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Most recent 20 results returned for keyword: Howard Carter (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/116568081211697837844 Ahan Sinha : Tutankhamen Tutankhamen is what we are learning about in school It is still ongoing as a topic Howard...
Tutankhamen
Tutankhamen is what we are learning about in school It is still ongoing as a topic Howard Carter found the tomb of Tutankhamen in the valley of kings in Egypt He looked for years before he found it. I will post another post about Tutankhamen soon Bye
Tutankhamen
Tutankhamen is what we are learning about in school It is still ongoing as a topic Howard Carter found the tomb of Tutankhamen in the valley of kings in Egypt He looked for years before he found it. I will post another post a...
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https://plus.google.com/115615119288972107264 herbert knapp : Painted in 1887
Painted in 1887
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https://plus.google.com/102761428217087009797 Nigel Shindler : My forthcoming book, "The Jews", the fifth volume of my opus, "Love Is the Nature of Existence", reveals...
My forthcoming book, "The Jews", the fifth volume of my opus, "Love Is the Nature of Existence", reveals that wherever Jews have been, they have left monuments to serve as a reminder to others of their presence, why they were there, and also as clues to be combined with others at the end of history to explain a puzzle. 
     In order to build their monuments, Jews used the materials common to each region.  The civilizations they built appeared rapidly; the most likely explanation for such an extreme change, over such a short period of time, was the use of force; tribes, ordinarily, do not welcome radical ideas; they are quite capable of resisting an innovation, even if it is demonstrably beneficial, and putting to death the would be innovator as a sorcerer
    William Camden wrote these words about Stonehenge,
“I cannot but lament that so little is known about the author of such a monument.”
    The first accurate measurements for Stonehenge were laid out by the architect John Wood (1704-54).  He was the first of what would be a cavalcade of astronomers to develop the concept that this most striking monument was some form of astronomical observatory; it consists of huge slabs of rock called Sorens, that jut out from the ground in the southern county of England called Wessex, and is situated in the best possible place to observe heavenly bodies; on every side, the horizon lies three miles in the distance.  The most striking feature of this monument is that the principal line of the whole work points to the northeast, where the sun rises when the days are the longest.
    The most extraordinary phenomenon about this complex structure that was built in a number of stages over approximately 1900 years, that embodied very subtle, advanced concepts, and even more advanced building techniques, was that there would appear not to be any structure of a similar design preceding; typically, one would expect there to be trial building projects, but, as yet, archeologists have found no evidence of such being the case.
    Many myths have been developed as to who originated, planned, designed, Stonehenge; a popular belief is that a man given the name “Merlin” is responsible; the name is thought to be a corruption of the name of the ancient Celtic sky god, “Myrddin”.
    A Welsh bard states that the whole of Britain before men came was called “Clas Myrddin”, or “Merlin’s Enclosure”, and Merlin is thought to have mentioned three waves of invaders prior to construction beginning on Stonehenge; 1) the Formorians, 2) the Sons of Partholan, and 3) the Nemedians.  Mythological records refer to the Fomorians as fierce and dangerous, “gloomy sea-giants, warlike, very troublesome to the entire world.”  Records also mention the Druids as the creator of Stonehenge, who, as far as we know, never wrote anything themselves, but they were commonly perceived to be holy men, medicine men, teachers, and judges, of the Celts throughout Gaul at the time Stonehenge was being built.
    At first Stonehenge merely consisted of a simple, circular, earthwork, or “henge”, or open space bordered by a chalk bank.  The definition of the word, “henge”, is; a circular, or oval, enclosed space defined by a ditch and bank, but with the bank on the outside - the reverse of what would be found in a site constructed for defense.  Outside the entrance stands the “Heel Stone”.  The next stage of construction is the supreme achievement of prehistoric design and engineering, accomplished by ingenious people, with strongly held beliefs, simple tools, and the ability to organize great labour forces.
     For many thousands of years prior to people settling down on the chalk downs of Wessex in 3000 B.C., the population of Britain is thought to have consisted of scattered bands of roving hunters, living on wild game, and wild plants. 
     According to grave sites discovered by archeologists belonging to this time in the same region as Stonehenge, it can be deduced from the direction in which corpses are consistently laid, that the Sun and moon were important to these distant societies.  Skulls appear to have been deliberately broken after death; bodies mutilated; forearms and hands missing, which suggests that the dead were feared, and such acts were precautions taken to prevent the return of their malicious ghosts; whatever they had been in life, their mourners made sure that they would be powerless in their graves.
    The remains found in the long chambered tomb of Tonhill, near Avebury, suggests that their features had an almost American Indian likeness; with high cheekbones, long narrow heads, and sharp noses.
    A life of hard labour, and dangerous work, meant short life spans; according to remains that have been unearthed at a burial center in Hambledon Hill in Dorset, 60 percent of the skeletons were of children and infants.  At another site called Frisel Lodge, the majority of the men were dead by 36, women by 31, and only a minority of child lived beyond the age of 7; which reminds me of a saying by Francis Bacon;
“The world’s a babble, and the life
of Man
Less than a span.
In his conception, wretched from the womb,
Go to the tomb.”
    The first phase of construction, the digging of ditches, piling up of the bank, was completed by the so called Windmill Hill People. Stonehenge is still cluttered with the instruments of this massive operation.  In several stone holes, and in many sections of the ditch, were found picks and shovels; the picks were made from the antlers of red deer, and shovels consisted of the shoulder bones of oxen.
    The second phase of construction began around 2,200 B.C. by the Beaker People, who brought Welsh Bluestones, consisting of the three main types, polerite, kliyolite, and volcanic ash, which occur naturally in Britain only in one site; a small area about a mile square in the Prescelly Mountains of Wales.  The distance, as the crow flies, is 130 miles; following topography, 240 miles.  Each of the stones weighed approximately 5 tons.
    The Bluestones were set up in two circles, one inside the other, and an avenue was built, undeviating straight, up the northern hillside toward the Henge’s entrance.  Then, apparently, work stopped, and the blue stones were removed, and in their place dozens of massive Sarsens were brought from the Marlborough; it is believed they were dragged over rollers. 
     Next a horseshoe shaped setting of five archways was erected; they’re called the Trilithons.  Surrounding their circle is a ring of dark stones.  Later, the Bluestones were restored, set up in a circle, dismantled, and then arranged differently; this series of events has been referred to as, “a process of change as ceaseless as the drifting waters of the River Avon to the east.”  
     The Bluestones were eased along on sledges that were pulled by teams of men using ropes of twisted hide.  The 80 blocks called the Soren stones were brought from the Marlborough Downs, 120 miles to the north, and weigh on average 30 tons; each of the Trilithon uprights weights about 50 tons.
     Stonehenge could be said to be a monument that belongs to everyman; the pyramids of ancient Egypt, on the other hand, could be labelled as, “one man’s tomb”.

