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https://plus.google.com/118415869878384914447 George Eleady-Cole : BLACK PEOPLE WHO INSPIRED A GENERATION OF BLACK'S Jesse Owens Jesse Owens Jesse Owens3.jpg Jesse Owens...
BLACK PEOPLE WHO INSPIRED A GENERATION OF BLACK'S

Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens3.jpg
Jesse Owens at the 1936 Olympics
Personal information
Full name James Cleveland Owens
Nationality American
Born September 12, 1913
Oakville, Alabama, U.S.
Died March 31, 1980 (aged 66)
Tucson, Arizona, U.S.
Height 5 ft 10 3⁄4 in (180 cm)[1]
Weight 165 lb (75 kg)
Sport
Sport Track and field
Event(s) Sprint, Long jump
Medal record[hide]
Men's track and field
Representing the United States
Olympic Games
Gold medal – first place 1936 Berlin 100 m
Gold medal – first place 1936 Berlin 200 m
Gold medal – first place 1936 Berlin 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 1936 Berlin Long jump
James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (September 12, 1913 – March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete and four-time Olympic gold medalist.

Owens specialized in the sprints and the long jump and was recognized in his lifetime as "perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history".[2] His achievement of setting three world records and tying another in less than an hour at the 1935 Big Ten track meet in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been called "the greatest 45 minutes ever in sport"[3] and has never been equaled. At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, Owens won international fame with four gold medals: 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, and 4 × 100 meter relay. He was the most successful athlete at the games and as such has been credited with "single-handedly crush[ing] Hitler's myth of Aryan supremacy."[4]

The Jesse Owens Award is USA Track and Field's highest accolade for the year's best track and field athlete. Owens was ranked by ESPN as the sixth greatest North American athlete of the twentieth century and the highest-ranked in his sport.[5]

Contents
1 Early life and education
2 Career
2.1 The Ohio State University
2.2 Berlin Olympics
3 Later life
3.1 Death
4 Legacy
5 Awards and honors
Early life and education
Owens was the youngest of ten children, three girls and seven boys, born to Henry Cleveland Owens (a sharecropper) and Mary Emma Fitzgerald in Oakville, Alabama, on September 12, 1913. J.C., as he was called, was nine years old when the family moved to Cleveland, Ohio, for better opportunities, as part of the Great Migration, when 1.5 million African Americans left the segregated South. When his new teacher asked his name (to enter in her roll book), he said "J.C.", but because of his strong Southern accent, she thought he said "Jesse". The name stuck, and he was known as Jesse Owens for the rest of his life.[6]

As a boy, Owens took different jobs in his spare time: he delivered groceries, loaded freight cars and worked in a shoe repair shop while his father and older brother worked at a steel mill.[7] During this period, Owens realized that he had a passion for running. Throughout his life, Owens attributed the success of his athletic career to the encouragement of Charles Riley, his junior high track coach at Fairmount Junior High School. Since Owens worked in a shoe repair shop after school, Riley allowed him to practice before school instead.

Owens and Minnie Ruth Solomon (1915-2001) met at Fairmount Junior High School in Cleveland when he was 15 and she was 13. They dated steadily through high school. Ruth gave birth to their first daughter, Gloria, in 1932. They married in 1935 and had two more daughters together: Marlene, born in 1939, and Beverly, born in 1940. They remained married until his death in 1980.[8][9]

Owens first came to national attention when he was a student of East Technical High School in Cleveland; he equalled the world record of 9.4 seconds in the 100-yard (91 m) dash and long-jumped 24 feet 9 1⁄2 inches (7.56 metres) at the 1933 National High School Championship in Chicago.[10]

Career
The Ohio State University
Owens attended The Ohio State University after employment was found for his father, ensuring the family could be supported. Affectionately known as the "Buckeye Bullet," Owens won a record eight individual NCAA championships, four each in 1935 and 1936. (The record of four gold medals at the NCAA was equaled only by Xavier Carter in 2006, although his many titles also included relay medals.) Though Owens enjoyed athletic success, he had to live off campus with other African-American athletes. When he traveled with the team, Owens was restricted to ordering carry-out or eating at "blacks-only" restaurants. Similarly, he had to stay at "blacks-only" hotels. Owens did not receive a scholarship for his efforts, so he continued to work part-time jobs to pay for school.

