Sign in with Twitter

Type the topic in any language to check out real time results of Who's Talking on Social Media Sites


Trending Topics: Joelma No Faro#GOSG#DesafioDos13#DWTPreVendaSãoPauloKeiller#TsunamiVemSdv#ShowDosFamososGirlboss#TamanhoFamilia#ConexaoTuitaDiogo BarbosaACABOU O CAÔ#SegundaDetremuraSdvArão#MTVMIAW#DiaMundialdoLivroNóiaMatheus FerrazRafael VazDOTAFlaxFluSão JorgeNovo Hamburgo#paniconaband#superliga#dingdongJoe JohnsonBotafogoMarcelo OliveiraGuerreroReal Madrid x Barcelona#ElianaTropa de Elite#Fantastico#RYG17Jane ParkVoice of the MirrorWest Kirby#4YearsAndStillHere#AllDayHeyWoodbury Common#stuc17#stalkingmatters#EGU17Mike Samwell#Frenchelections2017The HolocaustMr Men#natstatweekCity of Culture#WexMondays#bbcgmsSouth Belfast#whomademyclothes#MondayBlogs#BURMUN#LineofDutyRoyal Navy#StGeorgesDayStandardDunk Contest 2017Ivan KoloffChris SullivanOroville Dam updateHunter McGradyGeorge The Animal SteelePokemon Go Gen 2Robert HarwardLos Angeles WeatherWeather Los AngelesSteve Irwinlisa marie presleyDonald GloverNba All Star Game 2017spacex launchAll Star Weekend 2017Congressional Black Caucussan diego weatherRush LimbaughWin ButlerMore

Most recent 19 results returned for keyword: Howard Carter (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/108131600591522326740 Adam “Dziadek59” Maślak : Howard Carter an English archaeologist, explores the open sarcophagus King Tut (KV62 chamber). Howard...
Howard Carter an English archaeologist, explores the open sarcophagus King Tut (KV62 chamber).
Howard Carter (born May 9, 1874 in Brompton, Kensington, March 2, 1939) is an English archaeologist and Egyptologist. Initially a watercolor, later an archaeological copyist, colorist and illustrator, finally recognized Egyptologist and discoverer of Tutankhamun's tomb (together with Lord Carnavon).
4 hours ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/101034890774297318809 Sol Systema : The Great Pyramid Texts (Cont) 4 By Clesson H. Harvey The 'Curse' of Tutankhamen is real after all...

The Great Pyramid Texts (Cont) 4

By Clesson H. Harvey

The 'Curse' of Tutankhamen is real after all. But it is only dangerous to those who are not in accord with at least the ideal of becoming a Candidate Activator of the Spiritual Eye, those who are 'spiritually impure' in the 'opinion' of the four protective Shrines of Tutankhamen.
Thanks to the research of Graham Hancock in "The Sign and the Seal," those four protective Shrines, now located on the second floor of the Cairo Museum, begin to look more like actual 'prototype Arks of the Covenant.' The evidence in support of this possibility is really quite overwhelming.
In the words of Howard Carter, "Magic for once seems to have prevailed (when those Arks successfully protected Tutankhamen's sarcophagus from tomb-robbers in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor)." In his Volume Two on page 38 of "The Tomb of Tut-ankh-Amen," he continues, "For of twenty-seven monarchs of the Imperial Age of Egypt buried in this valley, who have suffered every kind of depredation, Tut-ankh-Amen, throughout those thirty-three centuries, alone has lain unscathed, even though predatory hands violated the chambers of his tomb..."

The King's Chamber of his tomb was originally filled with four concentrically nested 'prototype Arks of the Covenant' designed to magically protect his sarcophagus from anyone who was spiritually impure. And incredible as it may appear, there can be no doubt that they actually succeeded. Tomb-robbers broke open the double door seal of the outermost Ark and then just looked inside without penetrating beyond 'the magic barrier.' The fact that Howard Carter himself lasted as long as he did after his penetration is more a tribute to his spiritual purity than anything else. The double door of the second Ark was closed by two ebony door bolts and a frail central cord secured only by a fragile clay seal. The third Ark's double door was similarly sealed, and the fourth Ark's double door had no seal at all. Those two clay seals were all that stood between plundering tomb-robbers and hundreds of pounds of solid gold in the enclosed sarcophagus. What stopped them? As Carter says, the tomb was wide open for many weeks to the prying eyes of every tomb-robber in the valley, while those four Shrines were being assembled by workers from 80 prefabricated parts in the confining space of the King's Chamber. It took Carter and his team 84 days of "hard labor" just to disassemble them in order to remove them.
It looks as though something 'terrible' really did stop all those tomb-robbers. But this would mean that those four Shrines don't just resemble such prototype Arks. They really are prototype Arks of the Covenant. This indeed is what additional evidence will show from, of all places, The Great Pyramid Texts.
The required rectangular box shape of 'terrible power' for any such "monstrous instrument" had to be built into its dimensions, so that a prototype Ark could be activated by and "between the two prototype cherubim" of Isis and Nephthys as described repeatedly in The Great Pyramid Texts for activating the Eye of Heru.

Egyptologists have not yet discovered that all four of Tutankhamen's Shrines have a common prefabricated "cross-sectional area" to "length squared" ratio of (9/25) according to the published dimensions in Alexandre Piankoff's "The Shrines of Tut-ankh-Amon." This is the same 'terrible' ratio which was specified for the Biblical Ark of the Covenant.

The Nine was a deliberate link to the paranormal forces of the Eye of Heru, when activated by and between the two prototype cherubim. It is not too surprising that Nine might have such a weird connection with miraculous forces because in 1926, Erwin Schroedinger discovered a strange Quantum Mechanical Equation which turned out to have just such a set of Nine prototype solutions for the electron energy structures of the hydrogen atom.

As described in "The Sign and the Seal" on pp. 273-6, the Biblical Ark of the Covenant:

was "a rectangular chest measuring three feet nine inches by two feet three inches by two feet three inches" which is a special case of the more general (9/25) shape ratio specification referred to earlier for all four Shrines,
was "made of acacia wood" (Egyptologists believe the four Shrines are made of cedar wood),
was "plated inside and out, with pure gold" (the four Shrines were similarly covered),
was decorated "all around with a gold moulding" (all four Shrines have such a moulding all around the top edge of the rectangular box shapes),
had placed "on top ... a one piece ... throne of mercy ... with two golden cherubim fastened to the two ends" (all four Shrines have such prototype mercy seat lids with two golden prototype cherubim attached as high-winged serpent forms of Isis and Nephthys),
had occasionally "fiery jets" issuing "from the cherubim" ... which "burned and destroyed nearby objects" ( ... it is because a Candidate has come near you, O fiery serpent, PT 194b),
"was able to counteract gravity" ( ... Which mechenet Ark Eye shall be brought for you, O Candidate? There shall be brought for a Candidate 'It levitates and It hovers.' PT 494ab),
repeatedly killed ( ... so that whomever the Godhead wishes that he will live, it is he who will live; and whomever he wishes that he will die, it is he who will die. PT 155d).
Three of the four prototype mercy seats are covered with activation texts and illustrations, but they are too far above everyone's head to be visible from below.
If four Prototype Arks of the Covenant can now be in the Cairo museum, there is no reason why the Biblical Ark can't be in Axum, Ethiopia. And if the guardian priest in Axum will not allow us to see the Ark, at least we have four giant prototype Arks to look at whenever we wish to or dare to.
The Great Pyramid Texts, as here conceived, have given a voice to the Great Pyramid. But, in a strangely self-confirming way, they have also given a startlingly unexpected voice to the nearby Great Sphinx temple complex southeast of the Great Pyramid itself.The Sphinx Temple is directly in front of the Great Sphinx, while the so-called Kh'afr'a Valley Temple is just southeast of the Sphinx. The entire Great Sphinx temple complex is presently thought to be devoid of contemporaneously inscribed texts. Egyptologists believe that both temples were built by Kh'afr'a about forty-five centuries ago in the 4th Dynasty. But as argued by John Anthony West on page 214 of "Serpent in the Sky," "The architectural style and building scale of the Sphinx and Sphinx temple complex are unlike anything else in Dynastic Egypt."
The megalithic red granite ashlars, as architectural Hieroglyphs in both temples, alone indicate a predynastic date. According to Mark Lehner on page 126 of "The Complete Pyramids" in the Kh'afr'a Valley Temple "There are 23 statue bases, though the one at the center of the leg of the T-shaped hall is wider and perhaps was counted twice, making 24 in all." And again on page 128 he says that in the Sphinx Temple, "Twenty-four red granite pillars formed a colonnade and ambulatory around a central courtyard." However they have no known purpose.
But in The Great Pyramid Texts, there just happens to be one key Utterance 219 which repeats the same profound prototype Covenant in lines 167b to 167d exactly twenty-four times. As it does this, it seeks to explain the relationship between An Activator of the Eye and the rest of the Universe from the Godhead down to beings like ourselves. Egyptologists do not agree on how to read this prototype Covenant text, but a programmably translated sample has a reasonably clear meaning in this first of its twenty-four parts.
167a. djed Said (in the King's Chamber facing the so-called Kh'afr'a Valley Temple) medu were the words: Tem O Godhead, za ek pu whenever such a son of yours pe nen is this one here, Usir the Activator of the Eye, di en ek it is because you have caused sedjeb ef him to be reincarnated, 'anekh ef so that he may live.
167b. 'anekh ef But he lives, 'anekh Un-is pen so that such a Candidate Activator of the Eye may live; ne met ef he does not die (a second time), ne met Un-is pen so that such a Candidate will not die (a second time);
167c. ne sek ef he does not fail to be the Polestar, ne sek Un-is pen so that such a Candidate will not fail to be ensouled; ne nehhep ef he does not copulate, ne nehhep Un-is pen so that such a Candidate will not copulate,
167d. en because hhep ef he is in accord with the Law, en and because hhep Un-is pen such a Candidate is in accord with the Law. ...
The above Covenant is between the Godhead and such Candidate Activators of the Eye. This Temple structured Utterance with its prototype Covenant is unique in The Great Pyramid Texts. And it really does seem to fit with the actual words which were said before each of those 23 statue bases in the Kh'afr'a Valley Temple.
Article 4
Contact C.H.Harvey
The Short Path
3 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/113820583108953604550 Manha Ateek :