     The towns, palaces, and houses, of ancient Egypt have, for the most part, disappeared due to being situated in the fertile valley, where land was, and still is, of a premium for the production of food.  Tombs, on the other hand, were built in the cliffs, and on the desert, where they have remained undisturbed for centuries.
      A distinctive feature of this civilization is that bodies were mummified to ensure the survival of their “Ka”, or “essential spirit” in the “After world”, where they could effectively achieve immortality.
     The earliest dynasty began during the Archaic Period, 3050-2686 B.C.  In the course of a few generations, a distinctive high culture grew out of the Neolithic Naqada culture; kingship, administration, writing, art, and religion, stepped fully formed into the light of history, wearing their unmistakable Egyptian stamp.
     Around 3000 B.C., nomads, cattle breeders, and farmers, African and Anabic Semites and Hemites, united to form ancient Egypt.  In theory, the king carried out in solitude, every administrative act, and all historical deeds; for only he had the prerequisite magical capabilities to do so.  Two kings seemed to have accomplished this act of historical creation; Narmes and Aha.  They ruled both parts of the country, and it was probably Aha who began the series of historical kings in the annals carried on the Palermo Stone and, thus, the first historical dynasty.
    Every year the Nile is fed by winter rain higher up the river, it broke its banks, and flooded the Egyptian fields with water and fertile salt.  When the water retreated, the farmers were able to sow the seeds in rich, moist, earth.  75 % of the population consisted of farmers, and wheat, barley, and flax, were the primary crops.
     There were actually 31 Dynasties of Kings until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.  There were three Kingdoms, the Old, Middle, and New; the King was believed to be chosen by the gods, and was the highest source of authority.
     The Old Kingdom, (2650-2150 B.C.), was a period of peace, prosperity, and culture.  The Great pyramid of Khufa at Aiya dates from this time.  The oldest pyramid was built by Zoser of the Third Dynasty; the 7-step pyramid is the oldest large stone building in the world; (built at Saqqara) – not until the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty did straight-sided, or true, pyramids, appear.
     The principle features of ancient Egypt were; 1) the King was believed to be god made human; 2) they believed in life after death; 3) and in mummifying a body; the soft internal organs, such as the brain, lungs, and intestines, were removed; the body was covered with salt and dried, and, finally, it was wrapped with bandages, and spices.
     The Pharaoh was considered a God, holding absolute wisdom; he was thought to, however, occasionally act in jest and pettiness, and this because he was equally also a man.  Egyptians didn’t ask themselves the question; why was man created? Because they believed man has always existed, along with the gods, with whom he constitutes one and the same continuum of reality.  For the ancient Egyptians, Reality is, Man is; if any law is to be laid to them, it would have to come from within; there is no "ratio assendi" to a man’s life outside of that life itself; it cannot serve any other purpose but the discharge of its own latent energies and properties.  The ancient Egyptians regarded death not as an end to life, but merely a slight interruption; a shift in gears of operation.  Life, like reality, is eternal.
     Ancient Egypt consisted of two different ethnic groups, 1) the Egyptians in the north, 2) and the black Abyssinians in the south.  Egypt was isolated until approximately 1800 B.C., and then waves of people called the Hyksos crossed the Sinai.  The capital moved south, and became Thebes.  Then the so called war of liberation began, which resulted in the Hyksos dominating after 100 years.
     What followed was that within one or two generations, the alien “Asiatic”, were driven out of Egypt, and the Theban cult of Ammon was re-established throughout Egypt.
     A series of wars happened in stages that drifted into the Fertile Crescent, leading to an Assyrian invasion from 1570-663 B.C.; thereafter began a period of great weakness, and instability, highlighted by a Chaldean invasion in 568 B.C., a Persian invasion from 525-342 B.C., a Greek invasion in 332 B.C., and a Roman invasion in 46 B.C.
     The most revealing archeological remains come from Tutankhamen’s tomb, who was born in 1341 B.C.; he reigned for nine years, and died before he was twenty.  His father, Akhenaten, had rejected the traditional gods of Egypt in favour of a new god, Aten, who isn’t depicted as a person, or as an animal, but as the Sun.  The tomb was discovered by the English archeologist, Howard Carter, on November 4, 1922, and sponsored by the aristocrat Lord Carnarvon, who had been working in the Valley of Kings since 1915.

     The Indus Valley Civilization., also called the Harappa civilization, spanned the years 2600-2000 B.C. Farmers had been living in the hills around the Indus Valley since 6500 B.C., in simple village houses, made of mud bricks.
     It was during a single century 2600-2500 B.C. the Indus Valley went through a massive upheaval that produced what archeologists call the Mature Harappa Culture; during this time two cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were built, each held 50,000, or more, people.  Each consisted of a regular grid of wide streets running north-south, and east-west, to make blocks.  Both cities were found in the 1920’s, by a team of British archeologists led by John Marshel, who started digging at Mohenjo-Daro in 1922.
     At the same time the Harappa Civilization was in existence, the words that would eventually be compiled to form the Vedas were being orally transmitted.  The religion we call today, Hinduism, considers these words to be eternal truth, or truths, and the laws, or the paths to realizing them, and were “revealed” through the body of “seers”, who are said to have “seen” the sacred hymns that embody those truths, and teachings.
     The Rig-Veda is the oldest of the Vedas, the gods whom the Rig-Veda seers praised, and prayed to, are thirty and one personifications of powers or phenomenon of nature; there are three classes of gods; 1) those of the earth: 2) of the atmosphere: 3) and the sky, (specifically, the Sun).