Owens's greatest achievement came in a span of 45 minutes on May 25, 1935, during the Big Ten meet at Ferry Field in Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he set three world records and tied a fourth. He equaled the world record for the 100 yard dash (9.4 seconds); and set world records in the long jump (26 ft 8 1⁄4 in or 8.13 m, a world record that would last 25 years); 220-yard (201.2 m) sprint (20.3 seconds); and 220-yard (201.2m) low hurdles (22.6 seconds, becoming the first to break 23 seconds).[4] In 2005, University of Central Florida professor of sports history Richard C. Crepeau chose these wins on one day as the most impressive athletic achievement since 1850.[11]

Berlin Olympics

Owens performing the long jump at the Olympics
In 1936, Owens arrived in Berlin to compete for the United States at the Summer Olympics. According to fellow American athlete James LuValle, who won bronze in the 400 meters, Owens arrived in Berlin to a throng of fans, many of them young girls, yelling "Wo ist Jesse? Wo ist Jesse?" Many of them had come with scissors and had begun snipping at Owens' clothing, forcing him to retreat back onto the train. After that, when Owens left the athletes' village, he usually had to go with some soldiers to protect him.[12] In contrast, Adolf Hitler was using the games to show the world a resurgent Nazi Germany.[13] He and other government officials had high hopes that German athletes would dominate the games with victories. Meanwhile, Nazi propaganda promoted concepts of "Aryan racial superiority" and depicted others, including those of African descent, as inferior.[13][14] Owens countered this by winning four gold medals.

On August 3, he won the 100m sprint with a time of 10.3s, defeating teammate college friend[1] Ralph Metcalfe by a tenth of a second and defeating Tinus Osendarp of the Netherlands by two tenths of a second. On August 4, he won the long jump with a leap of 26 feet 5 inches (8.05 m), later crediting his achievement to the technical advice he received from Lutz Long, the German competitor whom he defeated.[4] On August 5, he won the 200m sprint with a time of 20.7s, defeating Mack Robinson (the older brother of Jackie Robinson). On August 9, Owens won his fourth gold medal in the 4x100 sprint relay when coach Dean Cromwell replaced Jewish-American sprinters Marty Glickman and Sam Stoller with Owens and Ralph Metcalfe, who teamed up with Frank Wykoff and Foy Draper to set a world record of 39.8s in the event.[15] This performance was not equaled until Carl Lewis won gold medals in the same events at the Soviet-boycotted 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. In 1935 (the year before the Berlin Olympics), Jesse Owens set the world record in the long jump with a leap of 26 ft 8 in, and this record would stand for 25 years (a very rare length of time for a track and field record), until it was finally broken by countryman Ralph Boston in 1960. Coincidentally, Owens was a spectator at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome when Boston took the gold medal in the long jump.

Just before the competitions, Owens was visited in the Olympic village by Adi Dassler, the founder of the Adidas athletic shoe company. He persuaded Owens to wear Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik shoes, the first sponsorship for a male African American athlete.[16]

The long-jump victory is documented, along with many other 1936 events, in the 1938 film Olympia by Leni Riefenstahl.

On the first day of competition, Hitler shook hands with only the German victors and then left the stadium. Olympic committee officials insisted Hitler greet every medalist or none at all. Hitler opted for the latter and skipped all further medal presentations.[17][18] Historians have noted that Hitler may have left the games at this time due to looming rain clouds that might have postponed the games. This happened well before Owens was to compete, but has largely come to be believed to be the "snub".[19] On reports that Hitler had deliberately avoided acknowledging his victories, and had refused to shake his hand, Owens said at the time:

Hitler had a certain time to come to the stadium and a certain time to leave. It happened he had to leave before the victory ceremony after the 100 meters. But before he left I was on my way to a broadcast and passed near his box. He waved at me and I waved back. I think it was bad taste to criticize the 'man of the hour' in another country.[20]

Albert Speer wrote that Hitler "was highly annoyed by the series of triumphs by the marvelous colored American runner, Jesse Owens. People whose antecedents came from the jungle were primitive, Hitler said with a shrug; their physiques were stronger than those of civilized whites and hence should be excluded from future games."[21]


Jesse Owens on the podium after winning the long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics. L-R, Naoto Tajima, Owens, Lutz Long.
In a 2009 interview, Siegfried Mischner, a German journalist, claimed that Owens carried around a photograph in his wallet of the Führer shaking his hand before the latter left the stadium. Owens, who felt the newspapers of the day reported 'unfairly' on Hitler's attitude towards him, tried to get Mischner and his journalist colleagues to change the accepted version of history in the 1960s. Mischner claimed Owens showed him the photograph and told him: "That was one of my most beautiful moments." Mischner added "(the picture) was taken behind the honour stand and so not captured by the world's press. But I saw it, I saw him shaking Hitler's hand!" According to Mischner, "the predominating opinion in post-war Germany was that Hitler had ignored Owens, so we therefore decided not to report on the photo. The consensus was that Hitler had to continue to be painted in a bad light in relation to Owens." [22] For some time, Mischner's assertion was not confirmed independently of his own account,[23] and Mischner himself admitted in Mail Online that "All my colleagues are dead, Owens is dead. I thought this was the last chance to set the record straight. I have no idea where the photo is or even if it exists still."[24]

