Sign in with Twitter

Type the topic in any language to check out real time results of Who's Talking on Social Media Sites


Trending Topics: 明石海峡大橋最高の最終回ゴコクチホーごこくちほー#AşkKapıda#TaraflıDevleteHayır#CougsGive#NCLRSummit17フレ2期カオスTCG楽園のCM#hs1iscomingِ#2023YolundaEVETBitaksiMessi'ye 4#WriteTheArticle50Letter#EandMis10#UnlimitedCommissions#FallonStylesSNLボスううううかばんちゃんの手İst Mv SnReisSözlÖğrtmn Ailesiz#anaplanhub17Sebastian Lletgetフレリアタイ#JustinBieberByGloss#SomebodyPleaseInventBrexit Eve#DavamızHakZaferMuhakkakMuzzi ÖzcanMark LabbettRamon CalderonChelsea Market#BBdebate#iyiolsundiyeSection 30Mini EggsBeing Mum & Dad#LiseHemşireyeAdilAtama#24KMagicWorldTour#FRVivendoAvançadoBk e ThKCK Ana Davası'ndaA23 Purley WayHaveringJudge Casey MorelandOcupação Nelson Mandela#3DaysTillNoPromises#BirTıkDaKendimİçin#NiğdeEVETdiyor#LookOutBehindYouItsSoner Sarıkabadayı - TekamülYGS SONUÇLARI AÇIKLANDI#YGSdeBirinciUğurKARTALOld Flo#serpaiÉKath Cassidy#UnlockedMCR17#PeopleYouHateDunk Contest 2017Ivan KoloffChris SullivanOroville Dam updateHunter McGradyGeorge The Animal SteelePokemon Go Gen 2Robert HarwardLos Angeles WeatherWeather Los AngelesSteve Irwinlisa marie presleyMark CubanDonald GloverNba All Star Game 2017spacex launchAll Star Weekend 2017Congressional Black Caucussan diego weatherRush LimbaughMore

Most recent 17 results returned for keyword: BSkyB (Search this on MAP)

https://plus.google.com/103421685941091900871 Architonic AG : BskyB Health and Fitness Centre by Arup (DE) http://fal.cn/u4eu #architecture #interior #design
BskyB Health and Fitness Centre by Arup (DE)
http://fal.cn/u4eu #architecture #interior #design
BskyB Health and Fitness Centre by Arup | Sports facilities
Arup collaborated with dRMM architects to deliver this unique, state of the art gymnasium. The building was constructed mostly out of cross laminated..
1 day ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/105280728752830456373 Squire Tech Solutions, LLC : SES Exec Talks Satellite and OTT Future - SES’ Chief Commercial Officer, Ferdinand Kayser says "Satellite...
SES Exec Talks Satellite and OTT Future - SES’ Chief Commercial Officer, Ferdinand Kayser says "Satellite will remain as important as it ever did in the overall broadcast ecosystem. Satellite continues to offer compelling advantages to broadcasters for distribution to the widest possible audiences. Universal coverage, consistent bandwidth and a highly cost-efficient distribution remain the reason why satellite distribution is often favored over terrestrial solutions.” http://www.satellitetoday.com/broadcasting/2017/02/02/ses-exec-talks-satellite-ott-future-bskyb-announcement/ #SES #SatelliteNews #SatelliteTech #FerdinandKayser #SatelliteTalk
SES Exec Talks Satellite and OTT Future After BSkyB Announcement - Via Satellite -
There is no doubt that BSkyB’s announcement to launch a “dish-free” pay-TV service in the U.K. in 2018 created a little bit of a stir. But, according to SE
1 month ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/114926064728518759942 APKAndroidorg : NOW TV 6.0.7_arm #APK #BSkyB #com_bskyb_nowtv_beta #NOW_TV #android #apk
NOW TV 6.0.7_arm #APK #BSkyB #com_bskyb_nowtv_beta #NOW_TV #android #apk
NOW TV 6.0.7_arm - Download APK For Android
Download NOW TV 6.0.7_arm Apk Android Package Name Is com.bskyb.nowtv.beta By BSkyB MD5 Of APK: 1b2f
1 month ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/115425278618926410902 SkpSoft Celebrity News Feed : Ed Miliband Demands Ofcom Confirm 'Urgent' Inquiry Into Rupert Murdoch BSKYB Bid Ofcom has been ...
Ed Miliband Demands Ofcom Confirm 'Urgent' Inquiry Into Rupert Murdoch BSKYB Bid




Ofcom has been warned the attempted takeover of BSKYB by Rupert Murdoch is a defining test of “its capacity and strength as a regulator”, amid the revelation that the media mogul was present for Michael Gove’s interview with Donald Trump.


