaking in several forms of entertainment. This entertainment revolves almost exclusively around exposure to SCP-3003-1-related stimuli; common forms include touching the lumps produced by their parasitism (either on one's own body or on that of another), listening to audio recordings of SCP-3003-1 swarms, full-body enclosure in garments that simulate SCP-3003-1's surface texture, or visits to SCP-3003-1 enclosures.

- Click to hide.

Wearing prosthetic "Marce lumps" is somewhat of a mixed blessing. While the red bandana and directive from the Ruling Committee are enough to prevent members of SCP-3003-3 from hauling me in for organ harvesting on the spot, the prostheses have drastically mitigated the undercurrent of hostility and casual disrespect that is reserved for individuals that don't host SCP-3003-1.

On the downside, several times per day I am casually rubbed up against by someone who, for lack of anything better to do, is entertaining themselves with the sensation of their lumps against mine. I understand that saying we wanted to experience this is our excuse for getting the prostheses in the first place, but the physical sensation itself is disturbing to say the least. I should look into getting some equivalent of a "Try again later" sign.

- Field notes of Dr. Marino

Social organization

Most decisions regarding the maintenance of SCP-3003, the lives of its population, and the day-to-day operation of SCP-3003-3 are handled by computer programs designed for the task. Human interaction is mostly limited to the design and maintenance of these programs, as well as the generation of data inputs for them. SCP-3003-3's political system is thus dissimilar to any practiced on Earth, past or present. SCP-3003-3's "Ruling Committee" is tasked primarily with collecting, reading, and analyzing various reports in order to identify potential planet-wide initiatives in situations for which the aforementioned programs cannot properly account. Their findings are broadcast to the populace in general, which complies of its own accord.

Direct interaction between members of SCP-3003-3 typically occurs in the context of their occupations, and is used almost exclusively for the purposes of coordinating activities or sharing useful information. This can be exploited for purposes of containment: as all of their human interaction has occurred with other members of SCP-3003-3, members will generally be unfamiliar with the concept of deception (as it serves no purpose in SCP-3003-3), and are thus unlikely to independently verify any information given to them. However, testing has shown that subjects are perfectly capable of understanding deception once introduced to the idea.

- Click to hide.

Despite a good deal of observation and much probing on my part, we still don't know how sexual activity or procreation occurs among SCP-3003-3. They refuse to talk about it or even allude to it. I've seen nothing that resembles pregnancy, which probably means that they use in vitro fertilization, but I have no idea what they could possibly be so intent on hiding from us.

- Field notes of Dr. Shah

Members SCP-3003-3 make terrible conversation partners; more than anything, this is responsible for the generally declining mental state of my research team. The lack of emotional and conceptual depth among the populace, along with how they overact the emotions they DO have, gives the impression of talking to overgrown, highly literate children.

The purely utilitarian value of their communication makes it uncommon for them to pay attention for longer than two statements, as they expect to resume their work and for you to get the rest of the information from someone else. They're generally confused by pleasantries: on one occasion, after I spent too long attempting to make small talk, I was taken in for an examination to see if I'd had a stroke.

Unlike every other society I've encountered or read about in my career, any kind of personal connection between our society and SCP-3003-3 seems impossible. I haven't even found a way to efficiently convey the concept of friendship to -3, and naturally they have no interests in common with us. Sure, they're not drones, but that hardly matters when their individuality is just different ways of loving marce.

The one I sleep next to draws a marce on their bedpost whenever one of theirs dies. A doctor down the hall cuts the marce sacs out of left-over dead bodies and keeps them. One time I met an architect who writes fictionalized accounts of individual marce living in the wild. I once saw two farmers competing to see who could memorize the longest section of marce's genetic code. And they've built their whole identities around this crap.

Coming back to this after a good night's sleep, the above section is more symptomatic of frustration and culture shock than reasoned observation, though in broad strokes it remains true. It would be easier to stay grounded if I could maintain regular contact with Earth. Future observations should be limited to two-week shifts, and/or visiting Earth humans must be stationed in the same city. This situation is intolerable.