However, in 2014, Eric Brown, British fighter pilot and test pilot, the Fleet Air Arm's most decorated living pilot,[25] independently stated in a BBC documentary "I actually witnessed Hitler shaking hands with Jesse Owens and congratulating him on what he had achieved."[26] Additionally, an article in The Baltimore Sun in August 1936 reported that Hitler sent Owens a commemorative inscribed cabinet photograph of himself.[27]

In Germany, Owens was allowed to travel with and stay in the same hotels as whites, while at the time African Americans in many parts of the United States had to stay in segregated hotels.[28] During a Manhattan ticker-tape parade along Broadway's Canyon of Heroes in his honor, someone handed Owens a paper bag. Owens paid it little mind until the parade concluded. When he opened it up, he found the bag contained $10,000 in cash. Owens's wife Ruth later said, "And he [Owens] didn't know who was good enough to do a thing like that. And with all the excitement around, he didn't pick it up right away. He didn't pick it up until he got ready to get out of the car."[29] After the parade, Owens was not permitted to enter through the main doors of the Waldorf Astoria New York and instead forced to travel up to the event in a freight elevator to reach the reception honoring him.[28][30] President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) never invited Jesse Owens to the White House following his triumphs at the Olympics games.[31] While the Democrats had bid for the support of Owens, Owens rejected those overtures: as a staunch Republican, he endorsed Roosevelt's Republican opponent, Alf Landon, in the 1936 presidential race.[32]

Owens, who joined the Republican Party after returning from Europe, was paid to campaign for African American votes for the Republican presidential nominee Alf Landon in the 1936 presidential election.[33][34] Speaking at a Republican rally held in Baltimore on October 9, 1936, Owens said "Some people say Hitler snubbed me. But I tell you, Hitler did not snub me. I am not knocking the President. Remember, I am not a politician, but remember that the President did not send me a message of congratulations because people said, he was too busy."[35] Later, on October 15, 1936 Owens repeated this allegation when he addressed an audience of African American at a Republican rally in Kansas City remarking that "Hitler didn't snub me – it was our president who snubbed me. The president didn't even send me a telegram."[36][37]

Later life

Owens on a 1971 UAE stamp
Owens was quoted saying the secret behind his success was "I let my feet spend as little time on the ground as possible. From the air, fast down, and from the ground, fast up."[38][39]

After the games had finished, the Olympic team and Owens were all invited to compete in Sweden. He decided to capitalize on his success by returning to the United States to take up some of the more lucrative commercial offers. United States athletic officials were furious and withdrew his amateur status, ending his career immediately. Owens was angry, saying, "A fellow desires something for himself."[40] Owens argued that the racial discrimination he had faced throughout his athletic career, such as not being eligible for scholarships in college and therefore being unable to take classes between training and working to pay his way, meant he had to give up on amateur athletics in pursuit of financial gain elsewhere.[41]

Prohibited from amateur sporting appearances to bolster his profile, Owens found out that the commercial offers had all but disappeared. In 1946, he joined Abe Saperstein in the formation of the West Coast Baseball Association (WCBA), a new Negro baseball league; Owens was Vice-President and the owner of the Portland (Oregon) Rosebuds franchise.[42] He toured with the Rosebuds, sometimes entertaining the audience in between doubleheader games by competing in races against horses.[43] The WCBA disbanded after only two months.[42][43]

Owens helped promote the exploitation film Mom and Dad in African American neighborhoods.[citation needed] He tried to make a living as a sports promoter, essentially an entertainer. He would give local sprinters a ten- or twenty-yard start and beat them in the 100-yd (91-m) dash. He also challenged and defeated racehorses; as he revealed later, the trick was to race a high-strung thoroughbred that would be frightened by the starter's shotgun and give him a bad jump. Owens said, "People say that it was degrading for an Olympic champion to run against a horse, but what was I supposed to do? I had four gold medals, but you can't eat four gold medals."[44] On the lack of opportunities, Owens added, "There was no television, no big advertising, no endorsements then. Not for a black man, anyway.”[41]

Owens ran a dry cleaning business and worked as a gas station attendant to earn a living; he eventually filed for bankruptcy. In 1966, he was successfully prosecuted for tax evasion.[45] At rock bottom, he was aided in beginning his rehabilitation. The government appointed him as a US goodwill ambassador. Owens traveled the world and spoke to companies such as the Ford Motor Company and stakeholders such as the United States Olympic Committee.[citation needed] After he retired, he owned racehorses.