In a letter to the broadcast regulator, Ed...
https://skpsoft.com/celebrity/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/ed-miliband-demands-ofcom-confirm-urgent-inquiry-into-rupert-murdoch-bskyb-bid.jpg
, #CelebrityBigBrother2013
https://skpsoft.com/celebrity/ed-miliband-demands-ofcom-confirm-urgent-inquiry-into-rupert-murdoch-bskyb-bid/
Ed Miliband Demands Ofcom Confirm 'Urgent' Inquiry Into Rupert Murdoch BSKYB Bid » Skpsoft »Celebrity News
Ofcom has been warned the attempted takeover of BSKYB by Rupert Murdoch is a defining test of “its capacity and strength as a regulator”, amid the revelation that the media mogul was present for Michael Gove’s interview with Donald Trump. In a letter to the broadcast regulator, Ed Miliband said the “extraordinary pattern of criminality …
1 month ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/118038160008781759258 esh sundar : E! Entertainment Television will partner with leading UK-based satellite broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting...
E! Entertainment Television will partner with leading UK-based satellite broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) to present daily half-hour court room re-enactments chronicling one of the year's major court cases -- The Michael Jackson Trial, it was announced today jointly by Ted Harbert, President & CEO, E! Networks and Dawn Airey, MD of Sky Networks. (PRNewsFoto)
1 month ago - Via Photos - View -
https://plus.google.com/102838896085376237090 Deepak Yadav : AB de Villiers not quitting Tests © Provided by BSkyB  Getty © Provided by BSkyB  Getty AB de Villiers...
AB de Villiers not quitting Tests
© Provided by BSkyB  Getty © Provided by BSkyB  Getty AB de Villiers insists he is not planning to retire from Test cricket despite making himself unavailable for South Africa's upcoming series in New Zealand.  De Villiers has been sidelined since July with...
AB de Villiers not quitting Tests
Get latest news of Hollywood movies, Bollywood movies, Cricket, Games, technologies news, mobile news and all other latest news updates.
2 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/113176573310888120806 dataspace kenya : 1:55 AM PST 1/13/2017 by Georg Szalai , Alex Ritman "We set out to take a lighthearted look at reportedly...
1:55 AM PST 1/13/2017 by Georg Szalai , Alex Ritman
"We set out to take a lighthearted look at reportedly true events and never intended to cause any offense," the company said about the episode of 'Urban Myths' featuring Joseph Fiennes as the late music star. U.K.

#21st Century Fox #BSkyB #Europe #Home #International #Michael Jackson #Music #Paris Jackson #Television #THR Online #United Kingdon #USA

http://www.b2s.pm/nbpFO7
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-mVLQbGBDJz4/WHjHKPpskpI/AAAAAAAAhsQ/RXEnPY8_CtEvZSDSVJUplb3UvNb-0xFJACJoC/w506-h750/controversial-michael-jackson-comedy-pulled-by-sky-following-criticism-from-family.jpg
2 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/114369772963211136986 Sompong Tungmepol : Low-noise block downconverter From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Part of a series on Antennas Montage...
Low-noise block downconverter
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of a series on
Antennas
Montage of four professional US omnidirectional base-station antennas
Common types[show]
Components[hide]
Balun Block upconverter Coaxial cable Counterpoise (ground system) Feed Feed line Low-noise block downconverter Passive radiator Receiver Rotator Stub Transmitter Tuner Twin-lead
Systems[show]
Safety and regulation[show]
Radiation sources / regions[show]
Characteristics[show]
Techniques[show]
v t e

Ku-band LNB with both sides uncovered.
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish. Also called a low-noise block,[1][2] low-noise converter (LNC), or even low-noise downconverter (LND),[3] the device is sometimes wrongly called a low-noise amplifier (LNA).[4]
The LNB is a combination of low-noise amplifier, frequency mixer, local oscillator and intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier. It receives the microwave signal from the satellite collected by the dish, amplifies it, and downconverts the block of frequencies to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF). This downconversion allows the signal to be carried to the indoor satellite TV receiver using relatively cheap coaxial cable; if the signal remained at its original microwave frequency it would require an expensive and impractical waveguide line.
The LNB is usually a small box suspended on one or more short booms, or feed arms, in front of the dish reflector, at its focus (although some dish designs have the LNB on or behind the reflector). The microwave signal from the dish is picked up by a feedhorn on the LNB and is fed to a section of waveguide. One or more metal pins, or probes, protrude into the waveguide at right angles to the axis and act as antennas, feeding the signal to a PCB inside the LNB's shielded box for processing. The lower frequency IF output signal emerges from a socket on the box to which the coaxial cable connects.