About Howard carter and Lord carnavan
The reason that Tutankhmun is so well known todayis that his tomb contaning fabulous tresures,was found earlythis century [1922] by british archeoligists Howard carter and Lord carnavan. The tomb of egypt 's boy -king Tutankh...
3 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/109516129406050852080 Ancient Egypt : Tutankhamun - In 1925 archaeologist Howard Carter found two dagger's in the mummy of the young pharaoh...
Tutankhamun - In 1925 archaeologist Howard Carter found two dagger's in

the mummy of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun ,

mummification  , more than 3,300 years ago,

one of them an iron and the other a gold blade.

Scientists have for decades been plagued by the Tutankhamun golden dagger blade with the golden handle, the crystal rocky side and the blade decorated with lily flower and jackal.

https://www.ancientofegypt.com/the-dagger-of-tutankhamun/
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-lkCWXCDz5V0/WPewtWJZ6XI/AAAAAAAAAEM/UeKYrEBmnn89P40xa24avoQkrmSzm4ungCJoC/w506-h750/2017-04-19_20-31-21_1280x720.jpg
4 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/110472173182921522839 Tabitha Stone : Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE) was a pharaoh of Egypt of the 18th Dynasty. He is also known as `Akhenaton...
Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE) was a pharaoh of Egypt of the 18th Dynasty. He is also known as `Akhenaton’ or `Ikhnaton’ and also `Khuenaten’, all of which are translated to mean `successful for’ or `of great use to’ the god Aten. Akhenaten chose this name for himself after his conversion to the cult of Aten. Prior to this conversion, he was known as Amenhotep IV (or Amenophis IV). He was the son of Amenhotep III and his wife Tiye, husband of Queen Nefertiti, and father of both Tutankhamun (by a lesser wife named Lady Kiya) and Tutankhamun’s wife Ankhsenamun (by Nefertiti). His reign as Amenhotep IV lasted five years during which he followed the policies of his father and the religious traditions of Egypt. However, in the fifth year, he underwent a dramatic religious transformation, changed his devotion from the cult of Amun to that of Aten, and, for the next twelve years, became famous (or infamous) as the `heretic king’ who abolished the traditional religious rites of Egypt and instituted the first known monotheistic state religion in the world and, according to some, monotheism itself. His reign is known as The Amarna Period because he moved the capital of Egypt from the traditional site at Thebes to the city he founded, Akhetaten, which came to be known as Amarna. The Amarna Period is the most controversial era in Egyptian history and has been studied, debated, and written about more than any other.

AMENHOTEP IV BECOMES AKHENATEN
Amenhotep IV may have been co-regent with his father, Amenhotep III, and it has been noted that the sun-disk known as the `Aten’ is displayed on a number of inscriptions from this period. The Aten was not new to the rule of Akhenaten and, prior to his conversion, was simply another cult among the many in ancient Egypt. It should be noted that `cult’ did not have the same meaning in this regard as it does in the present day. There was absolutely nothing negative in the designation of a community of worshippers being known as a `cult’ in ancient Egypt. It carried the same meaning then as a member of the Christian community today being designated a Baptist, a Lutheran, a Presbyterian, or Catholic or Eastern Orthodox. The gods and practices of the various cults all represented the same end: eternal harmony and balance.

AKHENATEN'S RELIGIOUS REFORMS MAY HAVE BEEN THE FIRST EVER INSTANCE OF MONOTHEISM.
Amenhotep III ruled over a land whose priesthood, centered on the god Amun, had been steadily growing in power for centuries. By the time Amenhotep IV came to power, the priests of Amun were on almost equal standing with the royal house in wealth and influence. The historian Lewis Spence writes, "With the exception of Ra and Osiris, the worship of Amun was more widespread than that of any other god in the Nile Valley; but the circumstances behind the growth of his cult certainly point to its having been disseminated by political rather than religious propaganda" (137). By the time of Amenhotep IV, the Cult of Amun owned more land than the king. In the 5th year of his reign, Amenhotep IV outlawed the old religion and proclaimed himself the living incarnation of a single, all-powerful, deity known as Aten and, by the 9th year, he had closed all the temples and suppressed religious practices. The historian Barbara Watterson writes:

By the ninth year of his reign, Akhenaten had proscribed the old gods of Egypt, and ordered their temples to be closed, a very serious matter, for these institutions played an important part in the economic and social life of the country. Religious persecution was new to the Egyptians, who had always worshipped many deities and were ever ready to add new gods to the pantheon. Atenism, however, was a very exclusive religion confined to the royal family, with the king as the only mediator between man and god (111-112).

Amenhotep moved his seat of power from the traditional palace at Thebes to one he built at the city he founded, Akhetaten, changed his name to Akhenaten, and continued the religious reforms which resulted in his being despised as `the heretic king' by some later writers while admired as a champion of monotheism by others.

Stela of Akhenaten
Stela of Akhenaten

AKHENATEN’S MONOTHEISM
Some historians have praised Akhenaten's reforms as the first instance of monotheism and the benefits of monotheistic belief; but these reforms were not at all beneficial to the people of Egypt at the time. The historian Durant, for example, writes that Akhenaten's reforms were "the first out-standing expression of monotheism - seven hundred years before Isaiah [of the Bible] and an astounding advance upon the old tribal deities" (210). Those `old tribal deities' of Egypt, however, had encouraged peace, harmony, and the development of one of the greatest ancient cultures the world has ever known. The polytheism of the ancient Egyptians encouraged a world view where peace and balance were emphasized and religious tolerance was not considered an issue; there is not even a word directly corresponding to the concept of `religious tolerance' in the ancient Egyptian texts. A hallmark of any monotheistic belief system, however, is that it encourages the belief that, in order for it to be right, other systems must necessarily be wrong; and this insistence on being the sole administrator of ultimate truth leads to intolerance of other beliefs and their suppression; this is precisely what happened in Egypt. The names of the god Amun and the other gods were chiseled from monuments throughout Egypt, the temples were closed, and the old practices outlawed. The Egyptologist Zahi Hawass writes:

Dating to this point in Akhenaten’s reign was a campaign to excise the name of gods other than the Aten, especially Amun, from the monuments of Egypt. This was done with violence: hieroglyphs were brutally hacked from the walls of temples and tombs. This was probably carried out, at least in part, by illiterate iconoclasts, presumably following the orders of their king. [Akhenaten] carried out a religious revolution the like of which had never been seen before in Egypt. His reign represents a significant departure from religious, artistic, and political norms (42-43).

Priests of Amun who had the time and resources hid statuary and texts from the palace guards sent to destroy them and then abandoned their temple complexes. Akhenaten ordained new priests, or simply forced priests of Amun into the service of his new monotheism, and proclaimed himself and his queen gods.

THE PHARAOH AS A SERVANT OF THE GODS, & IDENTIFIED WITH A CERTAIN GOD WAS COMMON PRACTICE BUT NO ONE BEFORE AKHENATEN HAD PROCLAIMED HIMSELF AN ACTUAL GOD,
NEGLECTING EGYPT'S ALLIES
The pharaoh as a servant of the gods, and identified with a certain god (usually Osiris), was common practice in ancient Egypt but no one before Akhenaten had proclaimed himself an actual god incarnate. One of the many unfortunate results of Akhenaten's religious reforms was a neglect of foreign policy. From documents and letters of the time it is known that other nations, formerly allies, wrote numerous times asking Egypt for help in various affairs and that most of these requests were ignored by the deified king. Egypt was a wealthy and prosperous nation at the time and had been steadily growing in power since before the reign of Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE). Hatshepsut and her successors, such as Tuthmosis III, employed a balanced approach of diplomacy and military action in dealing with foreign nations; Akhenaten chose simply to largely ignore what happened beyond the borders of Egypt and, it seems, most things outside of his palace at Akhetaten. Watterson notes that Ribaddi (Rib-Hadda), king of Byblos, who was one of Egypt's most loyal allies, sent over fifty letters to Akhenaten asking for help in fighting off Abdiashirta (also known as Aziru) of Amor (Amurru) but these all went unanswered and Byblos was lost to Egypt (112). Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, who had also been a close ally of Egypt, complained that Amenhotep III had sent him statues of gold while Akhenaten only sent gold-plated statues.