     The name Mesopotamia comes from the Greek phrase meaning, “between the rivers”, the culture is also known as Uruk, and began in the fertile valley between the Euphrates, and Tigris, in the region we call Iraq, in the year 4500 B.C.
     Uruk was thought to hold approximately 1,000 citizens; by 300 B.C., it covered 250 acres, and contained thousands of people.  The Sumerians from 3000-2000 B.C. inhabited the southern region of Mesopotamia; they invaded, and conquered, the whole region in 2370 B.C.
     The Mesopotamian culture centered around a few fundamental questions;
1) What is ultimate reality?
2) Who and What am I?
3) Where did I come from, and where am I going?
4) What is my relation to myself? to others? to nature? to ultimate reality?
     This complex civilization appears to have arisen rapidly, and almost simultaneously, in two areas.  The Tigris-Euphrates is surrounded to the north and east with high plateaus and snowy mountains.
     The “Mesopotamian man” saw himself as the servant of a transcendent deity.  He did not hold himself under any illusion of grandeur.  To serve such a Being meant, therefore, to make the will of God, real.  Reality was dual; consisting of nature, which is material, changing, ephemeral, and 2), God; Ultimate Reality, immaterial, eternal; the Maker and Creator, of the world.
     Social order was for the Mesopotamians the very act of creation.  Religion was life, and life was religion.  To worship God was to fulfil one’s quota of production.  The supreme value by which one lived was discipline.  Man gave to man by giving to God; this was considered the common good.
     The Mesopotamian Civilization came about through the concerted co-operation of people: large scale agriculture; the maintenance of ditches, canals, drains, and reservoirs. 
      The unordered human group was for the Mesopotamians an object of deepest pity and fear.  Humans without a state were considered sheep without a Sheppard; savages from whom only evil could proceed; a dangerous threat to life and civilization, to goodness, to decency; for three millennium their religion and culture remained the same.
     From the sixth century it had fallen in whole, or in part, under the invasion of extensive occupations of armies of “non-Semitic” foreigners, who never belonged to the Near eastern Family – the Hittites, the Kassites, and Hurrians – they came from the north, and north-east.  They brought a radically different language, social and personal ethics, mythology, and world view, with different aesthetic expressions in the visual arts. 
     It was only after a generation or two, however, that the invaders assumed the language, religion, view of the world, of the Near Easterners.
     The collapse of the Mesopotamian empire was due to a change in perception; previously, man was conceived to have treated as mortal, to serve the immortal gods for a brief span; now he began to seek immortality for himself, because he found no more satisfaction in his destiny as mortal servant.  Self-centeredness came to replace his old centeredness around God, the cosmic state, and civilization; in fact, this has been the root cause behind the fall of all societies and civilizations in recorded history.
     Once the duality was gone, existence was extinguished; which is quite the opposite from the Hindu belief that all reality is held within the ethereal.  Everything is Brahman, God; the trees, rivers, mountains, and man, have no reality other than the spiritual, which is Brahman.  In Hindu thought the one reality in concrete only in unreal appearance.  Substance, therefore, belongs to the spiritual, a divine, to Brahman; everything else is accidental or derivative.  In Egypt everything was concrete, nature in space.  Time, and everything else, is accidental or derivative. 
   
     Before there was the Indus Valley Civilization, ancient Egypt, and the Mesopotamians, a city was built upon a hilltop, in what is now the nation of Israel, called Jericho.  It was first populated 12,000 years ago, at the time the ice caps over northern Europe were rapidly receding, and the Jews had just begun inhabiting the British Isles, and the Norwegian coastline.
     It grew until it could be called a town in 10,000 B.C. The remnants consist of many layers; stacked one on top of the other, each layer is the remains of an ancient town or village.  At the bottom is the first small village populated 12,000 years ago, which consisted of round, single roomed, houses.
     The village was surrounded by a wall that stood 16 ft., (5m), tall, and 10 ft., (3m) thick, made up of no fewer than 10,000 tons, 9, 070 metric tons, of building material – many parts of the wall survive to this day.  Just inside the wall is a solid stone tower, 35 ft., (11m) tall, and 30 ft., (9m), wide at the bottom; there is a staircase to the top; it remains solid to this day.
     The people of Jericho had distinctive burial customs.  When someone died, the body, (without the head), was buried under the floor of the house.  The skull was covered with plaster, and shaped to recreate the face of the dead person; with black paint for hair, and shells for eyes.  The plastered skulls were placed in a special room that became a kind of shrine to the dead.
     The people that inhabited ancient Jericho were much the same as those who created the ancient civilizations I’ve described; the central subject that fueled their lives was the nature of the universe, and their leading doctrine was the immortality of the soul. 
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/--eFlEb6e8ew/VJHshGHllzI/AAAAAAAAJ3g/MPLSXPxX0AA/w506-h750/111111.jpg
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https://plus.google.com/101670248192604004074 Francesca Van der Geld : Tutankhamun ( alternately spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty...

Tutankhamun ( alternately spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.

The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's burial mask, now in Cairo Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten (mummy KV55) and Akhenaten's sister and wife (mummy KV35YL), whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35.

Life:
Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or perhaps one of his cousins. As a prince he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure. His wet-nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. A teacher was most likely Sennedjem.
When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn. Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death.

Reign.
Cartouches of his birth and throne names are displayed between rampant Sekhmet lioness warrior images (perhaps with his head) crushing enemies of several ethnicities, while Nekhbet flies protectively above.

Given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and the Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.

In his third regnal year, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned. This is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, "Living image of Amun", reinforcing the restoration of Amun.

As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Thebes and Karnak, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet, and Opet. His restoration stela says:

The temples of the gods and goddesses ... were in ruins. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads ... the gods turned their backs upon this land ... If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond.

The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armor and folding stools appropriate for military campaigns. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk (he died c. age 19), historians speculate that he did not personally take part in these battles.

Health and appearance:
Stripped of all its jewels, the mummy of Tutankhamun remains in the Valley of the Kings in his KV62 chamber.
Tutankhamun was slight of build, and was roughly 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) tall. He had large front incisors and the overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. Between September 2007 and October 2009, various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project. It was determined that none of the mummies of the Tutankhamun lineage has a cephalic index of 75 or less (indicating dolichocephaly), that Tutankhamun actually has a cephalic index of 83.9, indicating brachycephaly, and that none of their skull shapes can be considered pathological. The research also showed that Tutankhamun had "a slightly cleft palate" and possibly a mild case of scoliosis, a medical condition in which the spine is curved from side to side.