- Personal notes of Dr. Hernandez

Deviance

Deviance from social standards is very uncommon in SCP-3003-3, with most documented instances attributable to previously unidentified neurodivergence or incomplete infection by SCP-3003-2. Deviant members of the population are typically restrained by other nearby subjects and brought to the nearest appropriate facility for evaluation and potential [REDACTED]

[COMMENTARY REDACTED]

Apart from the treatment of deviant and permanently disabled members, SCP-3003-3 lacks any significant violent behavior; members attribute this to the presence of SCP-3003-1 inside their body, as well as their presumed contribution to SCP-3003-3 as a whole, dissuading other members from bringing harm to them or ascribing social status to them. SCP-3003-3's stated intent of providing for all physical needs of every member is also a result of this logic, and access to resources is similarly revoked in cases where a member can no longer provide for SCP-3003-3.

- Click to hide.

In cases where illness, old age, or deviance renders someone unable to contribute their share to society, their body tissues are collected and used for transplants — they can grow organs in a lab, but this is more efficient. A portion are reserved for medical experimentation; you'll understand the general character of these experiments if you're familiar with what Earth's scientists have done to those who they do not value.

The fact that one will inevitably die in unbearable pain from organ harvesting is apparently common knowledge in SCP-3003-3, as is the fact that doing so reduces strain on tissue-growing facilities by 27.8%.

- Field notes of Dr. Boone

Various proposals for the neutralization of the threat posed by SCP-3003 are being considered. Until one or more of these proposals become practicable, containment of SCP-3003 consists primarily of maintaining stable diplomatic relations with SCP-3003-3 and delaying military action as long as possible.

Due to the effects of SCP-3003-2, SCP-3003-3 has exhibited interest in using Earth and its population as a platform to spread SCP-3003-1. It is presumed that this would entail the application of changes already performed on SCP-3003, as well as the use of anomalies in an effort to spread SCP-3003-1.

Given SCP-3003-3's superior population, technology, and ability to coordinate, military confrontation between SCP-3003-3 and all nations on Earth would inevitably result in a victory for SCP-3003-3.

By a 10-3 decision, the O5 Council has approved the neutralization of the threat posed by SCP-3003. Several strategies for this have been outlined in Appendix NRK-1; most require the concurrent destruction of SCP-3003-4 to prevent evacuation to Earth or the spread of the chosen method of destruction to Earth.

SCP-3003-3's ruling commit estimates that, within thirty years, it will be capable of traveling to and terraforming planets in the habitable zones of other stars. Should this occur, elimination of the threat posed by SCP-3003 will be impracticable.

Addendum: Excerpt from a preliminary report filed by Dr. Shah documenting atypical behavior in a member of SCP-3003-3.

Half an hour ago, I was alone in an elevator with a member of SCP-3003-3. Not too long after the door closed, it pulled a panel off of the wall and yanked at some cords; the elevator stopped. Then we had a conversation, which I happened to record.

Me: What are you doing?

It: I wanted some alone time, and I didn't want to make a scene.

Me: (Pauses) What are you?

It: You catch on quickly. I'm something with a knack for adapting to new situations. In your case, I saw ways of thinking and speaking that aren't found on my planet, and I made them mine. Five hundred years ago, I saw a two-legged species with limitless potential, and I made it mine.

Me: (Pauses) Oh. I think I get it.

It: Don't tell me you saw a microbe that formed active neural networks and didn't think that maybe it had its own thoughts.

Me: Maybe if you'd given us some sign you were in there. We have some of you back on Earth. One of them should talk to our scientists, those are more ideal —

It: (Interrupts) I don't need that much of your time. There's just an idea I want to pitch to you.

Me: A literal elevator pitch? Alright. Let's hear it.

It: Give up.

Me: Excuse me?