THE AMARNA LETTERS
The Amarna Letters, (correspondence found in the city of Amarna between the kings of Egypt and those of foreign nations) which provide evidence of Akhenaten’s negligence, also show him to have a keen sense of foreign policy when the situation interested him. He strongly rebuked Abdiashirta for his actions against Ribaddi and for his friendship with the Hittites who were then Egypt’s enemy. This no doubt had more to do with his desire to keep friendly the buffer states between Egypt and the Land of the Hatti (Canaan and Syria, for example, which were under Abdiashirta’s influence) than any sense of justice for the death of Ribaddi and the taking of Byblos. There is no doubt that his attention to this problem served the interests of the state but, as other similar issues were ignored, it seems that he only chose those situations which interested him personally. Akhenaten had Abdiashirta brought to Egypt and imprisoned for a year until Hittite advances in the north compelled his release but there seems a marked difference between his letters dealing with this situation and other king’s correspondence on similar matters.

Amarna Letter
Amarna Letter

While there are, then, examples of Akhenaten looking after state affairs, there are more which substantiate the claim of his disregard for anything other than his religious reforms and life in the palace. It should be noted, however, that this is a point hotly debated among scholars in the modern day, as is the whole of the so-called Amarna Period of Akhenaten’s rule. Regarding this, Hawass writes, “More has been written on this period in Egyptian history than any other and scholars have been known to come to blows, or at least to major episodes of impoliteness, over their conflicting opinions” (35). The preponderance of the evidence, both from the Amarna letters and from Tutankhamun’s later decree, as well as archaeological indications, strongly suggests that Akhenaten was a very poor ruler as far as his subjects and vassal states were concerned and his reign, in the words of Hawass, was “an inward-focused regime that had lost interest in its foreign policy” (45).

Any evidence that Akhenaten involved himself in matters outside of his city at Akhetaten always comes back to self-interest rather than state-interest. Hawass writes:

Akhenaten did not, however, abandon the rest of the country and retire exclusively to Akhetaten. When he laid out his city, he also commanded that a series of boundary stelae be carved in the cliffs surrounding the site. Among other things, these state that if he were to die outside of his home city, his body should be brought back and buried in the tomb that was being prepared for him in the eastern cliffs. There is evidence that, as Amenhotep IV, he carried out building projects in Nubia, and there were temples to the Aten in Memphis and Heliopolis, and possibly elsewhere as well (45).

AKHETATEN & AMARNA ART
Life in his palace at Akhetaten seems to have been his primary concern. The city was built on virgin land in the middle of Egypt facing towards the east and precisely positioned to direct the rays of the morning sun toward temples and doorways. The city was:

Laid out parallel to the river, its boundaries marked by stelae carved into the cliffs ringing the site. The king himself took responsibility for its cosmologically significant master plan. In the center of his city, the king built a formal reception palace where he could meet officials and foreign dignitaries. The palaces in which he and his family lived were to the north and a road led from the royal dwelling to the reception palace. Each day, Akhenaten and Nefertiti processed in their chariots from one end of the city to the other, mirroring the journey of the sun across the sky. In this, as in many other aspects of their lives that have come to us through art and texts, Akhenaten and Nefertiti were seen, or at least saw themselves, as deities in their own right. It was only through them that the Aten could be worshipped: they were both priests and gods (Hawass, 39).

The art Hawass references is another important deviation of the Amarna Period from earlier and later Egyptian eras. Unlike the images from other dynasties of Egyptian history, the art from the Amarna Period depicts the royal family with elongated necks and arms and spindly legs. Scholars have theorized that perhaps the king “suffered from a genetic disorder called Marfan’s syndrome” (Hawass, 36) which would account for these depictions of him and his family as so lean and seemingly oddly-proportioned. A much more likely reason for this style of art, however, is the king’s religious beliefs. The Aten was seen as the one true god who presided over all and infused all living things. It was envisioned as a sun disk whose rays ended in hands touching and caressing those on earth. Perhaps, then, the elongation of the figures in these images was meant to show human transformation when touched by the power of the Aten. The famous Stele of Akhenaten, depicting the royal family, shows the rays of the Aten touching them all and each of them, even Nefertiti, depicted with the same elongation as the king. To consider these images as realistic depictions of the royal family, afflicted with some disorder, seems to be a mistake in that there would be no reason for Nefertiti to share in the king’s supposed disorder. The depiction, then, could illustrate Akhenaten and Nefertiti as those who had been transformed to god-like status by their devotion to the Aten to such an extent that their faith is seen even in their children.

Akhenaten
Akhenaten

The other aspect of Amarna Period art which differentiates it from earlier and later periods is the intimacy of the images, best exemplified in the Stele of Akhenaten showing the family enjoying each other’s company in a private moment. Images of pharaohs before and after this period depict the ruler as a solitary figure engaged in hunting or battle or standing in the company of a god or his queen in dignity and honor. This can also be explained as stemming from Akhenaten’s religious beliefs in that the Aten, not the pharaoh, was the most important consideration (as in the Stele of Akhenaten, it is the Aten disk, not the family, which is the center of the composition) and, under the influence of the Aten’s love and grace, the pharaoh and his family thrives.

AKHENATEN’S MONOTHEISM & LEGACY
This image of the Aten as an all-powerful, all-loving, deity, supreme creator and sustainer of the universe, is thought to have had a potent influence on the later development of monotheistic religious faith. Whether Akhenaten was motivated by a political agenda to suppress the power of the Cult of Amun or if he experienced a true religious revelation, he was the first on record to envision a single, supreme deity who cared for the individual lives and fates of human beings. Sigmund Freud, in his 1939 work Moses and Monotheism, argues that Moses was an Egyptian who had been an adherent of the Cult of Aten and was driven from Egypt following Akhenaten’s death and the return to the old religious paradigm. Freud quotes from James Henry Breasted, the noted archaeologist, that:

It is important to notice that his name, Moses, was Egyptian. It is simply the Egyptian word `mose’ meaning `child’, and is an abridgement of a fuller form of such names as `Amen-mose’ meaning `Amon-a-child’ or `Ptah-mose’ meaning `Ptah-a-child’…and the name Mose, `child’, is not uncommon on the Egyptian monuments (5).

Freud recognizes that the Cult of Aten existed long before Akhenaten raised it to prominence but points out that Akhenaten added a component unknown previously in religious belief: “He added the something new that turned into monotheism, the doctrine of a universal god: the quality of exclusiveness” (24). The Greek philosopher Xenophanes would later experience a similar vision that the many gods of the Greek city-states were vain imaginings and there was only one true god and, though he shared this vision through his poetry, he never established the belief as a revolutionary new way of understanding oneself and the universe. Whether one regards Akhenaten as a hero or villain in Egypt’s history, his elevation of the Aten to supremacy changed not only that nation’s history, but the course of world civilization.

To those who came after him in Egypt, however, he was the `heretic king’ and `the enemy’ whose memory needed to be eradicated. His son, Tutankhamun (reigned 1336-1327 BCE) was given the name Tutankhaten at birth but changed his name upon ascending the throne to reflect his rejection of Atenism and his return of the country to the ways of Amun and the old gods. Tutankhamun’s successors Ay (1327-1323 BCE) and, especially, Horemheb (c. 1320-1292 BCE) tore down the temples and monuments built by Akhenaten to honor his god and had his name, and the names of his immediate successors, stricken from the record. In fact, Akhenaten was unknown in Egyptian history until the discovery of Amarna in the 19th century CE. Horemheb's inscriptions listed him as the successor to Amenhoptep III and made no mention of the rulers of the Amarna Period. Akhenaten’s tomb was uncovered by the great archaeologist Flinders Petrie in 1907 CE and Tutankhamun’s tomb, more famously, by Howard Carter in 1922 CE. Interest in Tutankhamun spread to the family of the `golden king’ and so attention was brought to bear again on Akhenaten after almost 4,000 years. His legacy of monotheism, however, if Freud and others are correct, was a part of the world’s culture since he instituted what remains a potent aspect of daily life in the present day.
www.ancient.eu/uploads/images/5445.jpg?v=1485682317