Genealogy:
In 2008, a team began DNA research on Tutankhamun and the mummified remains of other members of his family. The results from the DNA samples finally put to rest questions about Tutankhamun's lineage, proving that his father was Akhenaten, but that his mother was not one of Akhenaten's known wives. His mother was one of his father's five sisters, although it is not known which one. The team was able to establish with a probability of better than 99.99 percent that Amenhotep III was the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the father of Tutankhamun. The young king's mother was found through the DNA testing of a mummy designated as 'The Younger Lady' (KV35YL), which was found lying beside Queen Tiye in the alcove of KV35. Her DNA proved that, like his father, she was a child of Amenhotep III and Tiye; thus, Tutankhamun's parents were brother and sister. Queen Tiye held much political influence at court and acted as an adviser to her son after the death of her husband. Some geneticists dispute these findings, however, and "complain that the team used inappropriate analysis techniques."

Bust of Tutankhamun found in his tomb, 1922.
While the data are still incomplete, the study suggests that one of the mummified fetuses found in Tutankhamun's tomb is the daughter of Tutankhamun himself, and the other fetus is probably his child as well. So far, only partial data for the two female mummies from KV21 has been obtained. One of them, KV21A, may well be the infants' mother, and, thus, Tutankhamun's wife, Ankhesenamun. It is known from history that she was the daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, and thus likely to be her husband's half-sister. Another consequence of inbreeding can be children whose genetic defects do not allow them to be brought to term.
Wooden bust of the boy king, found in his tomb

Death:
There are no surviving records of Tutankhamun's final days. What caused Tutankhamun's death has been the subject of considerable debate. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death.

Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental. A CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had suffered a left leg fracture shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system, leading to the belief that malaria and Köhler disease II combined led to his death. On 14 September 2012, ABC News presented a theory about Tutankhamun's death from lecturer and surgeon Dr. Hutan Ashrafian, who believed that temporal lobe epilepsy caused the fatal fall which broke Tutankhamun's leg.

In June 2010, German scientists said they believed there was evidence that he died of sickle cell disease. However, other experts have rejected the hypothesis of homozygous sickle cell disease based on logics based on survival beyond 5-year age and the location of the osteonecrosis which is characteristic of Freiberg-Kohler syndrome rather than sickle-cell disease. Research conducted in 2005 by archaeologists, radiologists, and geneticists who started performing CT scans on his mummy found that he was not killed by a blow to the head, as previously thought. New CT images discovered congenital flaws, which are more common among the children of incest. Siblings are more likely to pass on twin copies of harmful genes, which is why children of incest more commonly manifest genetic defects. It is suspected he also had a partially cleft palate, another congenital defect.

Various diseases invoked as possible explanations to his early demise included Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, Antley–Bixler syndrome or one of its variants, and temporal lobe epilepsy.

The research team consisted of Egyptian scientists Yehia Gad and Somaia Ismail from the National Research Centre in Cairo. The CT scans were conducted under the direction of Ashraf Selim and Sahar Saleem of the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University. Three international experts served as consultants: Carsten Pusch of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Germany; Albert Zink of the EURAC-Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, Italy; and Paul Gostner of the Central Hospital Bolzano. STR analysis based DNA fingerprinting analysis combined with the other techniques have rejected the hypothesis of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (e.g., Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including Köhler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun's. However their exact contribution to the causality of his death still is highly debated.

As stated above, the team discovered DNA from several strains of a parasite proving he was infected with the most severe strain of malaria several times in his short life. Malaria can trigger circulatory shock or cause a fatal immune response in the body, either of which can lead to death. If Tutankhamun did suffer from a bone disease which was crippling, it may not have been fatal. "Perhaps he struggled against other [congenital flaws] until a severe bout of malaria or a leg broken in an accident added one strain too many to a body that could no longer carry the load," wrote Zahi Hawass, archeologist and head of Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquity involved in the research.

A review of the medical findings to date found that he suffered from mild kyphoscoliosis, pes planus, hypophalangism of the right foot, bone necrosis of second and third metatarsal bones of the left foot, malaria, and a complex fracture of the right knee shortly before death.

Finally in late 2013, Egyptologist Dr. Chris Naunton and scientists from the Cranfield Institute performed a "virtual autopsy" of the boy king, revealing a pattern of injuries down one side of his body. Car-crash investigators then created computer simulations of chariot accidents. Dr. Naunton concluded Tutankhamun was killed in a chariot crash: a chariot smashed into him while he was on his knees, shattering his ribs and pelvis. Dr. Naunton also referenced Howard Carter's records of the body having been burnt. Working with anthropologist Dr. Robert Connolly and forensic archaeologist Dr. Matthew Ponting, Naunton produced evidence that Tutankhamun's body was burnt while sealed inside his coffin. Embalming oils combined with oxygen and linen had caused a chemical reaction, creating temperatures of more than 200 °C. Dr. Naunton said, "The charring and possibility that a botched mummification led to the body spontaneously combusting shortly after burial was entirely unexpected."

Aftermath.
Statue of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun at Luxor, hacked at during the damnatio memoriae campaign against the Amarna line of Thutmoside pharaohs.
With the death of Tutankhamun and the two stillborn children buried with him, the Thutmosid family line came to an end. The Amarna letters indicate that Tutankhamun's wife, recently widowed, wrote to the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, asking if she could marry one of his sons. The letters do not say how Tutankhamun died. In the message, Ankhesenamun says that she was very afraid, but would not take one of her own people as husband. However, the son was killed before reaching his new wife. Shortly afterward, Ay married Tutankhamun's widow and became Pharaoh as a war was fought between the two countries, and Egypt was left defeated. The fate of Ankhesenamun is not known, but she disappears from record and Ay's second wife Tey became Great Royal Wife. After Ay's death, Horemheb usurped the throne and instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against him. Tutankhamun's father Akhenaten, stepmother Nefertiti, his wife Ankhesenamun, half sisters and other family members were also included. Not even Tutankhamun was spared. His images and cartouches were also erased. Horemheb himself, despite a possible marriage to Nefertiti's sister, Mutnedjmet, was left childless and willed the throne to Paramessu, who founded the Ramesside family line of pharaohs.

Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became Pharaoh, son of god Ra, and reigned for approximately ten years. "The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods." (Donald B. Redford, PhD, Penn State)
In historical terms, Tutankhamun's significance stems from the fact that his reign was close to the apogee of Egypt as a world power and from his rejection of the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor and father, Akhenaten. Secondly, his tomb in the Valley of the Kings was discovered by Carter almost completely intact—the most complete ancient Egyptian royal tomb ever found. As Tutankhamun began his reign at such an early age, his vizier, and eventual successor Ay, was probably making most of the important political decisions during Tutankhamun's reign.

Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary cults and associated temples. Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his lifetime. A stela discovered at Karnak and dedicated to Amun-Ra and Tutankhamun indicates that the king could be appealed to in his deified state for forgiveness and to free the petitioner from an ailment caused by sin. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and Faras in Nubia. The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult.

Tomb.
Howard Carter and associates opening the shrine doors in the burial chamber (1924 reconstruction of the 1923 event)

Tutankhamun's chest now in the Cairo Museum.
Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was small relative to his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, so that his mummy was buried in a tomb intended for someone else. This would preserve the observance of the customary seventy days between death and burial.

King Tutankhamun's mummy still rests in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. On 4 November 2007, 85 years to the day after Carter's discovery, the 19-year-old pharaoh went on display in his underground tomb at Luxor, when the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box. The case was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb.

Tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings.
His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial. Eventually the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods. In the years that followed, some huts for workers were built over the tomb entrance, clearly not knowing what lay beneath. When at the end of the 20th Dynasty the Valley of the Kings burials were systematically dismantled, the burial of Tutankhamun was overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost and his name may have been forgotten.

For many years, rumors of a "Curse of the Pharaohs" (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb. However, a recent study of journals and death records indicated no statistical difference between the age of death of those who entered the tomb and those on the expedition who did not.
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https://plus.google.com/107277151063054898684 Nigel Shindler : My forthcoming book, "The Jews", reveals that wherever Jews have been, they have left monuments to serve...
My forthcoming book, "The Jews", reveals that wherever Jews have been, they have left monuments to serve as a reminder to others of their presence, why they were there, and also as clues to be combined with others at the end of history to explain a puzzle. 
     In order to build their monuments, Jews used the materials common to each region.  The civilizations they built appeared rapidly; the most likely explanation for such an extreme change, over such a short period of time, was the use of force; tribes, ordinarily, do not welcome radical ideas; they are quite capable of resisting an innovation, even if it is demonstrably beneficial, and putting to death the would be innovator as a sorcerer
    William Camden wrote these words about Stonehenge,
“I cannot but lament that so little is known about the author of such a monument.”
    The first accurate measurements for Stonehenge were laid out by the architect John Wood (1704-54).  He was the first of what would be a cavalcade of astronomers to develop the concept that this most striking monument was some form of astronomical observatory; it consists of huge slabs of rock called Sorens, that jut out from the ground in the southern county of England called Wessex, and is situated in the best possible place to observe heavenly bodies; on every side, the horizon lies three miles in the distance.  The most striking feature of this monument is that the principal line of the whole work points to the northeast, where the sun rises when the days are the longest.
    The most extraordinary phenomenon about this complex structure that was built in a number of stages over approximately 1900 years, that embodied very subtle, advanced concepts, and even more advanced building techniques, was that there would appear not to be any structure of a similar design preceding; typically, one would expect there to be trial building projects, but, as yet, archeologists have found no evidence of such being the case.
    Many myths have been developed as to who originated, planned, designed, Stonehenge; a popular belief is that a man given the name “Merlin” is responsible; the name is thought to be a corruption of the name of the ancient Celtic sky god, “Myrddin”.
    A Welsh bard states that the whole of Britain before men came was called “Clas Myrddin”, or “Merlin’s Enclosure”, and Merlin is thought to have mentioned three waves of invaders prior to construction beginning on Stonehenge; 1) the Formorians, 2) the Sons of Partholan, and 3) the Nemedians.  Mythological records refer to the Fomorians as fierce and dangerous, “gloomy sea-giants, warlike, very troublesome to the entire world.”  Records also mention the Druids as the creator of Stonehenge, who, as far as we know, never wrote anything themselves, but they were commonly perceived to be holy men, medicine men, teachers, and judges, of the Celts throughout Gaul at the time Stonehenge was being built.
    At first Stonehenge merely consisted of a simple, circular, earthwork, or “henge”, or open space bordered by a chalk bank.  The definition of the word, “henge”, is; a circular, or oval, enclosed space defined by a ditch and bank, but with the bank on the outside - the reverse of what would be found in a site constructed for defense.  Outside the entrance stands the “Heel Stone”.  The next stage of construction is the supreme achievement of prehistoric design and engineering, accomplished by ingenious people, with strongly held beliefs, simple tools, and the ability to organize great labour forces.
     For many thousands of years prior to people settling down on the chalk downs of Wessex in 3000 B.C., the population of Britain is thought to have consisted of scattered bands of roving hunters, living on wild game, and wild plants. 
     According to grave sites discovered by archeologists belonging to this time in the same region as Stonehenge, it can be deduced from the direction in which corpses are consistently laid, that the Sun and moon were important to these distant societies.  Skulls appear to have been deliberately broken after death; bodies mutilated; forearms and hands missing, which suggests that the dead were feared, and such acts were precautions taken to prevent the return of their malicious ghosts; whatever they had been in life, their mourners made sure that they would be powerless in their graves.
    The remains found in the long chambered tomb of Tonhill, near Avebury, suggests that their features had an almost American Indian likeness; with high cheekbones, long narrow heads, and sharp noses.
    A life of hard labour, and dangerous work, meant short life spans; according to remains that have been unearthed at a burial center in Hambledon Hill in Dorset, 60 percent of the skeletons were of children and infants.  At another site called Frisel Lodge, the majority of the men were dead by 36, women by 31, and only a minority of child lived beyond the age of 7; which reminds me of a saying by Francis Bacon;
“The world’s a babble, and the life
of Man
Less than a span.
In his conception, wretched from the womb,
Go to the tomb.”
    The first phase of construction, the digging of ditches, piling up of the bank, was completed by the so called Windmill Hill People. Stonehenge is still cluttered with the instruments of this massive operation.  In several stone holes, and in many sections of the ditch, were found picks and shovels; the picks were made from the antlers of red deer, and shovels consisted of the shoulder bones of oxen.
    The second phase of construction began around 2,200 B.C. by the Beaker People, who brought Welsh Bluestones, consisting of the three main types, polerite, kliyolite, and volcanic ash, which occur naturally in Britain only in one site; a small area about a mile square in the Prescelly Mountains of Wales.  The distance, as the crow flies, is 130 miles; following topography, 240 miles.  Each of the stones weighed approximately 5 tons.
    The Bluestones were set up in two circles, one inside the other, and an avenue was built, undeviating straight, up the northern hillside toward the Henge’s entrance.  Then, apparently, work stopped, and the blue stones were removed, and in their place dozens of massive Sarsens were brought from the Marlborough; it is believed they were dragged over rollers. 
     Next a horseshoe shaped setting of five archways was erected; they’re called the Trilithons.  Surrounding their circle is a ring of dark stones.  Later, the Bluestones were restored, set up in a circle, dismantled, and then arranged differently; this series of events has been referred to as, “a process of change as ceaseless as the drifting waters of the River Avon to the east.”  
     The Bluestones were eased along on sledges that were pulled by teams of men using ropes of twisted hide.  The 80 blocks called the Soren stones were brought from the Marlborough Downs, 120 miles to the north, and weigh on average 30 tons; each of the Trilithon uprights weights about 50 tons.
     Stonehenge could be said to be a monument that belongs to everyman; the pyramids of ancient Egypt, on the other hand, could be labelled as, “one man’s tomb”.