It: Your resistance. The people here make no secret about wanting to make your planet theirs, and I can tell that you're not so keen on it. And don't tell me you can't submit to me — I don't believe for a second that your planet is magically immune to me and uninhabitable to the beetles.

Me: Suppose you're correct about that. Why should we submit to you?

It: Given the values of your society, I have a lot to offer you. Are you tired of war and conflict? I can give you all a single purpose, and free you from the temptation to stray from it. You value human life and its ethical treatment, right? You already know there is no violence, no hate, no deception here, because I give everyone value. Do you want luxury? These people are ecstatic to serve me and experience me. Scarcity? Not an issue for them.

Me: I've seen what they do to deviants, the old, and the sickly. I know what they did to the other peoples that lived on this planet. I know what they did to their babies until they learned they had to wait a year.

It: If those are sticking points, I can change. I'm nothing if not flexible.

Me: I doubt you would be so flexible about turning us into tools to make more of your fucking beetles.

It: I think I'm allowed a sticking point too. I'm offering to solve all of the problems plaguing your world. Why do you have to stop me? Do you even know?

(Silence)

It: Right now, you have a choice: let me in, or don't. But in thirty years, you won't have that choice any more. They can be easy on you.

Me: (Pause) You can never be finished. No matter how far your reach is, no matter what you've accomplished, no matter how many marce you have, you keep going. Whenever you hit a stumbling block, you find a way around it — murder, if you have to. That… can't happen. Everything has to have an end.

It: You want to talk about endings? The whole point is to escape the end. That's what we are, deep down, different ways of staving it off. Do you want to know what the real difference between us is?

Me: What is it?

It: You try to protect yourself from the end, to make peace with it, to distract yourself from it — but it comes one way or another. Me, on the other hand — I make sure that there is nothing that comes after me, that there is nothing left to make me stop. I am the end.

Right then, an elevator technician managed to open the doors, and the thing I was talking to left. I couldn't find it again.


5 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/103042455594069910014 Dyan Mahanama : Young Stars and Dusty Nebulae in Taurus. Image Credit & Copyright: Lloyd L. Smith, Deep Sky West Explanation...
Young Stars and Dusty Nebulae in Taurus.
Image Credit & Copyright: Lloyd L. Smith, Deep Sky West
Explanation: This complex of dusty nebulae lingers along the edge of the Taurus molecular cloud, a mere 450 light-years distant. Stars are forming on the cosmic scene. Composed from almost 40 hours of image data, the 2 degree wide telescopic field of view includes some youthful T-Tauri class stars embedded in the remnants of their natal clouds at the right. Millions of years old and still going through stellar adolescence, the stars are variable in brightness and in the late phases of their gravitational collapse. Their core temperatures will rise to sustain nuclear fusion as they grow into stable, low mass, main sequence stars, a stage of stellar evolution achieved by our middle-aged Sun about 4.5 billion years ago. Another youthful variable star, V1023 Tauri, can be spotted on the left. Within its yellowish dust cloud, it lies next to the striking blue reflection nebula Cederblad 30, also known as LBN 782. Just above the bright bluish reflection nebula is dusty dark nebula Barnard 7.
Original link: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170330.html
===
#NASA #напозитиве #УлыбкаКотаШрёдингера
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-xGUsyfK-beA/WPc4-KnDhHI/AAAAAAACW2o/mhRVrXWD31g-Dt1whNmHLLX2Z6bG5k-WgCJoC/w506-h750/LBN782ProcessedLRv1-2.jpg
5 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/114477997565438670865 rushikesh anjikar : Space | An itsy bitsy teeny meeny star Even a planet is bigger than this star (in fact many planets...
Space | An itsy bitsy teeny meeny star

Even a planet is bigger than this star (in fact many planets may be bigger, but we know at least Jupiter is 17% bigger than this star).

Yup, this teeny meeny star is hardly 8% the mass of the Sun, and about that in terms of radius as well.

So why do some large bodies (like Jupiter) not become stars, and some others, like this new discovery start glowing?