6 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

On the Cross Road: Jesus Journey to Jerusalem (Luke chapeters 10-19) and what it has to say to us as his followers (An Index)
For most of the past year I have been working through a sermon series on the narrative of Jesus final jounrey to Jerusalem in Luke's Gospel. It is a jounrey which takes up the central third of the gospel in the telling (ch10-...
6 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/117379335792052009767 Good University : Soon after discovering King Tut’s tomb in 1922, Howard Carter discovered that the tomb had been opened...
Soon after discovering King Tut’s tomb in 1922, Howard Carter discovered that the tomb had been opened and resealed at least twice since its royal occupant had been laid to rest there. When Carter called his benefactor, the earl of Carnarvon, to tell him…
Preventing looting from ancient sites
Soon after discovering King Tut’s tomb in 1922, Howard Carter discovered that the tomb had been opened and resealed at least twice since its royal occupant had been laid to rest there. When Carter …
9 days ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/109325257549775830743 TII Inc. Thinktank for Interstellar Interaction : Tutankhamun ,Howard Carter working on the lid of the second coffin still nestled within the case of ...
Tutankhamun ,Howard Carter working on the lid of the second coffin still nestled within the case of the first coffin in the burial chamber....October1925
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-mrFRbOysY5g/WO8dDVWh0zI/AAAAAAAEs30/nMsD6UQduOgUYI1DPOMju0b_YVeTRW-HgCJoC/w506-h750/001
9 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

Good Friday... Good Grief (Mark 15:21-47)
The term ‘good grief’ seems to be an oxymoron, a contradiction in terms, how can that keen mental suffering or distress caused by affliction and loss, be Good? Yes, it is the natural process we go through when we lose someon...
10 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

What love is this? a reprise of a good friday poem/prayer
In about 2003 I wrote this reflection for a Good Friday Service. I've dragged it out and used a few times over the years. But it needed a bit of a re-write. the refrain what love is this has been cut and I've rewritten the l...
11 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/114298487826473012360 توته توتة : Archaeologist Howard Carter and an Egyptian assistant examining the opened sarcophagus of King Tut at...
Archaeologist Howard Carter and an Egyptian assistant examining the opened sarcophagus of King Tut at The Griffith Institute, University of Oxford, England


https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-21sgVy6JQEo/WOQpceAKsKI/AAAAAAAAyZY/ja5yyLIwqhcbC419IQLVg7YoELn8XpPGgCJoC/w506-h750/howard_carter_and_assistant_%2528c%2529_griffith_institute%252C_university_of_oxford.jpg
11 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

If the stones cried out... I wonder what they'd say ( an insillation for Palm Sunday).
'If the stones cried out I wonder what they'd say?' This was my unlikely reflection leading into Palm Sunday. I started to write my typical flowery prayer but decided it might be better to invite people to voice (or at least ...
12 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

The King on a Borrowed Donkey (Luke 19:28-48)
One Sunday after church I took James out for a driving lesson and we ended up heading out to Auckland airport, and as we were going along George Bolt drive, a high-speed motorcade came towards us from the airport. There were ...
13 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/113454201523599175815 Puzur Sulgi : The Restoration Stela, ca. 1334 BCE Restauration Stela Year 1, Akhet (month) 4 , day 19, under his ...
The Restoration Stela, ca. 1334 BCE

Restauration Stela Year 1, Akhet (month) 4 , day 19, under his majesty of Horus "Strong Bull Beautiful of Births", the Two Ladies "Effective of Laws who Pacifies the Two Lands", Golden Horus "Young of Appearance Satisfying the Gods", king of Upper and Lower Egypt Nebkheperure, Son of Re Tutankhamen, ruler of Heliopolis of the South, who is given life for all eternity like Re, beloved of Amen-Re, Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands from Ipet-esut, beloved of Atem. Lord of the Two Lands, the Heliopolitan, of Re-Harakhte, of Ptah south of his Wall, Lord of the life of the Two Lands, of Thoth, lord of the words of the gods, who appeared on the Horus throne of the living daily like his father Re.

The Good God, son of Amen, child of the Bull of his mother; useful seed; holy egg created by Amen himself; father of the Two Lands, creator of the one who created him and former of him who had formed him. The bas of Heliopolis were assembled in order to form him to make a king for eternity, Horus existing forever.
After Helck, Wolfgang, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. Übersetzung zu den Heften 17-22, Berlin, 1984, pp. 365-368

The good ruler, performing benefactions for his father (Amen) and all the gods, for he has made what was ruined to endure as a monument for the ages (5) of eternity and he has expelled deceit throughout the Two Lands, and justice was set up [so that] it might make lying to be an abomination of the land, as (in) its first time. Now when his majesty appeared as king, the temples of the gods and goddesses from Elephantine [1] [down] to the marshes of the Delta [had... and] gone to pieces (or fallen into neglect). Their shrines had become desolate, had become mounds overgrown with [weeds]. Their sanctuaries (or chapels) were as if they had never been. Their halls were a footpath (or trodden roads). The land was topsy-turvy and the gods turned their backs upon this land.
If [the army was] sent to Djahi [2] to extend the frontiers of Egypt, no success of theirs came at all.
If one prayed to a god to seek counsel from him, he would never come [at all]. If one made supplication (or petition) to a goddess similarly, she would never come at all.

Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Princeton, 1969, pp. 251-252
Now when some days had passed his majesty appeared on the throne of his father. He ruled the Banks of Horus, the Black Land and the Red Land were under his rule. Every land bowed before his might. But his majesty was in the palace which was in the domain of Akheperkare [4] like Re in the sky. Then his majesty made plans for this land and the daily needs. Then his majesty thought in his heart and searched for something magnificent useful for his father Amen. He created his holy statue from genuine electrum. He gave him more than had been done since the beginning. He formed his father Amen on 13 carrying poles (Davies [3]: 13 poles long), and his magnificent statue was made of electrum, lapis-lazuli, turquoise and all kinds of precious stones. Formerly the majesty of this holy god had been on 11 poles.

He created Ptah-south-of-his-Wall, the lord of Lives-of-Both-Lands, and his holy statue was made of electrum on 11 poles and his magnificent image was made of electrum, lapis-lazuli, turquoise and all kinds of precious stones. Formerly this holy god had been on only 7 carrying poles (Davies: 7 poles long).

His majesty made monuments for the gods by making their holy statues of genuine electrum of the best of the foreign lands (Davies: electrum from the tribute of the foreign lands). He recreated their sanctuaries as monuments until the limits of eternity, exquisitely equipped with offerings for all eternity, by endowing them with divine offerings as regular daily sacrifices and endowing them with provisions on earth (Davies: bread from the earth). He gave more than had been formerly. He surpassed what had been done since the times of his ancestors. He introduce wab-priests and prophets of the children of the officials of their city, as the son of a man of note whose name was known (Davies: whose reputation is established). He multiplied their altars of gold, silver, bronze and copper (Davies: enriched their tables with gold ...) and there was no end to all things. He filled their workhouses with male and female slaves (Davies: workers) from the supply of booty of his majesty. He increased all the taxes to the temples (Davies: He has added to the wealth), doubling, trebling and quadrupling the silver, gold, lapis-lazuli, turquoise and all kinds of precious stones, royal linen, white linen, coloured linen (Davies: ordinary linen), utensils, resin, fat, ... incense, frankincense, myrrh, without there being a limit to all the good things.

His majesty, life, prosperity, health, built barks (Davies: quays) on the Nile from new cedar wood of the best of Lebanon, from the pick of Negau, mounted with gold of the best (Davies: tribute) of the foreign lands so that they brighten the Nile. His majesty , life prosperity, health, assembled male and female slaves, female singers and dancers, who had been milling slaves in the king's house. The cost of their labour was charged to the palace and to the treasury of the lord of the Two Lands. I had them protected and freed (Davies: guarded) for the forebears, all gods, hoping to satisfy them by doing what their kas, who are protecting the land of Egypt, wish.

The gods and goddesses who are in this land, their hearts were full of joy and the lords of the sanctuaries were jubilating. The lands rejoiced and exulted. Laughter was (heard) throughout the land as beautiful things had happened. The Ennead in the sanctuary, (raised) their arms in adoration, while their hands were filled with heb seds for all eternity. All their life and health was (from) the nose of the mighty king , the Horus, who repeats births, the beloved son of Amen-Re, king of the gods, who had begotten him so that he would be created, of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt ... beloved of Amen, his verily his eldest beloved son, who protects the father who has begotten him, whose kingship is the kingship of Osiris, of the son of Re ... of the son, who is beneficial to the one who has begotten him, the one rich in monuments, with many marvels, who makes monuments in probity for his father Amen, beautiful of births, of the sovereign who founded Egypt.

After Helck, Wolfgang, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. Übersetzung zu den Heften 17-22, Berlin, 1984, pp. 365-368


It is difficult to estimate just how badly the temples in general and the Amen temples in particular fared under Akhenaten. Tutankhamen's inscription describes their lot as one of utter destruction. Unfortunately rulers everywhere, and not least the pharaohs, have been known to embellish the truth, aggrandize themselves and their accomplishments, detract from their enemies' worth, claim the achievements of others as their own or simply copy somebody else's inscriptions. A king who needed the support of the priesthood might well have talked of the 'desolation of the shrines' to make his own contribution to the temples more impressive.

But in the absence of any evidence to the contrary we should accept the essence of the stela's inscription and not lose ourselves in speculation, while always remembering that the stela's statements are very general and largely unsupported by independent evidence. That Amen represented something especially odious to Akhenaten can be deduced from the erasure of his depictions and those of his family, while other gods and their followers were mostly left untouched [5]. Some oppression of his priests and temples is not unlikely.