Owens initially refused to support the black power salute by African-American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos at the 1968 Summer Olympics. He told them:[46]

The black fist is a meaningless symbol. When you open it, you have nothing but fingers – weak, empty fingers. The only time the black fist has significance is when there's money inside. There's where the power lies.

Four years later in his 1972 book I Have Changed, he moderated his opinion:

I realized now that militancy in the best sense of the word was the only answer where the black man was concerned, that any black man who wasn't a militant in 1970 was either blind or a coward.

A few months before his death, Owens had tried unsuccessfully to convince President Jimmy Carter to withdraw his demand that the United States boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics. He argued that the Olympic ideal was supposed to be observed as a time-out from war and that it was above politics.[citation needed]

Death
Owens, a pack-a-day cigarette smoker for 35 years, had been hospitalized with an extremely aggressive and drug-resistant type of lung cancer on and off beginning in December 1979. He died of the disease at age 66 in Tucson, Arizona, on March 31, 1980, with his wife and other family members at his bedside.[47] He is buried in Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago.

Legacy
The dormitory used by Owens during the Olympics has been fully restored into a living museum, with pictures of his accomplishments at the Games, and a letter (intercepted by the Gestapo) from a fan urging him not to shake hands with Hitler.[48]

Awards and honors
In 1936, four English Oak saplings, one for each Olympic gold medal, from the German Olympic Committee, were planted. One of the trees was planted at the University of Southern California, one at Rhodes High School in Cleveland, where he trained, and one is rumored to be located on the Ohio State University campus, but has yet to be identified. The fourth tree was located at the home of Jesse Owens' mother, but was removed when the house was demolished.[49]
In 1970, Owens was inducted into the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame.
In 1976 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Gerald Ford.
In 1976, he was made part of the Olympic Order for his fight against racism in the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.
In 1980, a new asteroid was discovered by Antonín Mrkos at Kleť Observatory which was named as 6758 Jesseowens in honor of Jesse Owens.
USA Track and Field created the Jesse Owens Award in 1981, which is given annually to the country's top track and field athlete.
In 1984, an Emmy Award-winning biographical television film of his life, The Jesse Owens Story, was released, with Dorian Harewood portraying Owens.
In 1984 a street near the Olympic Stadium in Berlin was renamed Jesse-Owens-Allee, and the Jesse Owens Realschule/Oberschule (a secondary school) in Berlin-Lichtenberg, was named for him.
On March 28, 1990, Owens was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by President George H. W. Bush.
Two U.S. postage stamps have been issued to honor Owens, one in 1990 and another in 1998.
In 1996, Owens's hometown of Oakville, Alabama, dedicated Jesse Owens Memorial Park and Museum in his honor, at the same time that the Olympic Torch came through the community, 60 years after his Olympic triumph. An article in the Wall Street Journal of June 7, 1996, covered the event and included this inscription written by poet Charles Ghigna that appears on a bronze plaque at the Park:
May this light shine forever
as a symbol to all who run
for the freedom of sport,
for the spirit of humanity,
for the memory of Jesse Owens.
In 2001, The Ohio State University dedicated Jesse Owens Memorial Stadium for track and field events. The campus also houses three recreational centers for students and staff named in his honor.[50]
In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Jesse Owens on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[51]
In Cleveland, Ohio, a statue of Owens in his Ohio State track suit was installed at Fort Huntington Park, west of the old Courthouse.[52]
Phoenix, Arizona named the Jesse Owens Medical Plaza in his honor, as well as Jesse Owens Parkway.
In Markus Zusak's 2006 bestselling novel, The Book Thief, a character named Rudy Steiner idolizes Owens.
Jesse Owens Park, located in Tucson, Arizona, is a staple of local youth athletics there.
At the 2009 World Athletic Championships in Berlin, all members of the United States Track & Field team wore badges with "JO" to commemorate Owens's victories in the same stadium 73 years before.[53]
In early 2010, the Ohio Historical Society proposed Jesse Owens as a finalist from a statewide vote for inclusion in Statuary Hall at the United States Capitol.
On November 15, 2010, the city of Cleveland renamed East Roadway, between Rockwell and Superior avenues in Public Square, Jesse Owens Way.[54]
A novel in French written by Lebanese novelist Alexandre Najjar, Berlin 36, Plon (publisher), Paris, 2009, tells the story of Owens, particularly during the Berlin Olympic games. Najjar visited Chicago, Ohio and Alabama to achieve this distinguished tribute to Owens.
For his contribution to sports in Los Angeles, he was honored with a Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum "Court of Honor" plaque by the Coliseum commissioners.
In the London 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, just after the Olympic cauldron had been lit, the 80,000 individual pixels in the audience seating area were used as a giant video screen to show footage of Owens running around the stadium.[55]
A feature film titled Race about Owens with Stephan James portraying Owens was released February 19, 2016. Shooting began in Montreal on July 24, 2014.[56]
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https://plus.google.com/111560653717750376729 Jose Luis Johnson Mochi : May 14: World Athletics Day On May 14 the World Athletics Day that drives every year the International...
May 14: World Athletics Day