LNBF disassembled. The waveguide carrying the microwave radio signal collected by the dish passes through the hole in the center. The pins visible at the top and left side of the hole project into the waveguide and receive the signal, converting it to radio frequency alternating currents which are processed by the circuit board.

Cross-section across a low-noise block downconverter.

Viewing of the pin and the horn antenna in a low-noise block downconverter.
The LNB gets its power from the receiver or set-top box, using the same coaxial cable that carries signals from the LNB to the receiver. This phantom power travels to the LNB; opposite to the signals from the LNB.
A corresponding component, called a block upconverter (BUC), is used at the satellite earth station (uplink) dish to convert the band of television channels to the microwave uplink frequency.
Contents [hide]
1 Amplification and noise
2 Block downconversion
3 LNBFs
4 Polarization
5 Common LNBs
5.1 C-band LNB
5.2 Ku-band LNB
5.2.1 Standard North America Ku band LNB
5.2.2 Universal LNB ("Astra" LNB)
5.2.3 North America DBS LNB
5.3 Ka-band LNB
6 Multi-output LNBs
6.1 Dual, twin, quad, and octo LNBs
6.2 Quattro LNBs
6.3 SCR/Unicable LNBs
6.4 Wideband LNB
7 Optical-fibre LNBs
8 Monoblock LNBs
9 Cold temperatures
10 See also
11 References
12 External links
Amplification and noise[edit]
The signal received by the LNB is extremely weak and it has to be amplified before downconversion. The low noise amplifier section of the LNB amplifies this weak signal while adding the minimum possible amount of noise to the signal.
The low-noise quality of an LNB is expressed as the noise figure (or sometimes noise temperature). This is the signal to noise ratio at the input divided by the signal to noise ratio at the output. It is typically expressed as a decibels (dB) value. The ideal LNB, effectively a perfect amplifier, would have a noise figure of 0 dB and would not add any noise to the signal. Every LNB introduces some noise but clever design techniques, expensive high performance low-noise components such as HEMTs and even individual tweaking of the LNB after manufacture, can reduce some of the noise contributed by the LNB's components.
Every LNB off the production line has a different noise figure because of manufacturing tolerances. The noise figure quoted in the specifications, important for determining the LNB's suitability, is usually representative of neither that particular LNB nor the performance across the whole frequency range, since the noise figure most often quoted is the typical figure averaged over the production.