Worship of other gods went on even in Akhetaten itself. Amulets and figurines of Hathor, Isis, Bes, the wedjat and even inscriptions bearing the name of Amen have been found


Dagger in Tutankhamun's tomb was made with iron from a meteorite

Researchers who analysed metal composition of dagger within wrapping of mummified teenage king say it ‘strongly suggests an extraterrestrial origin’
King Tut dagger

The sarcophagus of King Tutankhamun in its burial chamber after the mummy was placed in a glass urn designed to protect the remains from humidity and other contamination. Photograph: Cris Bouroncle/AFP/Getty Images

Burial site of Egypt's boy-king Tutankhamun discovered

In 1925, archaeologist Howard Carter found two daggers, one iron and one with a blade of gold, within the wrapping of the teenage king, who was mummified more than 3,300 years ago. The iron blade, which had a gold handle, rock crystal pommel and lily and jackal-decorated sheath, has puzzled researchers in the decades since Carter’s discovery: ironwork was rare in ancient Egypt, and the dagger’s metal had not rusted.

Italian and Egyptian researchers analysed the metal with an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine its chemical composition, and found its high nickel content, along with its levels of cobalt, “strongly suggests an extraterrestrial origin”. They compared the composition with known meteorites within 2,000km around the Red Sea coast of Egypt, and found similar levels in one meteorite.

That meteorite, named Kharga, was found 150 miles (240km) west of Alexandria, at the seaport city of Mersa Matruh, which in the age of Alexander the Great – the fourth century BC – was known as Amunia.

The researchers published their findings on Tuesday in the journal Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

Although people have worked with copper, bronze and gold since 4,000BC, ironwork came much later, and was rare in ancient Egypt. In 2013, nine blackened iron beads, excavated from a cemetery near the Nile in northern Egypt, were found to have been beaten out of meteorite fragments, and also a nickel-iron alloy. The beads are far older than the young pharaoh, dating to 3,200BC.

“As the only two valuable iron artifacts from ancient Egypt so far accurately analysed are of meteoritic origin,” the team that studied the knife wrote, “we suggest that ancient Egyptians attributed great value to meteoritic iron for the production of fine ornamental or ceremonial objects”.

The researchers also stood with a hypothesis that ancient Egyptians placed great importance on rocks falling from the sky. They suggested that the finding of a meteorite-made dagger adds meaning to the use of the term “iron” in ancient texts, and noted around the 13th century BC, a term “literally translated as ‘iron of the sky’ came into use … to describe all types of iron”.

“Finally, somebody has managed to confirm what we always reasonably assumed,” Thilo Rehren, an archaeologist with University College London, told the Guardian.

Rehren, who studied the nine meteoritic beads, said “there never has been a reason to doubt this outcome but we were never really able to put this hard data behind it”.

He added that other objects from Tutankhamun’s tomb, including jewelry and miniature daggers, are believed to made from meteorite iron.

“Yes, the Egyptians referred to this stuff as metal from the heaven, which is purely descriptive,” he said. “What I find impressive is that they were capable of creating such delicate and well manufactured objects in a metal of which they didn’t have much experience.”

Advertisement

The researchers wrote in the new study: “The introduction of the new composite term suggests that the ancient Egyptians were aware that these rare chunks of iron fell from the sky already in the 13th [century] BCE, anticipating Western culture by more than two millennia.”

Egyptologist Joyce Tyldesley, of the University of Manchester, has similarly argued that ancient Egyptians would have revered celestial objects that had plunged to earth.

“The sky was very important to the ancient Egyptians,” she told Nature, apropos of her work on the meteoritic beads. “Something that falls from the sky is going to be considered as a gift from the gods.”

The high quality of the blade suggests that Tutankhamun, who lived during the latest stage of the Bronze Age, was supported by ironworkers who were skilled despite the relative rarity of the material.

The blade may not be the only item derived from falling rocks on Tut’s person.

In 2006, an Austrian astrochemist proposed that an unusual yellowish gem, shaped as a scarab in King Tut’s burial necklace, is actually glass formed in the heat of a meteorite crashing into sand.

“It would be very interesting to analyse more pre-Iron Age artifacts, such as other iron objects found in King Tut’s tomb,” Daniela Comelli, of the physics department at Milan Polytechnic, told Discovery News. “We could gain precious insights into metal working technologies in ancient Egypt and the Mediterranean.”

#TheRestorationStela #Tutankhamun #BronzeAge #Egypte #Horus #AkhetMonth #Tut #Re-Harakhte #Re #Ptah
15 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/113454201523599175815 Puzur Sulgi : The reassertion of Egyptian power and the building of an empire New Kingdom Dynasties XVIII to XX ...
The reassertion of Egyptian power and the building of an empire
New Kingdom
Dynasties XVIII to XX


Most pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty acceded while still very young and no reference is made to brothers of the king although in a number of cases certainly more princes were alive at the time of death of their father. These young rulers did not possess much power over the military, the officialdom and the priesthood of Amen. The queen's palace also played an important role. All these parties tried to manipulate the king, who often only served to legitimise the government controlled by one faction or another.
Expulsion and pursuit of the Hyksos Ahmose I (r. c.1570-1546 BCE), was the founder of the 18th dynasty, one of the most outstanding kings in the history of ancient Egypt. His principal achievement was to weaken the Hyksos, who had dominated Lower Egypt for some 300 years, by taking Avaris, their citadel in the north. He pursued them into southern Canaan and laid siege to Sharuhen for three years. On his campaign in Upper Egypt against rebels great slaughter was recorded in all the battles.
Ahmose continued Kamose's expansion into Nubia as far as Buhen (near the second cataract) in an attempt to prevent a recurrence of the incursions of the Kushites, which Upper Egypt had suffered from during the 17th Dynasty. The overseer over these conquered lands became one of the most important people in Egypt and was later given the title of "Son of the King".

The Tempest Stela of Ahmose I
The Donation Stela of Ahmose I

Amenhotep I (Amenophis) was the son of Ahmose I, and ruled from c. 1546 to 1526. He undertook military campaigns in Libya and in Nubia (up to the 3rd cataract) using boats on the Nile to transport his army, and extended the boundaries of his empire by establishing a vice-royalty in Nubia.
Thutmose I, (r. c. 1525-1512), husband of the princess Ahmose, continued the expansive policy of his predecessors, appointed Turi vice-roy of Nubia and extended the empire southward deeper into Nubia. At the third cataract he erected a stela on an island proclaiming:

His sword touches both ends of the earth.
Later, while pursuing the retreating Hyksos during his Asian campaigns, he reached the Euphrates and crossed over into Nahrin, the land of the Two Rivers, which belonged to the Mitanni.
In his third year he re-excavated the canals bypassing the first cataract, put down a rebellion and returned with his fleet, with
that wretched Nubian Bowman head downward at the bow of his majesty's ship "Falcon."
He added walls and obelisks to the temple of Amen at Thebes and the axial temple he created was often copied. He was the first king to be buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes.
The biography of Ahmose, son of Ebana
Thutmose II (r. c.1512-c.1504 BCE) married his half sister Hatshepsut and succeeded his father, Thutmose I. During his reign Thutmose put down Kushite rebellions in Nubia and revolts by bedouins in Canaan and continued temple construction, albeit on a small scale only, at Karnak.
Hatshepsut (Hatshepsowe), (died c.1482 BCE) was one of the few women to rule Egypt as a pharaoh. After the death (c.1504) of her husband, Thutmose II, she assumed power, first as regent for his son Thutmose III, and then (c.1503) as pharaoh. She encouraged commercial expansion, sent a trading expedition to Punt and sponsored a major building program overseen by Senenmut; the monuments of her reign include the temple at Deir el-Bahri. Toward the end of her reign she lost influence to Thutmose III who came to be depicted as her equal.

Queen Hatshepsut on the Hyksos
Map of the Egyptian empire
Egypt during the New Kingdom:
The empire under Thutmose III
Thutmose III (c.1504-1450 BCE) was very young when his father, Thutmose II, died and was until 1482 the co-regent of his aunt, Hatshepsut. Some time after he became sole monarch,he tried, for unknown reasons, to erase the memory of Hatshepsut by destroying many of the monuments which bore her name or effigy. From 1482 onwards, he devoted himself to the expansion of the Egyptian empire, leading many campaigns into Canaan, Phoenicia and Syria.
At Megiddo (c.1480) he destroyed a Syrian-Canaanite coalition employing mercenary armies and chariots. On the east bank of the river Euphrates in Nahrin, he defeated the forces of the kingdom of Mitanni, which had been extending its power in the Middle East.
Thutmose expanded his navy and used it to transport his armies swiftly to the Phoenician coast, while in Setet (Nubia) and Kush he extended his rule beyond the fourth cataract.
He set up an efficient administration, both civil and military, and extorted large amounts of tribute from the defeated kings and chiefs. Much of this tribute Thutmose used to build temples at Karnak (the Festival Hall of the temple of Amen), Heliopolis and Abydos.
The autobiography of Ahmose Pen-nekhbet, who lived during the reigns of Ahmose I to Thutmose III
The battle of Megiddo
Thutmose's campaign against the Asiatics
Texts from Theban tombs
The Napata (Gebel Barkal) stele
The autobiography of Amenemhab
A fictional account of the taking of Joppa by Djehuti

Amenhotep II, the 7th king of the 18th dynasty, son of Thutmose III, ruled Egypt from c.1450 to 1425 BCE. He continued the military exploits of his father, particularly in Syria, where he crushed an uprising and demanded oaths of loyalty from local rulers. His mummy was discovered in the Valley of the Kings.
The Asiatic campaigns of Amenhotep II

Thutmose IV campaigned in Nubia and Retenu. He concluded a treaty with the Babylonians and entered into an alliance with the Mitanni by marrying Artatama's daughter.