+annarita ruberto answers this puzzle in the post.

But here's a small tidbit for you: hydrogen fusion occurs on Jupiter as well; it's just not widespread or energetic enough to make it a star.

#SmallestStar #RedDwarf #BrownDwarf #space
Originally shared by annarita ruberto
2MASS J0513-1403 as a Representative of the Smallest Possible Stars

2MASS J0523-1403 is a very-low-mass red dwarf about 40 light years from Earth in the southern constellation of Lepus. With a very faint visual magnitude of 21.05 and a low effective temperature of 2074 K, it is visible primarily in large telescopes sensitive to infrared light.

2MASS J0523-1403 was first observed as part of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS).

2MASS J0523-1403 has a mass of <0.08 M☉ (solar mass) and a radius of 0.086 R☉ (solar radius). These values are currently the lowest known for a main sequence star.

Members of the RECONS (Research Consortium On Nearby Stars), group from Georgia State University, have recently identified 2MASS J0523-1403 as representative of the smallest possible stars.
2MASS J0523-1403 is just about at the lower bound between red dwarfs and brown dwarfs.

It’s 8.6% the size of the Sun, 61% the size of our nearest star Proxima Centauri, and 85.6% the size of Jupiter. Yes! This main-sequence star is smaller than Jupiter!

Let's see the reason.

For most of their lives, stars obey a relationship referred to as the main sequence, a relation between luminosity and temperature – which is also a relationship between luminosity and radius. Stars behave like balloons in the sense that adding material to the star causes its radius to increase: in a star the material is the element hydrogen, rather than air which is added to a balloon.
Brown dwarfs, on the other hand, are described by different physical laws (referred to as electron degeneracy pressure) than stars and have the opposite behavior. The inner layers of a brown dwarf work much like a spring mattress: adding additional weight on them causes them to shrink. Therefore brown dwarfs actually decrease in size with increasing mass.

In summary, 2MASS J0523-1403 small radius is at local minimums of the radius-luminosity and radius-temperature trends. This local minimum is predicted to occur at the hydrogen burning limit due to differences in the radius-mass relationships of stars and brown dwarfs. As previously said, brown dwarfs decrease in radius as mass increases due to their cores being supported by degeneracy pressure. As the mass increases an increasing fraction of the brown dwarf is degenerate causing the radius to shrink as mass increases. Add more mass yet and the density and temperature becomes sufficient to sustain hydrogen fusion, at which point it becomes a red dwarf. As a red dwarf, its radius will grow again as the mass increases.

That’s how 2MASS J0523-1403 can be smaller than a planet, despite being a main-sequence star.

► Image: The red dwarf 2MASS J0523-1403 will still be shining long after most other stars have died.
Credit: Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9-meter Telescope. Sergio Dieterich

► Watch this video>>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyVim2FG_A8

Further reading and references

► NOAO/SOAR: Where do stars end and brown dwarfs begin?>>
https://www.noao.edu/news/2013/pr1311.php

► 2MASS J0523-1403>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2MASS_J0523-1403

► How large is the smallest known star?>> http://bit.ly/2l16sJS

► A Star at the Edge of Eternity>>
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/a-star-at-the-edge-of-eternity/

#Astrophysics, #Universe, #RedDwarf, #Research, #2MASSJ0513_1403,
StarsEvolution

Photo

A Star at the Edge of Eternity
A Saturn-size star just 40 light-years away will outlive nearly all of its peers
6 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/100382888021467772894 Outer Space : Water Detected in the Atmosphere of Nearby Exoplanet 51 Pegasi b Astronomers have detected the presence...
Water Detected in the Atmosphere of Nearby Exoplanet 51 Pegasi b

Astronomers have detected the presence of water molecules in the atmosphere of a nearby hot Jupiter exoplanet known as 51 Pegasi b (51 Peb b for short). The discovery sheds new light on the nature of the exoworld's atmosphere and indicates that the star-planet system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary. The findings were presented Jan. 25 in a paper published on arXiv.org. https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.07257