Ku-band linear-polarized LNBF
Block downconversion[edit]
Satellites use comparatively high radio frequencies (microwaves) to transmit their TV signals. As microwave satellite signals do not easily pass through walls, roofs, or even glass windows, it is preferable for satellite antennas to be mounted outdoors. However, plastic glazing is transparent to microwaves and residential satellite dishes have successfully been hidden indoors looking through acrylic or polycarbonate windows to preserve the external aesthetics of the home.[5]
The purpose of the LNB is to use the superheterodyne principle to take a block (or band) of relatively high frequencies and convert them to similar signals carried at a much lower frequency (called the intermediate frequency or IF). These lower frequencies travel through cables with much less attenuation, so there is much more signal left at the satellite receiver end of the cable. It is also much easier and cheaper to design electronic circuits to operate at these lower frequencies, rather than the very high frequencies of satellite transmission.
The frequency conversion is performed by mixing a fixed frequency produced by a local oscillator inside the LNB with the incoming signal, to generate two signals equal to the sum of their frequencies and the difference. The frequency sum signal is filtered out and the frequency difference signal (the IF) is amplified and sent down the cable to the receiver:
C-band
{\displaystyle f_{\text{IF}}=f_{\text{LO}}-f_{\text{recv}}} f_\text{IF} = f_\text{LO} - f_\text{recv}
Ku-band
{\displaystyle f_{\text{IF}}=f_{\text{recv}}-f_{\text{LO}}} f_\text{IF} = f_\text{recv} - f_\text{LO}
where {\displaystyle \scriptstyle f} \scriptstyle f is a frequency.
The local oscillator frequency determines what block of incoming frequencies is downconverted to the frequencies expected by the receiver. For example, to downconvert the incoming signals from Astra 1KR, which transmits in a frequency block of 10.70–11.70 GHz, to within a standard European receiver's IF tuning range of 950–2,150 MHz, a 9.75 GHz local oscillator frequency is used, producing a block of signals in the band 950–1,950 MHz.
For the block of higher transmission frequencies used by Astra 2A and 2B (11.70–12.75 GHz), a different local oscillator frequency converts the block of incoming frequencies. Typically, a local oscillator frequency of 10.60 GHz is used to downconvert the block to 1,100–2,150 MHz, which is still within the receiver's 950–2,150 MHz IF tuning range.[6]
In a C-band antenna setup, the transmission frequencies are typically 3.7–4.2 GHz. By using a local oscillator frequency of 5.150 GHz the IF will be 950–1,450 MHz which is, again, in the receiver's IF tuning range.
For the reception of wideband satellite television carriers, typically 27 MHz wide, the accuracy of the frequency of the LNB local oscillator need only be in the order of ±500 kHz, so low cost dielectric oscillators (DRO) may be used. For the reception of narrow bandwidth carriers or ones using advanced modulation techniques, such as 16-QAM, highly stable and low phase noise LNB local oscillators are required. These use an internal crystal oscillator or an external 10 MHz reference from the indoor unit and a phase-locked loop (PLL) oscillator.
LNBFs[edit]
With the launch of the first DTH broadcast satellite in Europe (Astra 1A) by SES in 1988, antenna design was simplified for the anticipated mass-market. In particular, the feedhorn (which gathers the signal and directs it to the LNB) and the polarizer (which selects between differently polarized signals) were combined with the LNB itself into a single unit, called an LNB-feed or LNB-feedhorn (LNBF), or even an "Astra type" LNB. The prevalence of these combined units has meant that today the term LNB is commonly used to refer to all antenna units that provide the block-downconversion function, with or without a feedhorn.

LNBF for Sky Digital and Freesat in the UK
The Astra type LNBF that includes a feedhorn and polarizer is the most common variety, and this is fitted to a dish using a bracket that clamps a collar around the waveguide neck of the LNB between the feedhorn and the electronics package. The diameter of the LNB neck and collar is usually 40mm although other sizes are also produced. In the UK, the "minidish" sold for use with Sky Digital and Freesat uses an LNBF with an integrated clip-in mount.
LNBs without a feedhorn built-in are usually provided with a (C120) flange around the input waveguide mouth which is bolted to a matching flange around the output of the feedhorn or polarizer unit.
Polarization[edit]
It's common to polarize satellite TV signals because it provides a way of transmitting more TV channels using a given block of frequencies. This approach requires the use of receiving equipment that can filter incoming signals based on their polarisation. Two satellite TV signals can then be transmitted on the same frequency (or, more usually, closely spaced frequencies) and provided that they are polarized differently, the receiving equipment can still separate them and display whichever one is currently required.
Throughout the World, most satellite TV transmissions use vertical and horizontal linear polarization but in North America, DBS transmissions use left and right hand circular polarization. Within the waveguide of a North American DBS LNB a slab of dielectric material is used to convert left and right circular polarized signals to vertical and horizontal linear polarized signals so the converted signals can be treated the same.