     The towns, palaces, and houses, of ancient Egypt have, for the most part, disappeared due to being situated in the fertile valley, where land was, and still is, of a premium for the production of food.  Tombs, on the other hand, were built in the cliffs, and on the desert, where they have remained undisturbed for centuries.
      A distinctive feature of this civilization is that bodies were mummified to ensure the survival of their “Ka”, or “essential spirit” in the “After world”, where they could effectively achieve immortality.
     The earliest dynasty began during the Archaic Period, 3050-2686 B.C.  In the course of a few generations, a distinctive high culture grew out of the Neolithic Naqada culture; kingship, administration, writing, art, and religion, stepped fully formed into the light of history, wearing their unmistakable Egyptian stamp.
     Around 3000 B.C., nomads, cattle breeders, and farmers, African and Anabic Semites and Hemites, united to form ancient Egypt.  In theory, the king carried out in solitude, every administrative act, and all historical deeds; for only he had the prerequisite magical capabilities to do so.  Two kings seemed to have accomplished this act of historical creation; Narmes and Aha.  They ruled both parts of the country, and it was probably Aha who began the series of historical kings in the annals carried on the Palermo Stone and, thus, the first historical dynasty.
    Every year the Nile is fed by winter rain higher up the river, it broke its banks, and flooded the Egyptian fields with water and fertile salt.  When the water retreated, the farmers were able to sow the seeds in rich, moist, earth.  75 % of the population consisted of farmers, and wheat, barley, and flax, were the primary crops.
     There were actually 31 Dynasties of Kings until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.  There were three Kingdoms, the Old, Middle, and New; the King was believed to be chosen by the gods, and was the highest source of authority.
     The Old Kingdom, (2650-2150 B.C.), was a period of peace, prosperity, and culture.  The Great pyramid of Khufa at Aiya dates from this time.  The oldest pyramid was built by Zoser of the Third Dynasty; the 7-step pyramid is the oldest large stone building in the world; (built at Saqqara) – not until the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty did straight-sided, or true, pyramids, appear.
     The principle features of ancient Egypt were; 1) the King was believed to be god made human; 2) they believed in life after death; 3) and in mummifying a body; the soft internal organs, such as the brain, lungs, and intestines, were removed; the body was covered with salt and dried, and, finally, it was wrapped with bandages, and spices.
     The Pharaoh was considered a God, holding absolute wisdom; he was thought to, however, occasionally act in jest and pettiness, and this because he was equally also a man.  Egyptians didn’t ask themselves the question; why was man created? Because they believed man has always existed, along with the gods, with whom he constitutes one and the same continuum of reality.  For the ancient Egyptians, Reality is, Man is; if any law is to be laid to them, it would have to come from within; there is no "ratio assendi" to a man’s life outside of that life itself; it cannot serve any other purpose but the discharge of its own latent energies and properties.  The ancient Egyptians regarded death not as an end to life, but merely a slight interruption; a shift in gears of operation.  Life, like reality, is eternal.
     Ancient Egypt consisted of two different ethnic groups, 1) the Egyptians in the north, 2) and the black Abyssinians in the south.  Egypt was isolated until approximately 1800 B.C., and then waves of people called the Hyksos crossed the Sinai.  The capital moved south, and became Thebes.  Then the so called war of liberation began, which resulted in the Hyksos dominating after 100 years.
     What followed was that within one or two generations, the alien “Asiatic”, were driven out of Egypt, and the Theban cult of Ammon was re-established throughout Egypt.
     A series of wars happened in stages that drifted into the Fertile Crescent, leading to an Assyrian invasion from 1570-663 B.C.; thereafter began a period of great weakness, and instability, highlighted by a Chaldean invasion in 568 B.C., a Persian invasion from 525-342 B.C., a Greek invasion in 332 B.C., and a Roman invasion in 46 B.C.
     The most revealing archeological remains come from Tutankhamen’s tomb, who was born in 1341 B.C.; he reigned for nine years, and died before he was twenty.  His father, Akhenaten, had rejected the traditional gods of Egypt in favour of a new god, Aten, who isn’t depicted as a person, or as an animal, but as the Sun.  The tomb was discovered by the English archeologist, Howard Carter, on November 4, 1922, and sponsored by the aristocrat Lord Carnarvon, who had been working in the Valley of Kings since 1915.

     The Indus Valley Civilization., also called the Harappa civilization, spanned the years 2600-2000 B.C. Farmers had been living in the hills around the Indus Valley since 6500 B.C., in simple village houses, made of mud bricks.
     It was during a single century 2600-2500 B.C. the Indus Valley went through a massive upheaval that produced what archeologists call the Mature Harappa Culture; during this time two cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were built, each held 50,000, or more, people.  Each consisted of a regular grid of wide streets running north-south, and east-west, to make blocks.  Both cities were found in the 1920’s, by a team of British archeologists led by John Marshel, who started digging at Mohenjo-Daro in 1922.
     At the same time the Harappa Civilization was in existence, the words that would eventually be compiled to form the Vedas were being orally transmitted.  The religion we call today, Hinduism, considers these words to be eternal truth, or truths, and the laws, or the paths to realizing them, and were “revealed” through the body of “seers”, who are said to have “seen” the sacred hymns that embody those truths, and teachings.
     The Rig-Veda is the oldest of the Vedas, the gods whom the Rig-Veda seers praised, and prayed to, are thirty and one personifications of powers or phenomenon of nature; there are three classes of gods; 1) those of the earth: 2) of the atmosphere: 3) and the sky, (specifically, the Sun).