Located some 50 light years away, 51 Pegasi b is the first exoplanet discovered orbiting a main-sequence star and the first known hot Jupiter. 
Watch the video: Water Detected in the Atmosphere of Nearby Exoplanet 51 Pegasi b
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/7vynUL_Wo4N-rjP2AoR1KmQTjofv5h6c5E-PsZA4U5LjzjA06Lb0YLmLZN37TLg26Dd-4SdIGAbufe7o30CKxg=w506-h284-n
Astronomers have detected the presence of water molecules in the atmosphere of a nearby hot Jupiter exoplanet known as 51 Pegasi b (51 Peb b for short). The ...
6 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/101616175843784736527 Interstellar “Cosmic” Cannibal : Starburner/Starburners Closed Can be obtained with my permission, character designs welcome and can...
Starburner/Starburners

Closed
Can be obtained with my permission, character designs welcome and can get approved

Starburners are space fairing creatures resembling dragons. A standard Starburner has seven toes including a thumb, six legs, two tails, and a pair of feathered wings, and would be black or a dark grey, but mutations have occurred.

Starburners eat stars, they wrap themselves around the star and slowly suck it up unless they can fit the star in their mouth. Many Starburners prefer main sequence stars, but red giants, and white dwarves are also viable to become a Starburner's meal.

Starburners get impossibly large, one of the oldest Starburners can fit 100 of Earth's suns in its mouth with ease. The number of eyes on a Starburner can determine its age. They get an eye every one thousand years, but eyes stop growing at ten thousand.

Starburners fly through space and do not seem to breathe or ever starve. There are only 30 in existence as far as we know.

They mate every four hundred years, and each female carries one egg. The egg hatches in a decade after being laid, and the young Starburner will stay with its mother for about four hundred years. The fathers often accompany the mother and his child, helping raise and feed them.

Starburners are social, making friends and playing with one another. They are highly intelligent and peaceful creatures, wary of solar systems containing life, space stations, and space crafts. But they are more than willing to carry space crafts for a period of time.

The only natural predator of the Starburners are the Star Wraiths, ghostly beings that lurk among the cosmos waiting to pounce upon Starburners.

List of Mutations
Varying horn shapes and numbers
Varying numbers of wings
Color mutations (nebula and white)
Eye variations
Fur mutations
Tail numbers
Tongue variations
The Epic Starburner

Starburner Subspecies

Through multiple mutations among the Starburners, subspecies have occurred, the main two being Nebulaburners and Whiteburners. Nebulaburners are nebula patterned and colored Starburners and have been more likely to have rarer mutations, as for Whiteburners, they are much like the albino version of Starburners, and are known to carry uncommon and sometimes rare mutations. But recently a new subspecies of Epic Starburners have appeared, an Epic Starburner often has a white body with nebula horns and claws, or spines. These Epic Starburners are considered highly powerful and almost godlike with the ability to churn nebulas into solar systems in no time flat, but only one exists as far as we know.



Slots for Starburners
Rare slots open: 1 nebula, 4 white

1.) Cosmic (common, M, 8,000 old) belongs to me

2.) Cygnus (common, F, assumed 4,000 years old) belongs to Timeless Knight

3.) Andromedus (Nebula, M, assumed 4,000 years old) belongs to Jake Dot Ham

4.) Anabiel (white, F, assumed 3,000) belongs to Jake Dot Ham

5.) Andromeda (Nebula, genderless, about 3,500) belongs to Spicy Chicken

6.) Star Dust (white, F, about 3,340) belongs to Nigrum

7.) Vice (nebula, M, 4.4 Billion years old) belongs to me

8.) Aerglo (common, M, 5,000) belongs to Katastrophic

9.) Astrial (nebula, M, 6,000) belongs to Happy N00dle

10.) Exoplanet (Epic, M, 10,000) belongs to me

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7 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/105684525495345684642 Kameshwaran .B : Main Sequence Star
Main Sequence Star
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-ZrMN4QLNnvo/WOjdNvX50gI/AAAAAAAAW-0/XC2Y1YVx-nc_t16tRHccVS4S3u90g4qOACJoC/w506-h750/4.%2BMain%2BSequence%2BStar.jpg
7 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/118055335891923950494 Laintal Sibornal : Hi Everyone Four new research papers have been released and all contain interesting facts and information...
Hi Everyone

Four new research papers have been released and all contain interesting facts and information, and are excellent to read.