A 1980s Ku-band LNB (2.18 dB noise figure) without built-in polarization selection and with a WR75 fitting for separate feedhorn and polarizer
The probe inside the LNB waveguide collects signals that are polarized in the same plane as the probe. To maximise the strength of the wanted signals (and to minimise reception of unwanted signals of the opposite polarization), the probe is aligned with the polarization of the incoming signals. This is most simply achieved by adjusting the LNB's skew; its rotation about the waveguide axis. To remotely select between the two polarizations, and to compensate for inaccuracies of the skew angle, it used to be common to fit a polarizer in front of the LNB's waveguide mouth. This either rotates the incoming signal with an electromagnet around the waveguide (a magnetic polarizer) or rotates an intermediate probe within the waveguide using a servo motor (a mechanical polarizer) but such adjustable skew polarizers are rarely used today.
The simplification of antenna design that accompanied the first Astra DTH broadcast satellites in Europe to produce the LNBF extended to a simpler approach to the selection between vertical and horizontal polarized signals too. Astra type LNBFs incorporate two probes in the waveguide, at right angles to one another so that, once the LNB has been skewed in its mount to match the local polarization angle, one probe collects horizontal signals and the other vertical, and an electronic switch (controlled by the voltage of the LNB's power supply from the receiver: 13 V for vertical and 18 V for horizontal) determines which polarization is passed on through the LNB for amplification and block-downconversion.
Such LNBs can receive all the transmissions from a satellite with no moving parts and with just one cable connected to the receiver, and have since become the most common type of LNB produced.
Common LNBs[edit]
C-band LNB[edit]
Here is an example of a North American C-band LNB:
Local oscillator: 5.15 GHz
Frequency: 3.40–4.20 GHz
Noise figure: ranges from 25 to 100 kelvins (uses kelvin ratings as opposed to dB rating).
Polarization: Linear
Supply
voltage Block Local oscillator
frequency Intermediate
freq. range
Polarization Frequency band
13 V Vertical 3.40–4.20 GHz 5.15 GHz 950–1,750 MHz
18 V Horizontal 3.40–4.20 GHz 5.15 GHz 950–1,750 MHz
Ku-band LNB[edit]
Standard North America Ku band LNB[edit]
Here is an example of a standard linear LNB:
Local oscillator: 10.75 GHz
Frequency: 11.70–12.20 GHz
Noise figure: 1 dB typical
Polarization: Linear
Supply
voltage Block Local oscillator
frequency Intermediate
freq. range
Polarization Frequency band
13 V Vertical 11.70–12.20 GHz 10.75 GHz 950–1,450 MHz
18 V Horizontal 11.70–12.20 GHz 10.75 GHz 950–1,450 MHz
Universal LNB ("Astra" LNB)[edit]

Astra type LNBF
In Europe, as SES launched more Astra satellites to the 19.2°E orbital position in the 1990s, the range of downlink frequencies used in the FSS band (10.70–11.70 GHz) grew beyond that catered for by the standard LNBs and receivers of the time. Reception of signals from Astra 1D required an extension of receivers' IF tuning range from 950–1,950 MHz to 950–2,150 MHz and a change of LNBs' local oscillator frequency from the usual 10 GHz to 9.75 GHz (so-called "Enhanced" LNBs).
The launch of Astra 1E and subsequent satellites saw the first use by Astra of the BSS band of frequencies (11.70–12.75 GHz) for new digital services and required the introduction of an LNB that would receive the whole frequency range 10.70–12.75 GHz, the "Universal" LNB.
A Universal LNB has a switchable local oscillator frequency of 9.75/10.60 GHz to provide two modes of operation: low band reception (10.70–11.70 GHz) and high band reception (11.70–12.75 GHz). The local oscillator frequency is switched in response to a 22 kHz signal superimposed on the supply voltage from the connected receiver. Along with the supply voltage level used to switch between polarizations, this enables a Universal LNB to receive both polarizations (Vertical and Horizontal) and the full range of frequencies in the satellite Ku band under the control of the receiver, in four sub-bands:[7]
Here is an example of a Universal LNB used in Europe:
Noise figure: 0.2 dB typical
Polarization: Linear
Supply Block Local oscillator
frequency Intermediate
freq. range
Voltage Tone Polarization Frequency band
13 V 0 kHz Vertical 10.70–11.70 GHz, low 9.75 GHz 950–1,950 MHz
18 V 0 kHz Horizontal 10.70–11.70 GHz, low 9.75 GHz 950–1,950 MHz
13 V 22 kHz Vertical 11.70–12.75 GHz, high 10.60 GHz 1,100–2,150 MHz
18 V 22 kHz Horizontal 11.70–12.75 GHz, high 10.60 GHz 1,100–2,150 MHz
North America DBS LNB[edit]
Here is an example of an LNB used for DBS:
Local oscillator: 11.25 GHz
Frequency: 12.20–12.70 GHz
Noise figure: 0.7 dB
Polarization: Circular
Supply
voltage Block Local oscillator
frequency Intermediate
freq. range
Polarization Frequency band
13 V Right-hand 12.20–12.70 GHz 11.25 GHz 950–1,450 MHz
18 V Left-hand 12.20–12.70 GHz 11.25 GHz 950–1,450 MHz
Ka-band LNB[edit]
Multi-output LNBs[edit]