Amenhotep III ruled (c.1417-1379 BCE) Egypt at the height of its power. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed in the Amarna tablets. Of the great temple he built near Thebes, only two statues, the so-called colossi of Memnon, remain. Amenhotep's wife Tiye, a woman of non-royal birth, was prominently associated with him during his long and peaceful reign.
Two marriages of Amenhotep III
The Semna stela of the viceroy Merimose


Akhenaten, excerpt; Courtesy Jon Bodsworth
Akhenaten
Excerpt. Courtesy Jon Bodsworth
Nefertiti
Nefertiti

Tutankhamen; Source: Jon Bodsworth
Tutankhamen
Courtesy Jon Bodsworth Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (c. 1379-1361), was invested as king not in the Amen temple at Karnak as custom dictated, but at Hermonthis, where his uncle Inen was High Priest of Re and immediately began building a roofless temple to the Aten, the disk of the rising sun. He soon forbade the worship of other gods, especially of the state god Amen of Thebes. In the 6th year he changed his name from Amenhotep ("Amen is satisfied") to Akhenaten ("beneficial to Aten") and left Thebes for a new capital at Akhetaten (El Amarna).
Living there with his queen Nefertiti, six daughters, and possibly several sons, he fostered new styles in art and literature. The confiscation of the wealth of the Amen temples wreaked havoc upon its priesthood. Akhenaten used these riches to strengthen the royal control over the army and his officialdom. His concentration on internal affairs brought about the loss of some of the Egyptian possessions in Canaan and Retenu (Syria) and of the Egyptian naval dominance, when Aziru defected to the Hittites with his fleet.
His religious reforms did not survive his reign and monotheism [2] in its pure form was forgotten in Egypt, even though it found a new expression in the trinity of Re, Ptah and Amen. The Aten temples were demolished, and Akhenaten came to be called "the Enemy" or the "criminal of Akhetaten."
The Amarna letters

The subsequent events are unclear, but it is possible that on the death of Akhenaten, Meritaten, who had become his wife as well as co-regent, married Smenkhkare. (Some think that Meritaten may have been Smenkhkare)
An attempt by Kiya to usurp the throne was suppressed and the remains of Akhenaten and Tiye were transferred to another site in the Valley of the Kings; Akhenaten was buried in Kiya's coffin. In Tutankhamen's reign, both mummies were moved to the tomb of Amenhotep III.
Tutankhamen (c. 1361-1352 BCE), the son in law of Akhenaten, succeeded his brother Smenkhkare when he was only nine years old. His vizier Ay restored the traditional polytheistic religion, abandoning the monotheistic cult of Aten of Akhenaten, its religious centre at el Amarna and returning to the capital Thebes. By reviving the cult of the state god Amen he strengthened the position of Amen's priesthood. The pharaoh changed his name Tutankhaten, (living image of Aten), to Tutankhamen, (living image of Amen).
During his reign, the general Horemheb sought to 'pacify' Canaan and fought against the Hittites in northern Syria allied to the Assyrians.

Tutankhamen's restoration

Tutankhamen died at the age of 18, some claim that he was murdered, but there is no real evidence to support this. As there were apparently no legal heirs, a plea by the King's Wife for a suitable prince consort seems to have reached the Hittite king Suppiliuma.
The "Zannanza" affair

Tutankhamen was succeeded by Ay (c. 1352-1348), who married his widow, Ankhesenamen, and furnished the former king's tomb [1]. Ay acceded to the throne despite Horemheb's claim to be the designated successor. His accession to the throne may have been an attempt on the part of the Egyptians to appease the Hittites, by whom they had just been defeated.
Horemheb (c.1321-1293) who followed Ay, pursued a more hawkish policy vis-à-vis the Hittites, rebuilding his army devastated by the pestilence, which had affected much of the Near East killing the Hittite king Suppiluliuma who was followed by Mursili.


19th Dynasty

Ramses I, founder of the 19th dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, reigned for little more than a year, between 1293 and 1291 BC. Apparently chosen for succession by the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Horemheb, in whose army he had been a commander, Ramses planned and started to build the colonnaded hall in the temple at Karnak.
Stela at Buhen

Seti I succeeded his father, Ramses I and ruled from about 1291 till 1278 BCE. He reoccupied the forts in Sinai which had been taken over by the Shasu and conducted several campaigns in Syria and Canaan fighting local kings, the Hittites and nomadic tribes like the Hebrews.
He is remembered for his work on the temples at Karnak and for his magnificent tomb at Thebes. He was succeeded by Ramses II.
Excerpts from the Journal of a frontier official

The mummy of Ramses II
The mummy of Ramses II
Ramses II victorious
Ramses II smiting enemies

Ramses II (c. 1278-1237 BCE) is remembered for his military campaigns and his extensive building program [3], the remains of which are still conspicuous. Ramses, like his father Seti I, pursued a vigorous foreign policy by attacking the Hittites, the chief opponents of the Egyptian empire in the East. His first campaigns against them in the fifth year of his reign ended in an Egyptian retreat after a violent battle at Kadesh in Syria, during which Ramses himself narrowly escaped capture mainly thanks to the intervention of a troop contingent arriving from Amurru. The consequent loss of prestige sparked revolts within the empire, and Ramses could not resume direct hostilities against the Hittites until the tenth year of his reign; the conflicts were finally concluded by a peace treaty in his 21st year.

He also fought in Trans-Jordan and Nubia and secured the western coast road of Egypt against Libyan invaders by building fortresses along the Mediterranean coast as far as 300 km west of the Delta.
Ramses was responsible for building many large temples, most notably that at Abu Simbel in Nubia. He also founded a new royal capital at Per-Ramesse ("the house of Ramses") in the eastern Nile delta. During his long reign, Ramses had more than 100 children, and by his death he had outlived his 11 eldest sons.
Egyptian accounts of the battle of Kadesh
Commemorative Stela of the family of Ramses at Tanis
Correspondence between Ramses and Hattusili III
Beit Shean Stelae inscription
The Asiatic campaigning of Ramses II

Ramses was succeeded by his 12th, surviving son, Merneptah (c.1212-1202 BCE). Under Merneptah an army of the Sea Peoples attacked Egypt which consisted for the most part of the Akhaivasa (perhaps Achaeans), and has been chronologically related to the migratory wave that put an end to Troy VII a.
Hymn to Merneptah (the so-called Israel Stela)
The report of a frontier official
The Pursuit of Runaway Slaves

The time following his reign was chaotic, Seti II who was probably a legitimate heir, reigned for some six years, while coming from Nubia, a usurper, Amenmes controlled Upper Egypt and was followed by Ramses Siptah (later called Merneptah Siptah).
Queen Twosret, widow of Seti II, tried to expunge the memory of her predecessor. According to the Harris Papyrus Yarsu, perhaps identical with the Syrian chancellor of Siptah, usurped the throne during this period.
Ramses III vanquishing his enemies
Ramses III vanquishing his enemies
After R. Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Abth.III, Bl.209
20th Dynasty

Succeeding his father Sethnakhte who reigned for three years, Ramses III (c.1182-1151 BCE) saved Egypt from foreign invasion but failed to solve internal problems (political conspiracies and weakened social structures) that led to the disintegration of the Egyptian state 80 years after his death. Ramses fought off Libyan invasions in his fifth and eleventh year. He also claimed to have held back a horde of invading Sea Peoples who were sweeping down the eastern Mediterranean coast towards Egypt.
Despite these external successes, royal power declined and Egypt lost its Asiatic colonies which were conquered by the Sea Peoples, even if in the Medinet Habu texts describing the battle of Ramses III the Egyptians claim that they settled them as vassals in Southern Canaan.
During the reigns of Ramses III or IV most centres of Egyptian power in Canaan were destroyed and Ramses VI withdrew from Serabit el Khadim, the copper mines of Timna and possibly Megiddo. During this time the temples became richer at the expense of the pharaohs; Ramses III for instance attempted building only one major structure. Government was corrupt and inefficient, and Ramses himself was the target of an assassination plot before being succeeded by his son Ramses IV in 1151 BCE. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
Until the end of the 20th dynasty the empire shrank and ambitious royal building programs failed. Government was impeded by the independence of officialdom, as offices became hereditary, and corruption and inefficiency increased. Its influence in the Middle East declined. The New Kingdom ended in turmoil under Ramses XI.