On May 14 the World Athletics Day that drives every year the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), recorded AIM was held. With the aim that children and adults learn a little about the sport, the association promotes in each of its affiliated countries a series of introductory fun activities organized.
World Athletics Day.

Athletics is considered the oldest organized sport. Athletics spans many disciplines grouped in runs, jumps, throws, combined events and running.
The word athletics comes from the Greek word atletes, defined as "a person who competes in a particular test for a prize," noting that the Greek word is related to the aethos word that is synonymous with "effort."

Athletics is the art of overcoming the performance of adversaries in speed or resistance also called background, in distance or higher. The number of tests, and types are as individual or in groups, it has varied over time. Athletics is one of the few sports practiced universally, either between fans or in competitions at all levels. The simplicity and the few practical means to explain this success.

The first historical reference to athletics dates back to 776 BC. in Greece, with a list of winners of a competition athletes. Within athletics there are various forms of evidence. Thus, they are foot races (speed, middle distance, background, hurdling, cross country, relays ...), the long jump or height, shoots (weight, javelin, hammer ...), race walking, and combined events. The latter are also known as decathlon and, as its name suggests, consists of ten events: throwing three, three and four jumps racing.

The discipline was developed over the centuries, from the first tests until regulations. The Olympics are the most prestigious and seen all over the planet international event. The Olympic Games are held every four years since 1896 and athleticism is the most important discipline in them. Since 1982, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), which is responsible for the regulation of body discipline, has flexible rules ending the amateur period of discipline. The first World Athletics Championships was organized in 1983 and are held every two years since 1991.


A little history

Running, walking, throwing and jumping are natural movements in man and in fact, the concept of athletics dates back to very ancient times, as confirmed by some Lower Paleolithic cave paintings (6000 to. C.-5500 BC. ) to the Neolithic period demonstrating rivalry between several runners, jumpers and lanzadores.1 sources become more precise in Egypt in the fifteenth century BC, with the oldest written reference, referring to the run, found in the tomb Amenhotep II (1438-1412 BC.) at the same time, the Minoan civilization (Crete), also practiced racing as well as the javelin and disc.

The first meetings in Greece were carried out in the eighth century. C. They stood the test called stadion, which was a footrace of 197.27 meters, equivalent to 200 times the foot of Heracles. This is the earliest evidence of it on record, although it is assumed that practiced previously. Shortly after they appeared more tests, such as double stadion or duálico, middle distance race or horse and distance running or dolicho. All these tests are multiples of the distance from the stadion.

The pentathlon, which combines running, jumping, throwing and fighting, is another discipline of athletics introduced to the Olympic program before the end of the eighth century. C.

Apart from the Olympic Games, there were other sporting events in different Greek polis, which were overshadowed by the former. No less than 38 Greek cities held their own Olympic games (called isolímpicos to differentiate them from those held in Olympia) and 33 carried out Pythian Games.

Roman civilization practiced athletics in two different versions from the year 186 a. C. The first is of Etruscan inspiration (arrows), while the second is an adaptation of the Greek disciplines (athletae) .5 The Stadium of Domitian was built in 86 and was dedicated to athletics in its Greek variant.

Ireland organized between the years 632 and 1169 games involving tests unknown to the Greeks as the pole vault, hammer throw and a form of cross-country. These disciplines were introduced in Scotland in the fourth century and modified until it became the Highland Games.