An eight-output, or octo, LNBF
Dual, twin, quad, and octo LNBs[edit]

A twin-output Universal LNB with a C120 flange fitting for a separate feedhorn
An LNB with a single feedhorn but multiple outputs for connection to multiple tuners (in separate receivers or within the same receiver in the case of a twin-tuner PVR receiver). Typically, two, four or eight outputs are provided. Each output responds to the tuner's band and polarization selection signals independently of the other outputs and "appears" to the tuner to be a separate LNB. Such an LNB usually may derive its power from a receiver connected to any of the outputs. Unused outputs may be left unconnected (but waterproofed for the protection of the whole LNB).
Note: In the US, an LNB with two outputs is termed a "dual LNB" but in the UK, the term "dual LNB" historically described an LNB with two outputs, each producing one polarisation only, for connection to a multiswitch (the term and the LNBs fell out of use with the introduction of the Universal LNB and the multiswitch equivalent, the quattro LNB - see below) and today "dual LNB" (and "dual feed") describes antennas for reception from two satellite positions, using either two separate LNBs or a single Monoblock LNB with two feedhorns. In the UK, the term "twin-output LNB", or simply "twin LNB", is usually used for an LNB with a single feedhorn but two independent outputs.[3]
Quattro LNBs[edit]
A special type of LNB intended for use in a shared dish installation to deliver signals to any number of tuners. A quattro LNB has a single feedhorn and four outputs, which each supply just one of the Ku sub-bands (low band/horizontal polarization, high band/vertical polarization, low/vertical and high/horizontal) to a multiswitch or an array of multiswitches, which then delivers to each connected tuner whichever sub-band is required by that tuner.[8]
Although a quattro LNB typically looks similar to a quad LNB, it cannot (sensibly) be connected to receivers directly. Note again the difference between a quad and a quattro LNB: A quad LNB can drive four tuners directly, with each output providing signals from the entire Ku band. A quattro LNB is for connection to a multiswitch in a shared dish distribution system and each output provides only a quarter of the Ku band signals.

SCR LNB with three SCR taps for daisy-chaining multiple tuners
SCR/Unicable LNBs[edit]
Multiple tuners may also be fed from an SCR or Unicable LNB in a single cable distribution system. A Unicable LNB has one output connector but operates in a different way to standard LNBs so it can feed multiple tuners daisy-chained along a single coax cable.
Instead of block-downconverting the whole received spectrum, an SCR LNB downconverts a small section of the received signal (equivalent to the bandwidth of a single transponder on the satellite) selected according to a DiSEqC-compliant command from the receiver, to output at a fixed frequency in the IF. Up to 16 tuners can be allocated a different frequency in the IF range and for each, the SCR LNB downconverts the corresponding individually requested transponder.[9]
Most SCR LNBs also include either a legacy mode of operation or a separate legacy output which provides the received spectrum block-downconverted to the whole IF range in the conventional way.

A optical fibre LNB (with fibre connection and conventional F-connector for power input)
Wideband LNB[edit]
ASTRA Universal Wideband LNB with an oscillator frequency of 10.40 or 10.41 GHz are entering the market. The intermediate frequency band is much wider than in a conventional LNB, as the high and low band are not split up.
Wideband LNB signals can be accepted by new wideband tuners, and by new SCR systems [e.g. Inverto/Fuba,[10] Unitron,[11] Optel,[12] GT-Sat/Astro], with or without optical transmission. Wideband signals can be converted to conventional quattro signals[13] and vice versa.[14]
In February 2016 BSkyB launched a new LNB only compatible with their new wideband tuner.[15] This LNB has one port for all vertical polarised channels both low and high band, and another port for all low and high band horizontal channels. The basic model has only 2 connections and presumably has a local oscillator of 10.41 GHz with an intermediate frequency of 290 to 2340 MHz from an input of 10.7 - 12.75 GHz. This LNB seems to be the same as Unitrons ASTRA Universal Wideband LNB.[16] Two cables minimum are needed to access all channels. In the Sky Q box multiple tuners can select multiple channels, more than the usual two for dual coax systems. This type of LNB is incompatible with the more common Astra Universal LNB used in the UK meaning the LNB is changed during upgrade. There is a model of the LNB with 6 connections, two for Sky Q and 4 Astra Universal LNB for users with multiple legacy systems such as Freesat in addition to Sky Q. In cases where only a single cable is possible, such as apartment blocks, Sky Q compatible multiswitches can be used, which instead use BSkyB SCR.[17]
Optical-fibre LNBs[edit]
LNBs for fibre satellite distribution systems operate in a similar way to conventional electrical LNBs, except that all four of the sub-bands in the entire Ku band spectrum of 11.70–12.75 GHz across two signal polarisations are simultaneously block-downconverted (as in a quattro LNB). The four sub-bands’ IFs are stacked to create one IF with a range of 0.95–5.45 GHz (a bandwidth of 4,500 MHz), which is modulated on an optical signal using a semiconductor laser, to send down the fibre cable.
At the receiver, the optical signal is converted back to the traditional electrical signal to "appear" to the receiver as a conventional LNB.[18]
Monoblock LNBs[edit]