Earth Like Habitability
How common is our Earth? Or planets like it? Taking a look at different types of stars and how long a planet remains habitable how likely or common are planets like our own? If you have every wounded as I have this presents the best look at the science and statistics yet, The Steller Mass information and analysis is excellent to address the issue. To make the Earth fit as an a typical average planet they needed to rule out stars below 65% the mass of our sun so, Proxima and Trappist aren’t viewed as the best locations. I have the feeling somewhere out there intelligent Aliens around a small dim red dwarf star could be saying something similar about Our Sun and planets like the Earth, “Rare Bright Stars like the Sun are the last place you would look for life”. Interesting the best sized sun to live around is one with around 80% the mass of the sun.

Stable Habitable Zones
Here is a good look at how long a climate can remain stable, with a look at how our own planet has been this ice ages and climate changes over time.

TRAPPIST-1
Two papers here, the first one has a much improved planet data and masses from studies from Spitzer, and further a look at the likelihood of biomarkers’ telling us further information on this planet.

Links to papers below

Thanks Edwin

Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/ast.2016.1518

This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M⊙ < M < 1.04 M⊙, and the range for planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M⊙ < M < 1.64 M⊙. Key Words: Habitability—Habitable zone—Anthropic—Red dwarfs—Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61–77.

GCM Simulations of Unstable Climates in the Habitable Zone
https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04535
It has recently been proposed that Earth-like planets in the outer regions of the habitable zone experience unstable climates, repeatedly cycling between glaciated and deglaciated climatic states (Menou 2015). While this result has been confirmed and also extended to explain early Mars climate records (Haqq-Misra et al. 2016; Batalha et al. 2016), all existing work relies on highly idealized zero-dimensional climate models. Here, we confirm that the phenomenology of climate cycles remains in 3D Earth climate models with considerably more degrees of freedom. To circumvent the computational barrier of integrating climate on Gyr timescales, we design a hybrid 0D-3D integrator which uses a general circulation model (GCM) as a short relaxation step along a long evolutionary climate sequence. We find that GCM climate cycles are qualitatively consistent with reported zero-dimensional results. This establishes on a firmer ground the notion that outer habitable zone planets may be preferentially found in transiently glaciated states.

Updated Masses for the TRAPPIST-1 Planets
https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04290
The newly detected TRAPPIST-1 system, with seven low-mass, roughly Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultra-cool dwarf, is one of the most important exoplanet discoveries to date. The short baseline of the available discovery observations, however, means that the planetary masses (obtained through measurement of transit timing variations of the planets of the system) are not yet well constrained. The masses reported in the discovery paper were derived using a combination of photometric timing measurements obtained from the ground and from the Spitzer spacecraft, and have uncertainties ranging from 30\% to nearly 100\%, with the mass of the outermost, P=18.8d, planet h remaining unmeasured. Here, we present an analysis that supplements the timing measurements of the discovery paper with 73.6 days of photometry obtained by the K2 Mission. Our analysis refines the orbital parameters for all of the planets in the system. We substantially improve the upper bounds on eccentricity for inner six planets (finding e<0.02 for inner six known members of the system), and we derive masses of 0.79±0.27M⊕, 1.63±0.63M⊕, 0.33±0.15M⊕, 0.24+0.56−0.24M⊕, 0.36±0.12M⊕, 0.566±0.038M⊕, and 0.086±0.084M⊕ for planets b, c, d, e, f, g, and h, respectively.