Classic period (from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century)
There are sources that tell us that race was being carried out in England since the XI.1 century Enthusiasm was such that local authorities reserved a space dedicated only to these contests in 1154 in Lord.1 In the stories of Havelock the Dane in 1275 the description of a stone thrower. Moreover, according to historians, King Henry II of England had built sports fields near Londres6 to practice throwing the hammer, the bar and mince and also for ball games. At the same time, London's youth challenged in long runs through the city.

In 1365, King Edward III enacted the first of a series of laws to prohibit virtually all sports activities except archery that could keep practicing for reasons militares.1 races and jumps on the list of sports prohibited. However competitions continued, as evidenced by the renewal of the prohibitions, so Henry VIII finally allowed the foot races in London in 1510.

Henry VIII encouraged the practice of daily exercise while theorists of the time, as Thomas Elyot, granted great importance to sports in the curriculum. In the sixteenth century, they described for the first time at the Games athletics meetings Cotswold (Cotswold Games), a kind of "sports rally" organized in Gloucestershire and directly inspired by the heroes of ancient Greece.

The athletic competition was developed enough in the UK in the seventeenth century. The most popular sports were then the hammer throw, high jump, long jump and running. With the advent of Puritanism, the Anglican Church wanted to abolish the sport, claiming that the athletics competitions held throughout England ended, usually in fights and drunkenness. In reaction to Puritanism, King James I encouraged his subjects to actively practiced sport after Sunday services afternoon. He also promoted the sport by publishing the Book of Sports.

The first professional riders appeared in England in the late seventeenth century. These runners were itinerant and local champions were measured in paid contests.

In Spain, the Korrikolaris, has been being practiced since the Middle Ages. It's a foot race long distance, conducted between two runners.
In the rest of the world, one of the oldest outside the British Isles medieval race that was held in Rome in the middle of the fifteenth century. The program reproduced the Greek athletes and the Greek athletes competed, ie desnudos.1 The Olympiad of the Republic was a sports competition held in 1796, 1797 and 1798 in Paris. The queen of this attempt at rehabilitation of the Olympic Games was a test run. This event marked the transition between sport of Old Regime and the modern sport, as evidenced by the use of the metric system in the sport for the first time. In addition, for the first time also in sport, the races were timed using two marine watches war.

XIX century
The first modern athletics meeting was held in England in 1825 in Newmarket Road, near London. Still they are missing numerous tests, but under the influence of the evidence of Lord's Cricket Ground disputed since 1826 and Tara in Ireland (1829), the program expanded. The first 100 yards hurdles were played at Eton College in 1837. In 1849, the British army set up competitions for Arsenal in Woolwich London. In 1850 silver bugle offered as a prize to the winner of more testing. Captain Wilmot won the 1850 edition, and the first athletics track was created that same year in England. Exeter College, Oxford held its first meeting in 1850, which in 1856 became the first competition of the University of Oxford.

The first athletics competition between Oxford and Cambridge was held in 1864. In 1866 in England created the first version of a national athletics federation. It is automatically excluded from it all professional athletes and also the workers and artisans so they could only belong to it the gentlemen. Careers were made outside these rigid tests and yet, gather a large audience. To open athletics to the less favored social classes was created in 1886 the Amateur Athletic Association.

In France, foot races had prizes in kind from 1853. In mid-1880, and in line with the social vision of sport in England, George St. Clair and Ernest Demay launched a campaign of "purification" of French athletics and they succeeded in banning these careers. In response, it was created in Paris the Union of Professional Societies Athletics. The Union of French Societies of Athletic Sports, sports federation founded on 20 November 1887 by the Paris Club Racing Club de France and Stade French, especially emphasized its determination to combat the professionalisation of sport. The USFSA, which is responsible for the renovation of the Olympic Games, won this vision as a model of competition for a long time. In 1888 he organized the first French championship athletics with four tests in the program: 100 m, 400 m, 1500 m and 120 m hurdles. René Cavally won two titles in 1888 on 100 and 400 m.
In the rest of the world, the United States was an important center of development of athletics. The Olympic Club in San Francisco was founded in 1860, and the New York Athletic Club was founded in 1868.

The Intercollegiate Athletic Association was founded in 1876, and who organized the first competition on American soil. Germany was influenced in 1874 by a group of students of English at the University of Dresden who imported English tests.

Germany organized its first national championship in 1891. The Australian championship was held in 1893, after having organized an inter Colonial Meet Sydney 31 May 1890.19

In Belgium, the first national championship played in 1889 was limited to two tests: the 100 meters and the mile.
With the beginning of the electric timing in 1892 in England and the renovation of the Olympic Games, athletics entered the modern age.