A twin-output monoblock LNBF for Astra 19.2°E and Hot Bird with a collar size adapter fitted
A monoblock (or monobloc) LNB is a single unit comprising two LNBs and a DiSEqC switch, designed to receive signals from two satellites spaced close together and to feed the selected signal to the receiver. The feedhorns of the two LNBs are at a fixed distance apart for reception of satellites of a particular orbital separation (often 6°). Although the same functionality can be achieved with separate LNBs and a switch, a monoblock LNB, constructed in one unit, is more convenient to install and enables the two feedhorns to be closer together than individually cased LNBs (typically 60mm diameter). The distance between the feedhorns depends on the orbital separation of the satellites to be received, the diameter and focal length of the dish used, and the position of the reception site relative to the satellites. So monoblock LNBs are usually a compromise solution designed to operate with standard dishes in a particular region.[19] For example, in parts of Europe, monoblocks designed to receive the Hot Bird and Astra 19.2°E satellites are popular because they enable reception of both satellites on a single dish without requiring an expensive, slow and noisy motorised dish. A similar advantage is provided by the duo LNB for simultaneous reception of signals from both the Astra 23.5°E and Astra 19.2°E positions.
Cold temperatures[edit]
It is possible for any moisture in an LNB to physically freeze due to ice build-up in very low temperatures. This is only likely to occur when the LNB is not receiving power from the satellite receiver (i.e., no programmes are being watched). To combat this, many satellite receivers provide an option to keep the LNB powered while the receiver is on standby. In fact, most LNBs are kept powered because this helps to stabilise the temperature and, thereby, the local oscillator frequency by the dissipated heat from the circuitry of LNB. In the case of UK BSkyB receivers, the LNB remains powered while in standby so that the receiver can receive firmware updates and Electronic Programme Guide updates. In the United States, the LNB connected to Dish Network receivers remains powered as well as those receivers that receive software and firmware updates and guide information over the air at night. In Turkey, another LNB type Digiturk MDUs are kept powered to receive VOD content, STB firmware, EPG data and pay TV keys in order to watch encrypted content.
See also[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Low noise blocks (LNB).
Bias tee
Block upconverter (BUC)
Orthomode transducer
Signal-to-noise ratio
Transmit and receive integrated assembly (TRIA)
Duo LNB
Single Cable Distribution
Fibre satellite distribution
References[edit]
Jump up ^ "Glossary of Satellite Terms". Satnews.com. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
Jump up ^ Calaz, R A. An Introduction To Domestic Radio TV And Satellite Reception CAI (2002) pp119
^ Jump up to: a b Bains, Geoff. "Getting The Most Out Of An LNB" What Satellite & Digital TV (November, 2008) pp50-51
Jump up ^ "Satellite Glossary". SatUniverse.com. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Ku dish through glass". satelliteguys.us. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Understanding lnb specifications" (PDF). SatCritics Technicals. 2002-11-15. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
Jump up ^ "Professional Dish Installation" (pdf). ASTRA (GB) Limited. March 2005. p. 7.
Jump up ^ "Astra Glossary - Quattro LNB". SES ASTRA. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
Jump up ^ Bains, Geoff. "Inverto Unicable LNB" What Satellite & Digital TV (February, 2006) pp60-62"
Jump up ^ "Inverto - IDLU-UWT110-CUO1O-32P -". www.inverto.tv. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
Jump up ^ "Unitron catalog" (PDF).
Jump up ^ "Optel". www.optelit.com. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
Jump up ^ popcom.be. "Wideband to Quattro Convertor [sic] - Unitron Group". Unitron Group. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
Jump up ^ "Sky Q Installation" (PDF).
Jump up ^ https://corporate.sky.com/documents/sky-q-2015/fact-sheet-sky-q.pdf