[1] All the other tombs in the Valley of the kings at Thebes were later plundered, but the tomb, in which Tutankhamen had been buried, was hidden by rock chips dumped there when the tomb of a later king was excavated, and was not ransacked. It was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter, filled with extraordinary treasure, including a solid gold coffin, a gold mask, jewellery, and many artefacts.
[2] There is a wide divergence of opinion whether Akhenaten's creed was monotheistic. Other religious models have been proposed, such as monolatry.
[3] At the same time he destroyed many older temples, using them as quarries.
- - Previous (12th to 17th Dynasty)
- Next (21st to 31st Dynasty)
- History Contents Page
- Dynasty List
- Main Index and Search Page

Offsite links (Opening in a new window)
I do not assume any responsibility for the content or availability of these websites.

- 18th Dynasty
- Hatshepsut
- Maat-Ka-Ra Hatshepsut
- Hatshepsut: Wicked stepmother or Joan of Arc? by Peter F. Dorman
- The Death of a Pharaoh
- The mysteries of Akhenaten (Pictures don't display)
- The Mystery of Akhenaten: Genetics or Aesthetics? by Megaera Lorenz (1996)
- Tutanchamun (in German)
- King Tut (with pictures of the tomb taken by Carter's expedition)
- When the House of Akhnaton Died Out
- The End of the Amarna Period by Dr Marc Gabolde
- The tomb of Senneferi
- Beth Shean Valley Archaeological Project
- Haremhab Appointed to Administer Egypt
- Twentieth Dynasty
- When Civilization Collapsed: Death of the Bronze Age by William H. Stiebing, Jr.
http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history18-20.htm

16 days ago - Via Community - View -
https://plus.google.com/104880342407749621862 Samantha Pearl : The reassertion of Egyptian power and the building of an empire New Kingdom Dynasties XVIII to XX Most...

The reassertion of Egyptian power and the building of an empire
New Kingdom
Dynasties XVIII to XX

Most pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty acceded while still very young and no reference is made to brothers of the king although in a number of cases certainly more princes were alive at the time of death of their father. These young rulers did not possess much power over the military, the officialdom and the priesthood of Amen. The queen's palace also played an important role. All these parties tried to manipulate the king, who often only served to legitimise the government controlled by one faction or another.
Expulsion and pursuit of the Hyksos Ahmose I (r. c.1570-1546 BCE), was the founder of the 18th dynasty, one of the most outstanding kings in the history of ancient Egypt. His principal achievement was to weaken the Hyksos, who had dominated Lower Egypt for some 300 years, by taking Avaris, their citadel in the north. He pursued them into southern Canaan and laid siege to Sharuhen for three years. On his campaign in Upper Egypt against rebels great slaughter was recorded in all the battles.
Ahmose continued Kamose's expansion into Nubia as far as Buhen (near the second cataract) in an attempt to prevent a recurrence of the incursions of the Kushites, which Upper Egypt had suffered from during the 17th Dynasty. The overseer over these conquered lands became one of the most important people in Egypt and was later given the title of "Son of the King".

The Tempest Stela of Ahmose I
The Donation Stela of Ahmose I

Amenhotep I (Amenophis) was the son of Ahmose I, and ruled from c. 1546 to 1526. He undertook military campaigns in Libya and in Nubia (up to the 3rd cataract) using boats on the Nile to transport his army, and extended the boundaries of his empire by establishing a vice-royalty in Nubia.
Thutmose I, (r. c. 1525-1512), husband of the princess Ahmose, continued the expansive policy of his predecessors, appointed Turi vice-roy of Nubia and extended the empire southward deeper into Nubia. At the third cataract he erected a stela on an island proclaiming:

His sword touches both ends of the earth.
Later, while pursuing the retreating Hyksos during his Asian campaigns, he reached the Euphrates and crossed over into Nahrin, the land of the Two Rivers, which belonged to the Mitanni.
In his third year he re-excavated the canals bypassing the first cataract, put down a rebellion and returned with his fleet, with
that wretched Nubian Bowman head downward at the bow of his majesty's ship "Falcon."
He added walls and obelisks to the temple of Amen at Thebes and the axial temple he created was often copied. He was the first king to be buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes.
The biography of Ahmose, son of Ebana
Thutmose II (r. c.1512-c.1504 BCE) married his half sister Hatshepsut and succeeded his father, Thutmose I. During his reign Thutmose put down Kushite rebellions in Nubia and revolts by bedouins in Canaan and continued temple construction, albeit on a small scale only, at Karnak.
Hatshepsut (Hatshepsowe), (died c.1482 BCE) was one of the few women to rule Egypt as a pharaoh. After the death (c.1504) of her husband, Thutmose II, she assumed power, first as regent for his son Thutmose III, and then (c.1503) as pharaoh. She encouraged commercial expansion, sent a trading expedition to Punt and sponsored a major building program overseen by Senenmut; the monuments of her reign include the temple at Deir el-Bahri. Toward the end of her reign she lost influence to Thutmose III who came to be depicted as her equal.

Queen Hatshepsut on the Hyksos
Map of the Egyptian empire
Egypt during the New Kingdom:
The empire under Thutmose III
Thutmose III (c.1504-1450 BCE) was very young when his father, Thutmose II, died and was until 1482 the co-regent of his aunt, Hatshepsut. Some time after he became sole monarch,he tried, for unknown reasons, to erase the memory of Hatshepsut by destroying many of the monuments which bore her name or effigy. From 1482 onwards, he devoted himself to the expansion of the Egyptian empire, leading many campaigns into Canaan, Phoenicia and Syria.
At Megiddo (c.1480) he destroyed a Syrian-Canaanite coalition employing mercenary armies and chariots. On the east bank of the river Euphrates in Nahrin, he defeated the forces of the kingdom of Mitanni, which had been extending its power in the Middle East.
Thutmose expanded his navy and used it to transport his armies swiftly to the Phoenician coast, while in Setet (Nubia) and Kush he extended his rule beyond the fourth cataract.
He set up an efficient administration, both civil and military, and extorted large amounts of tribute from the defeated kings and chiefs. Much of this tribute Thutmose used to build temples at Karnak (the Festival Hall of the temple of Amen), Heliopolis and Abydos.
The autobiography of Ahmose Pen-nekhbet, who lived during the reigns of Ahmose I to Thutmose III
The battle of Megiddo
Thutmose's campaign against the Asiatics
Texts from Theban tombs
The Napata (Gebel Barkal) stele
The autobiography of Amenemhab
A fictional account of the taking of Joppa by Djehuti

Amenhotep II, the 7th king of the 18th dynasty, son of Thutmose III, ruled Egypt from c.1450 to 1425 BCE. He continued the military exploits of his father, particularly in Syria, where he crushed an uprising and demanded oaths of loyalty from local rulers. His mummy was discovered in the Valley of the Kings.
The Asiatic campaigns of Amenhotep II

Thutmose IV campaigned in Nubia and Retenu. He concluded a treaty with the Babylonians and entered into an alliance with the Mitanni by marrying Artatama's daughter.

Amenhotep III ruled (c.1417-1379 BCE) Egypt at the height of its power. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed in the Amarna tablets. Of the great temple he built near Thebes, only two statues, the so-called colossi of Memnon, remain. Amenhotep's wife Tiye, a woman of non-royal birth, was prominently associated with him during his long and peaceful reign.
Two marriages of Amenhotep III
The Semna stela of the viceroy Merimose


Akhenaten, excerpt; Courtesy Jon Bodsworth
Akhenaten
Excerpt. Courtesy Jon Bodsworth
Nefertiti
Nefertiti

Tutankhamen; Source: Jon Bodsworth
Tutankhamen
Courtesy Jon Bodsworth Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (c. 1379-1361), was invested as king not in the Amen temple at Karnak as custom dictated, but at Hermonthis, where his uncle Inen was High Priest of Re and immediately began building a roofless temple to the Aten, the disk of the rising sun. He soon forbade the worship of other gods, especially of the state god Amen of Thebes. In the 6th year he changed his name from Amenhotep ("Amen is satisfied") to Akhenaten ("beneficial to Aten") and left Thebes for a new capital at Akhetaten (El Amarna).
Living there with his queen Nefertiti, six daughters, and possibly several sons, he fostered new styles in art and literature. The confiscation of the wealth of the Amen temples wreaked havoc upon its priesthood. Akhenaten used these riches to strengthen the royal control over the army and his officialdom. His concentration on internal affairs brought about the loss of some of the Egyptian possessions in Canaan and Retenu (Syria) and of the Egyptian naval dominance, when Aziru defected to the Hittites with his fleet.
His religious reforms did not survive his reign and monotheism [2] in its pure form was forgotten in Egypt, even though it found a new expression in the trinity of Re, Ptah and Amen. The Aten temples were demolished, and Akhenaten came to be called "the Enemy" or the "criminal of Akhetaten."
The Amarna letters

The subsequent events are unclear, but it is possible that on the death of Akhenaten, Meritaten, who had become his wife as well as co-regent, married Smenkhkare. (Some think that Meritaten may have been Smenkhkare)
An attempt by Kiya to usurp the throne was suppressed and the remains of Akhenaten and Tiye were transferred to another site in the Valley of the Kings; Akhenaten was buried in Kiya's coffin. In Tutankhamen's reign, both mummies were moved to the tomb of Amenhotep III.
Tutankhamen (c. 1361-1352 BCE), the son in law of Akhenaten, succeeded his brother Smenkhkare when he was only nine years old. His vizier Ay restored the traditional polytheistic religion, abandoning the monotheistic cult of Aten of Akhenaten, its religious centre at el Amarna and returning to the capital Thebes. By reviving the cult of the state god Amen he strengthened the position of Amen's priesthood. The pharaoh changed his name Tutankhaten, (living image of Aten), to Tutankhamen, (living image of Amen).
During his reign, the general Horemheb sought to 'pacify' Canaan and fought against the Hittites in northern Syria allied to the Assyrians.