     The name Mesopotamia comes from the Greek phrase meaning, “between the rivers”, the culture is also known as Uruk, and began in the fertile valley between the Euphrates, and Tigris, in the region we call Iraq, in the year 4500 B.C.
     Uruk was thought to hold approximately 1,000 citizens; by 300 B.C., it covered 250 acres, and contained thousands of people.  The Sumerians from 3000-2000 B.C. inhabited the southern region of Mesopotamia; they invaded, and conquered, the whole region in 2370 B.C.
     The Mesopotamian culture centered around a few fundamental questions;
1) What is ultimate reality?
2) Who and What am I?
3) Where did I come from, and where am I going?
4) What is my relation to myself? to others? to nature? to ultimate reality?
     This complex civilization appears to have arisen rapidly, and almost simultaneously, in two areas.  The Tigris-Euphrates is surrounded to the north and east with high plateaus and snowy mountains.
     The “Mesopotamian man” saw himself as the servant of a transcendent deity.  He did not hold himself under any illusion of grandeur.  To serve such a Being meant, therefore, to make the will of God, real.  Reality was dual; consisting of nature, which is material, changing, ephemeral, and 2), God; Ultimate Reality, immaterial, eternal; the Maker and Creator, of the world.
     Social order was for the Mesopotamians the very act of creation.  Religion was life, and life was religion.  To worship God was to fulfil one’s quota of production.  The supreme value by which one lived was discipline.  Man gave to man by giving to God; this was considered the common good.
     The Mesopotamian Civilization came about through the concerted co-operation of people: large scale agriculture; the maintenance of ditches, canals, drains, and reservoirs. 
      The unordered human group was for the Mesopotamians an object of deepest pity and fear.  Humans without a state were considered sheep without a Sheppard; savages from whom only evil could proceed; a dangerous threat to life and civilization, to goodness, to decency; for three millennium their religion and culture remained the same.
     From the sixth century it had fallen in whole, or in part, under the invasion of extensive occupations of armies of “non-Semitic” foreigners, who never belonged to the Near eastern Family – the Hittites, the Kassites, and Hurrians – they came from the north, and north-east.  They brought a radically different language, social and personal ethics, mythology, and world view, with different aesthetic expressions in the visual arts. 
     It was only after a generation or two, however, that the invaders assumed the language, religion, view of the world, of the Near Easterners.
     The collapse of the Mesopotamian empire was due to a change in perception; previously, man was conceived to have treated as mortal, to serve the immortal gods for a brief span; now he began to seek immortality for himself, because he found no more satisfaction in his destiny as mortal servant.  Self-centeredness came to replace his old centeredness around God, the cosmic state, and civilization; in fact, this has been the root cause behind the fall of all societies and civilizations in recorded history.
     Once the duality was gone, existence was extinguished; which is quite the opposite from the Hindu belief that all reality is held within the ethereal.  Everything is Brahman, God; the trees, rivers, mountains, and man, have no reality other than the spiritual, which is Brahman.  In Hindu thought the one reality in concrete only in unreal appearance.  Substance, therefore, belongs to the spiritual, a divine, to Brahman; everything else is accidental or derivative.  In Egypt everything was concrete, nature in space.  Time, and everything else, is accidental or derivative. 
   