Modern age

While the amateur sport was organized gradually, they were played on both sides of the Atlantic many careers. historical encounters that faced the best American and British clubs of the nineteenth century. Moreover, inspired by the test of steeplechase, they settled in certain races of Athletics bets on races forecasts, disputed mainly on grass courts of some racetracks. A picture of the great duels boxing promoters Americans hired the best athletes of the moment to challenge other champions face to face and paid.

Baron Pierre de Coubertin was the architect of the creation of the modern Olympic Games whose first edition was held in 1896 in Athens, where, of course, athletics was among the evidence. He then tried, among other things, to end the practice of money in sports, especially in athletics, in favor of amateur "sports entertainment". Newly created in 1912, the International Athletics Federation, stated in its Constitution the principle of amateurism, the image of the credo of the International Olympic Committee to protect the purity of the amateur competition on the career.

American Jim Thorpe was one of the first athletes sanctioned for violating the rule of amateurism. Shortly after winning two Olympic titles at the 1912 Games, he was disqualified for life and was forced to return their medals for having received remuneration of a local baseball team. Another athlete found guilty of amateurism brown, Frenchman Jules Ladoumègue was also disqualified for life by the French Federation, which made him an example, in response to the growing power of professional sports in France. Football became professional in this same period. The reaction of the French public was unequivocal: boycotted athletics, which then faced a serious crisis in France during the 1930s.

For over half a century, amateurism remained the fundamental rule of competitive athletics. Many specialists then not hesitate to leave their disciplines to join professional teams, as clubs football or baseball in the United States, or rugby teams in Europe.

In 1982, the IAAF abandoned the traditional concept of amateurism becoming aware of the time and resources needed to build and maintain elite athletes. Since 1985 funds specifically for training the athlete intended.
Today, athletes are freelance workers. Its main revenue comes from fees collected at the various meetings, depending on their results. Additional revenue comes from sponsors and patrons, and vary depending on the popularity of the athlete. Moreover, some athletes are paid their club.

Thus, in the United States, the Santa Monica Track Club has a policy of rewarding some of their owners, such as Carl Lewis.La remuneration of an elite athlete is random and depends on fitness and performance. Recently there are real "sets" of races that make up the best athletes and coaches; as examples the management system of African distance runners or structure of the HSI, a multinational real speed racing in the United States.
Globalization Athletics

Increasingly popular sport.

During the first half of the twentieth century, the practice of athletics was essentially the prerogative of the United States and Western European nations such as the UK, France and the Nordic countries excelled in endurance events. Since 1930, African-American athletes excelled on the Europeans in the sprints, as Eddie Tolan, the first black Olympic champion in the 100 m in 1932. After World War II, some of the athletes coming European colonies came to prominence in their new country of adoption, while some southern hemisphere nations emerged worldwide, such as new Zealand.

In 1950, the communist countries invest in Olympic sports to reaffirm its existence and demonstrate its power. The sports world is bipolar and then there are two rival blocs: Western countries and the countries of the Eastern Bloc. The 1960s and 1970s are characterized by the emergence of the Caribbean nations such as Jamaica sprinters, but especially by the arrival of the riders in black Africa and North Africa in the middle and long distance.

The Ethiopian Abebe Bikila is the pioneer, becoming the first African to win the Olympic marathon (in 1960), while France ranks and to runners originating in the Maghreb countries since the 1920s Alain Mimoun won the marathon four years before Bikila.

Since the 1980s, athletics is becoming more universal and follows the global geopolitical developments. The number of national federations and the number of licenses increased significantly in developing countries. On the contrary, the practice of sports competition stagnates in developed countries, partly because of its level of requirements in terms of training, and also by the growing diversity of sports and leisure.

Today, athletics is the most universal competitive sport. Recently, athletes from nations with small populations have reached the top of the sport. During the 2003 World Championships, Kim Collins, sprinter Saint Kitts and Nevis won the 100 m test. More generally, the most successful athletes of the Caribbean is due to studying in US universities that offer better training conditions their countries of origin.

Since the mid 1990s, some athletes, mostly African, have opted for expatriation and change of nationality. In 1995, the 800 m runner Wilson Kipketer can be considered as a precursor, choosing Danish citizenship. The IOC banned from competing in the 1996 Olympics, but later the former Kenyan was imitated by several of his compatriots.

In 2003, Stephen Cherono was nationalized in Qatar and is now called Saaeed Saif Shaheen. Another example, Bernard Lagat Olympic medalist chose in 2005 to continue his career, US citizenship. This brain drain, athletes justified by the lack of recognition in their countries of origin, is primarily a way to get into lucrative contracts with federations and sponsors. Currently, Gulf states such as Qatar or Bahrain, offer good financial conditions to its new citizens and promising young athletes finance their education and guarantee their future.