Tutankhamen's restoration

Tutankhamen died at the age of 18, some claim that he was murdered, but there is no real evidence to support this. As there were apparently no legal heirs, a plea by the King's Wife for a suitable prince consort seems to have reached the Hittite king Suppiliuma.
The "Zannanza" affair

Tutankhamen was succeeded by Ay (c. 1352-1348), who married his widow, Ankhesenamen, and furnished the former king's tomb [1]. Ay acceded to the throne despite Horemheb's claim to be the designated successor. His accession to the throne may have been an attempt on the part of the Egyptians to appease the Hittites, by whom they had just been defeated.
Horemheb (c.1321-1293) who followed Ay, pursued a more hawkish policy vis-à-vis the Hittites, rebuilding his army devastated by the pestilence, which had affected much of the Near East killing the Hittite king Suppiluliuma who was followed by Mursili.


19th Dynasty

Ramses I, founder of the 19th dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, reigned for little more than a year, between 1293 and 1291 BC. Apparently chosen for succession by the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Horemheb, in whose army he had been a commander, Ramses planned and started to build the colonnaded hall in the temple at Karnak.
Stela at Buhen

Seti I succeeded his father, Ramses I and ruled from about 1291 till 1278 BCE. He reoccupied the forts in Sinai which had been taken over by the Shasu and conducted several campaigns in Syria and Canaan fighting local kings, the Hittites and nomadic tribes like the Hebrews.
He is remembered for his work on the temples at Karnak and for his magnificent tomb at Thebes. He was succeeded by Ramses II.
Excerpts from the Journal of a frontier official

The mummy of Ramses II
The mummy of Ramses II
Ramses II victorious
Ramses II smiting enemies

Ramses II (c. 1278-1237 BCE) is remembered for his military campaigns and his extensive building program [3], the remains of which are still conspicuous. Ramses, like his father Seti I, pursued a vigorous foreign policy by attacking the Hittites, the chief opponents of the Egyptian empire in the East. His first campaigns against them in the fifth year of his reign ended in an Egyptian retreat after a violent battle at Kadesh in Syria, during which Ramses himself narrowly escaped capture mainly thanks to the intervention of a troop contingent arriving from Amurru. The consequent loss of prestige sparked revolts within the empire, and Ramses could not resume direct hostilities against the Hittites until the tenth year of his reign; the conflicts were finally concluded by a peace treaty in his 21st year.

He also fought in Trans-Jordan and Nubia and secured the western coast road of Egypt against Libyan invaders by building fortresses along the Mediterranean coast as far as 300 km west of the Delta.
Ramses was responsible for building many large temples, most notably that at Abu Simbel in Nubia. He also founded a new royal capital at Per-Ramesse ("the house of Ramses") in the eastern Nile delta. During his long reign, Ramses had more than 100 children, and by his death he had outlived his 11 eldest sons.
Egyptian accounts of the battle of Kadesh
Commemorative Stela of the family of Ramses at Tanis
Correspondence between Ramses and Hattusili III
Beit Shean Stelae inscription
The Asiatic campaigning of Ramses II

Ramses was succeeded by his 12th, surviving son, Merneptah (c.1212-1202 BCE). Under Merneptah an army of the Sea Peoples attacked Egypt which consisted for the most part of the Akhaivasa (perhaps Achaeans), and has been chronologically related to the migratory wave that put an end to Troy VII a.
Hymn to Merneptah (the so-called Israel Stela)
The report of a frontier official
The Pursuit of Runaway Slaves

The time following his reign was chaotic, Seti II who was probably a legitimate heir, reigned for some six years, while coming from Nubia, a usurper, Amenmes controlled Upper Egypt and was followed by Ramses Siptah (later called Merneptah Siptah).
Queen Twosret, widow of Seti II, tried to expunge the memory of her predecessor. According to the Harris Papyrus Yarsu, perhaps identical with the Syrian chancellor of Siptah, usurped the throne during this period.
Ramses III vanquishing his enemies
Ramses III vanquishing his enemies
After R. Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Abth.III, Bl.209
20th Dynasty

Succeeding his father Sethnakhte who reigned for three years, Ramses III (c.1182-1151 BCE) saved Egypt from foreign invasion but failed to solve internal problems (political conspiracies and weakened social structures) that led to the disintegration of the Egyptian state 80 years after his death. Ramses fought off Libyan invasions in his fifth and eleventh year. He also claimed to have held back a horde of invading Sea Peoples who were sweeping down the eastern Mediterranean coast towards Egypt.
Despite these external successes, royal power declined and Egypt lost its Asiatic colonies which were conquered by the Sea Peoples, even if in the Medinet Habu texts describing the battle of Ramses III the Egyptians claim that they settled them as vassals in Southern Canaan.
During the reigns of Ramses III or IV most centres of Egyptian power in Canaan were destroyed and Ramses VI withdrew from Serabit el Khadim, the copper mines of Timna and possibly Megiddo. During this time the temples became richer at the expense of the pharaohs; Ramses III for instance attempted building only one major structure. Government was corrupt and inefficient, and Ramses himself was the target of an assassination plot before being succeeded by his son Ramses IV in 1151 BCE. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
Until the end of the 20th dynasty the empire shrank and ambitious royal building programs failed. Government was impeded by the independence of officialdom, as offices became hereditary, and corruption and inefficiency increased. Its influence in the Middle East declined. The New Kingdom ended in turmoil under Ramses XI.

[1] All the other tombs in the Valley of the kings at Thebes were later plundered, but the tomb, in which Tutankhamen had been buried, was hidden by rock chips dumped there when the tomb of a later king was excavated, and was not ransacked. It was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter, filled with extraordinary treasure, including a solid gold coffin, a gold mask, jewellery, and many artefacts.
[2] There is a wide divergence of opinion whether Akhenaten's creed was monotheistic. Other religious models have been proposed, such as monolatry.
[3] At the same time he destroyed many older temples, using them as quarries.
- - Previous (12th to 17th Dynasty)
- Next (21st to 31st Dynasty)
- History Contents Page
- Dynasty List
- Main Index and Search Page

Offsite links (Opening in a new window)
I do not assume any responsibility for the content or availability of these websites.

- 18th Dynasty
- Hatshepsut
- Maat-Ka-Ra Hatshepsut
- Hatshepsut: Wicked stepmother or Joan of Arc? by Peter F. Dorman
- The Death of a Pharaoh
- The mysteries of Akhenaten (Pictures don't display)
- The Mystery of Akhenaten: Genetics or Aesthetics? by Megaera Lorenz (1996)
- Tutanchamun (in German)
- King Tut (with pictures of the tomb taken by Carter's expedition)
- When the House of Akhnaton Died Out
- The End of the Amarna Period by Dr Marc Gabolde
- The tomb of Senneferi
- Beth Shean Valley Archaeological Project
- Haremhab Appointed to Administer Egypt
- Twentieth Dynasty
- When Civilization Collapsed: Death of the Bronze Age by William H. Stiebing, Jr.
16 days ago - Via Reshared Post - View -
https://plus.google.com/104333085527394110046 David ILLOUZ : 135th anniversary of Howard Carter (09-05-2012) Howard Carter (9 May 1874 – 2 March 1939) was an English...
135th anniversary of Howard Carter (09-05-2012)
Howard Carter (9 May 1874 – 2 March 1939) was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist who became world-famous after discovering the intact tomb (designated KV62) of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, Tutankhamun (colloquially known as "King Tut" and "the boy king"...
135th anniversary of Howard Carter (09-05-2012)
Blog with more than 300 Doodles of google, since 2009
17 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

The Broken Trap (Psalm 124)
Leslie Allen calls Psalm 124 ‘the broken trap’ after the imagery of a bird managing to escape from a snare or net set for it in verse 5. Managing to fly away free, that wonderful picture of freedom that is evoked by a bird in...
18 days ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/112657697855335297759 Howard Carter :

A real God who really cares, and really acts in the reality of life... (A Prayer based on Psalm 23 and 40)
At Church we are learning 'king of love" by the band 'I Am They'. It's a wonderful re imagining of the old hymn 'the king of love my shepherd is'. Psalm 23 has been associated with funerals in our culture and while it is appr...
22 days ago - Via Google+ - View -