     Before there was the Indus Valley Civilization, ancient Egypt, and the Mesopotamians, a city was built upon a hilltop, in what is now the nation of Israel, called Jericho.  It was first populated 12,000 years ago, at the time the ice caps over northern Europe were rapidly receding, and the Jews had just begun inhabiting the British Isles, and the Norwegian coastline.
     It grew until it could be called a town in 10,000 B.C. The remnants consist of many layers; stacked one on top of the other, each layer is the remains of an ancient town or village.  At the bottom is the first small village populated 12,000 years ago, which consisted of round, single roomed, houses.
     The village was surrounded by a wall that stood 16 ft., (5m), tall, and 10 ft., (3m) thick, made up of no fewer than 10,000 tons, 9, 070 metric tons, of building material – many parts of the wall survive to this day.  Just inside the wall is a solid stone tower, 35 ft., (11m) tall, and 30 ft., (9m), wide at the bottom; there is a staircase to the top; it remains solid to this day.
     The people of Jericho had distinctive burial customs.  When someone died, the body, (without the head), was buried under the floor of the house.  The skull was covered with plaster, and shaped to recreate the face of the dead person; with black paint for hair, and shells for eyes.  The plastered skulls were placed in a special room that became a kind of shrine to the dead.
     The people that inhabited ancient Jericho were much the same as those who created the ancient civilizations I’ve described; the central subject that fueled their lives was the nature of the universe, and their leading doctrine was the immortality of the soul. 
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https://plus.google.com/116818403146919905720 Etienne Rémy : Painted in 1887
Painted in 1887
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https://plus.google.com/108507217311895731961 Monika Aloka : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
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https://plus.google.com/112699433828778589321 John Haynes : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
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https://plus.google.com/106439553077118810759 Meris Pires : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
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https://plus.google.com/110703715684437912729 Makayla Allynn : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
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https://plus.google.com/112862547621885369651 Aleksandr Rustamov : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-wJovnIhkZ2I/VHdbDxotVfI/AAAAAAADjHg/Le6sljW3aj4/w506-h750/6c9aaf8dd1fb39c51a5fa2c6c2167dc9.jpg
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https://plus.google.com/104722373620469333708 Moazzam Ali : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-wJovnIhkZ2I/VHdbDxotVfI/AAAAAAADjHg/Le6sljW3aj4/w506-h750/6c9aaf8dd1fb39c51a5fa2c6c2167dc9.jpg
3 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/117612275342423389235 Ester Mira : #ThrowBackThursday The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  ...
#ThrowBackThursday      
        The Legendary  Old Cataract Hotel ........ #Aswan  
     Peace & Love Be Upon #Egypt  .........
The hotel was built in 1899 by Thomas Cook[1] to house European travelers. Its guests have included Tsar Nicholas II, Winston Churchill, Howard Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Jimmy Carter, Princess Diana, Queen Noor and Agatha Christie, who set portions of her novel Death on the Nile at the hotel.[2] The 1978 film of the novel was shot at the hotel..........              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cataract_Hotel
Photo Source : https://www.etsy.com/listing/76612192/similar?ref=error_page_redirect&filters=landscape+travel
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-wJovnIhkZ2I/VHdbDxotVfI/AAAAAAADjHg/Le6sljW3aj4/w506-h750/6c9aaf8dd1fb39c51a5fa2c6c2167dc9.jpg
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https://plus.google.com/103342676317014235914 Yellow Car : The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver...
The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver and ornamented with semiprecious stones and coloured glass. The scene on the back panel shows the queen ( Sen-in-mut) anointing the king. The sun's rays, terminating in the hands ,radiate towards the royal couple. The king wears a composite crown and abroad collar and the queen wears a diadem. The bodies and wigs of both them are inlaid with exquisite colored glass and their linen robes are silver. Two projecting lions heads protect the seat of the throne while the arms take the form of winged serpents wearing the double crown and guarding the names of the king, a wooden footrest was also used to support the king's feet. It is engraved with subjugated figures of the foes from the North and South, known as ( nine - bows ) lying bound, the rekhyt birds, referring to the common people, are also shown here under the control of the king Tutankhamun. HOWARD CARTER discovered that chair in the antechamber beneath the hippopotamus couch is similar to the chair belong to Sitamun. I notice that the queen wears one sandal in her foot and the king wears the other sandl I think this symbol of the love between them that they shared the sandals between them. 
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-9Rt0t2HZ-8I/VF6RGEGRAuI/AAAAAAAAB60/etOpl39oehI/w506-h750/2014%2B-%2B1
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https://plus.google.com/116228535538106105902 dolly mohamed dody : Treasures of the king Tutankhamun, Howard carter found his tomb in 1922 , Tutankhamun ' s collections...
Treasures of the king Tutankhamun, Howard carter found his tomb in 1922 , Tutankhamun ' s collections at the Egyptian's museum , Cairo , Egypt. 
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-A_fGA5tVmiE/VIpHEForjRI/AAAAAAAACc8/0QfJLra67IU/w506-h750/2014%2B-%2B1
7 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/101736678598031572203 Eziel Vieira : The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver...
The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver and ornamented with semiprecious stones and coloured glass. The scene on the back panel shows the queen ( Sen-in-mut) anointing the king. The sun's rays, terminating in the hands ,radiate towards the royal couple. The king wears a composite crown and abroad collar and the queen wears a diadem. The bodies and wigs of both them are inlaid with exquisite colored glass and their linen robes are silver. Two projecting lions heads protect the seat of the throne while the arms take the form of winged serpents wearing the double crown and guarding the names of the king, a wooden footrest was also used to support the king's feet. It is engraved with subjugated figures of the foes from the North and South, known as ( nine - bows ) lying bound, the rekhyt birds, referring to the common people, are also shown here under the control of the king Tutankhamun. HOWARD CARTER discovered that chair in the antechamber beneath the hippopotamus couch is similar to the chair belong to Sitamun. I notice that the queen wears one sandal in her foot and the king wears the other sandl I think this symbol of the love between them that they shared the sandals between them. 
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-9Rt0t2HZ-8I/VF6RGEGRAuI/AAAAAAAAB60/etOpl39oehI/w506-h750/2014%2B-%2B1
8 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/101736678598031572203 Eziel Vieira : The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver...
The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver and ornamented with semiprecious stones and coloured glass. The scene on the back panel shows the queen ( Sen-in-mut) anointing the king. The sun's rays, terminating in the hands ,radiate towards the royal couple. The king wears a composite crown and abroad collar and the queen wears a diadem. The bodies and wigs of both them are inlaid with exquisite colored glass and their linen robes are silver. Two projecting lions heads protect the seat of the throne while the arms take the form of winged serpents wearing the double crown and guarding the names of the king, a wooden footrest was also used to support the king's feet. It is engraved with subjugated figures of the foes from the North and South, known as ( nine - bows ) lying bound, the rekhyt birds, referring to the common people, are also shown here under the control of the king Tutankhamun. HOWARD CARTER discovered that chair in the antechamber beneath the hippopotamus couch is similar to the chair belong to Sitamun. I notice that the queen wears one sandal in her foot and the king wears the other sandl I think this symbol of the love between them that they shared the sandals between them. 
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-9Rt0t2HZ-8I/VF6RGEGRAuI/AAAAAAAAB60/etOpl39oehI/w506-h750/2014%2B-%2B1
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https://plus.google.com/108064009467855885021 Soror Lourdes Metz : Howard Carter at King Tut's tomb. Jan.1924.
Howard Carter at King Tut's tomb. Jan.1924.
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-2kFDovu6mXU/VIhTEhxx_ZI/AAAAAAAAHck/nEyvCl6v4u8/w506-h750/604-620x.jpg
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https://plus.google.com/110232560416591434223 David Hoyt : Howard Carter at King Tut's tomb. Jan.1924.
Howard Carter at King Tut's tomb. Jan.1924.
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-2kFDovu6mXU/VIhTEhxx_ZI/AAAAAAAAHck/nEyvCl6v4u8/w506-h750/604-620x.jpg
8 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/114510292908739298214 J. M. K. Walkow : The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver...
The back of the king Tutankhamun 's throne chair. The chair is made of wood covered with gold and silver and ornamented with semiprecious stones and coloured glass. The scene on the back panel shows the queen ( Sen-in-mut) anointing the king. The sun's rays, terminating in the hands ,radiate towards the royal couple. The king wears a composite crown and abroad collar and the queen wears a diadem. The bodies and wigs of both them are inlaid with exquisite colored glass and their linen robes are silver. Two projecting lions heads protect the seat of the throne while the arms take the form of winged serpents wearing the double crown and guarding the names of the king, a wooden footrest was also used to support the king's feet. It is engraved with subjugated figures of the foes from the North and South, known as ( nine - bows ) lying bound, the rekhyt birds, referring to the common people, are also shown here under the control of the king Tutankhamun. HOWARD CARTER discovered that chair in the antechamber beneath the hippopotamus couch is similar to the chair belong to Sitamun. I notice that the queen wears one sandal in her foot and the king wears the other sandl I think this symbol of the love between them that they shared the sandals between them. 
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-9Rt0t2HZ-8I/VF6RGEGRAuI/AAAAAAAAB60/etOpl39oehI/w506-h750/2014%2B-%2B1
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