About IAAF

In the late 1800s, the popular enthusiasm for all types of exercise had caused a boom in sports participation. Athletics was especially popular, and soon became the center of the components of exercise of national education systems. organized athletics thrived in well developed industrial societies and a program of widening competition developed in schools and universities, military organizations and private clubs.

The International Amateur Athletic Federation was founded in 1912 by 17 national athletic federations who saw the need for a governing authority for a sports program for the equipment and standardized global technical records. But what was the sport of the IAAF was meant to gobernar.Para participants, athletics was about improving the quality of life; it was something done for love and other noble principles. This allowed a limited group of athletes to achieve high-level performances by virtue of a privileged social and financial situation.

However, with the continuing evolution of modern society came a huge enthusiasm for the sport. This growing interest and improving individual performances boosted the likes of athletics. From the 1960s, television coverage of athletics increased considerably and many companies began to see the business value in sport. It became harder to follow the principle of fans in the traditional sense, especially given the time and resources required to build and maintain elite athletes. Against this commercially demanding world, the IAAF made changes to benefit the athletes, spectators and all other members of the "family of athletics."

In 1982, the IAAF abandoned the traditional concept of amateurism and in 1985 created trust funds for athletes. The way to high performance was opened to larger groups of extremely talented athletes. Steadily, there has been a change in the so-called fans to economic reasons and secure athletes at the highest level and this development has continued with the introduction of the Awards IAAF competition in 1997, which offered prize money to athletes success for the first time in the history of IAAF competitions.

The development of applied sports sciences, improved equipment and new training and competition techniques, brought even more changes to the sport. Unfortunately, performance enhancing drugs became more prominent at this time, so, endanger the moral structure of the sport and the health and lives of young people.


The IAAF has subsequently led the global sports movement in the development and implementation of a comprehensive anti-doping testing program involving both within and outside of competition.

Until the late seventies, athletics had its moment of glory every 4 years in the Olympics. Today, the Official Program IAAF Competition now includes World Championships, Junior World Championships, World Youth Championships, World Championship, the Continental Cup, World Championship Cross Country, World Race Walking Cup, World Championship half Marathon, the international series Diamond League and World Challenge, combined tests Challenge, Challenge race walking, hammer Throw Challenge, labels road race, and circuits permits for competitions field inside and cross .

In addition to a variety of major competitions at continental level reflect the expansion of the IAAF program. Fourteen multisport and playground competitions, including the Olympic Games, are organized in all continents with athletics as the core sport. To this thousands of other national and local area events are added. In 2003, the IAAF Congress approved the addition of Mountain Running to the list of disciplines governed by the IAAF. Mountain races has its own circuit and World Championship Grand Prix.

The IAAF Council, which administers all IAAF affairs, consisted of seven members from 17 member federations in 1912, which has grown from 27,212 at present. In 1968, a representative of each area in the world was elected to the IAAF Council in 1995 and two women were elected for the first time. Currently there are 6 areas, and is no guaranteed minimum 6 female members of the Council. Council is assisted by five committees and commissions thirteen-reaching decisions to do.

These are run by experts in different fields

With respect to the administration, the number of affiliated federations grew dramatically, from 17 in 1912 to 213 in 2008, and again to 212 in 2010, when West Indies federation ceased to exist independently, and to 214 with the inclusion of Sudan South and Kosovo in 2015. All federations are invited to attend the IAAF Congress every two years with elections held in pairs Congress. While once functioning in a way that favored the wealthiest nations, developed through its voting system, the IAAF adopted the ultimate democratic system of "one country, one vote" in 1987.

IAAF Headquarters, which was initially the study of the Secretary General, now installed in 6-8, Quai Antoine 1er in Monaco Herculis port. The organization employs nearly seventy years full-time professional multinational staff. This expansion and growth has only been possible thanks to a professionally planned marketing program.

The IAAF has long accepted the need to embrace corporate sponsorship as a means of promoting and developing the best wide world of sport. In the early days of the IAAF income it was restricted to contributions paid by group members federations and additional sums from the sale of publications IAAF. But in recent years, with the expansion of the program of competition, and the enormous interest in athletics shown on television and corporate partners, this income has increased dramatically.

This move towards a more professional sport was particularly recognized in 2001, when the IAAF Congress unanimously approved the name of the organization to be changed to the International Association of Athletics Federations.
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