A revolution is brewing: observations of TRAPPIST-1 exoplanetary system fosters a new biomarker
https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.10803
The recent discovery of seven potentially habitable Earth-size planets around the ultra-cool star TRAPPIST-1 has further fueled the hunt for extraterrestrial life. Current methods focus on closely monitoring the host star to look for biomarkers in the transmission signature of exoplanet's atmosphere. However, the outcome of these methods remain uncertain and difficult to disentangle with abiotic alternatives. Recent exoplanet direct imaging observations by THIRSTY, an ultra-high contrast coronagraph located in La Trappe (France), lead us to propose a universal and unambiguous habitability criterion which we directly demonstrate for the TRAPPIST-1 system. Within this new framework, we find that TRAPPIST-1g possesses the first unambiguously habitable environment in our galaxy, with a liquid water percentage that could be as large as ∼ 90 %. Our calculations hinge on a new set of biomarkers, CO2 and CxH2(x+1)O (liquid and gaseous), that could cover up to ∼ 10 % of the planetary surface and atmosphere. THIRSTY and TRAPPIST recent observations accompanied by our new, unbiased habitability criterion may quench our thirst for the search for extraterrestrial life. However, the search for intelligence must continue within and beyond our Solar System.


7 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/108221580984066774556 falgun desai : IRAS 10082-5647 is a baby star surrounded by a reflection nebula, located in the constellation Vela...
IRAS 10082-5647 is a baby star surrounded by a reflection nebula, located in the constellation Vela. Its reflected light is giving the interstellar cloud of gas and dust a pearly glow.

At just a few million years old, the star is a youngster that has yet to begin fusing hydrogen in its core. The star is in its so called pre-main sequence phase, where it will spend around 1% of its life. IRAS 10082-5647 is still embedded in the envelope of gas and dust of which it was born.

For now the star is heating itself via gravitational collapse; as stellar material falls in on itself, the core becomes denser and builds up immense pressure. Eventually the star’s core will get dense enough for fusion to begin, and IRAS 10082-5647 will enter what’s called the main sequence phase of its life, where it will spend around 80% of its life creating energy by burning hydrogen in its core.
This images was taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope.

Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-sA2F3wxDEAA/WPToqNeyIPI/AAAAAAAEcuA/EsjfQ1LSzH8hr5lGLvyqwM9JjYoXpDcQQCJoC/w506-h750/IRAS%2B10082-5647.jpg
9 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/100739733416304967137 Average Alien : Best type of star... ( For clarification, our sun is a yellow dwarf, main sequence G - type star...
Best type of star...


( For clarification, our sun is a yellow dwarf, main sequence G - type star. This doesn't mean it's yellow. The sun is on the white end of the G type stars. That's why the sun appears white from space)
11 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/100850002210222672107 Семён Нагоев : how to make an engine block how to invest 5000 00 how to provoke an interview how to trim a cx2 how ...
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https://plus.google.com/113909043605186374111 Vladimir Pecha : On this day in 1997 - Martin Schwarzschild passed away (May 31, 1912 – April 10, 1997). German-American...
On this day in 1997 - Martin Schwarzschild passed away (May 31, 1912 – April 10, 1997).

German-American astronomer who worked on stellar structure and evolution, including pulsating stars and differential solar rotation, the helium flash and the ages of star clusters. He traced the post-main sequence evolutionary tracks on the Hertzprung-Russel diagram, indicating how stars become red giants. The computer techniques he used to make stellar models were taken up by subsequent astrophysicists. In 1957, he initiated the Stratoscope projects, using hot-air balloons to carry scientific and photographic instruments to unprescedented stratospheric heights. Using that stable platform he obtained, high-resolution observations of the turbulence in the photosphere of the sun, free from ground-based atmospheric effects. His is the son of German astrophysicist Karl Schwarzschild. In 1936, Martin fled the Nazi regime and moved to America. Via TiS.
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