Jump up ^ LNB http://www.unitrongroup.com/en/news-events/unitrongroup-introduces-wideband-satellite-product-family.html
Jump up ^ http://www.unitrongroup.com/download.php?lang=en&id=657
Jump up ^ "FibreMDU Optical LNB". Global Invacom. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
Jump up ^ Bains, Geoff. "Multi-feed dishes" What Satellite & Digital TV (August 2007) pp44-47
External links[edit]
LNB mysteries explained.
Explanation and block diagram of LNB
Noise Temperature and Noise Figure
OnAstra - Official Astra consumers/viewers' site
SES - Official SES trade/industry site
Astra Recommendations (for satellite reception equipment including LNB types)
VSAT Installation Manual with explanation of the Low-noise block converter
Categories: AntennasAnalog circuitsSatellite broadcastingTelecommunications equipment
3 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/107718368764902881564 MezoMe - ميزومي‎ : Premier League questions #premier #league #questions: Getty © Provided by BSkyB Who will start in goal...
Premier League questions #premier #league #questions: Getty © Provided by BSkyB Who will start in goal for Liverpool in the Merseyside derby? Will Chelsea match their unbeaten record? This weekend's Premier League questions. After a busy midweek schedule, all 20 teams are gearing up to do it all again thi https://goo.gl/eJcyaA
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-DgCw76sxjRI/WFlC3ZvRA3I/AAAAAAAAHus/l-AJC7erc9IiGwsRhylVm8tNUXWteHD9QCJoC/w506-h750/625473fb-d485-4da2-a0a3-b35072a270bc
3 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/115680715965447161238 SLK Logistics : Behind the bid for Sky is a less powerful Murdoch empire: IT WOULD seem to be a stunning comeback for...
Behind the bid for Sky is a less powerful Murdoch empire: IT WOULD seem to be a stunning comeback for Rupert Murdoch and his clan. Five years ago News Corporation was engulfed by scandal. One of its British papers, the News of the World, had routinely hacked private phones. In the aftermath the company gave up a bid it had made for BSkyB (now simply called Sky), a satellite broadcaster in which it had a stake. A parliamentary report declared Mr Murdoch unfit to lead a large company. James Murdoch, his son, resigned as chair of BSkyB and chief of the newspaper division. Ofcom, Britain's media regulator, eviscerated his leadership as “difficult to comprehend and ill-judged”.Now the Murdoch empire appears to be striking back. On December 9th, 21st Century Fox, the Murdochs' entertainment business, had announced a preliminary deal to buy the 61% of Sky it does not already own, and this week it made a formal offer, of £11.7bn ($14.8bn). James...Continue reading http://econ.st/2hJcTg7
Behind the bid for Sky is a less powerful Murdoch empire
Sky is losing viewers and Rupert Murdoch’s newspapers have shed readers
3 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/117663968096003209673 George Lees : Let me explain why young Bullingdon Boy George Osborne resigned as Chancellor of the Exchequer. I show...
Let me explain why young Bullingdon Boy George Osborne resigned as Chancellor of the Exchequer. I show you first the business directorates run by Lord Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild which is the Future of Russia Foundation with Kissinger , Hartmann Murdoch BSKYB interlocking with the the Princess Trust involving TIMOTHY William OSBORNE. BUT he & Cameron survived that reputational hit. Since WW2 Kissinger has been USA's CIA founder and a MOSSAD double agent the WORLDS BIGGEST KILLER. There is even a Russian call Leonid on the board!!!! The TSARS that were "EXECUTED" have now become Vladimir Romanov Nicholevich Rothschild of Heart of Midlothian and LITHUANIAN central banking fame. So there are 4 TW Osbornes on Company check, The one with dir no 911 (and registered at Shakespearian PUCK's Hill in Gloucester) is the FUTURE of Russia listing with 48 other registrations. The 3rd one on the list cannot be opened and god only knows what the English speaking directors have scammed there. I read out the 49 directorates for TIM OSBORNE many are Petroleum Corps, Ponzi Shelves, Cotswolds Telecom Ops, Eurasia OIL services (UK) Ltd, Eurasia Energy. Gazprom BALTIC pipeline is the Russian oil BP Rosneft scam and runs Russias oil out of Tympschenko's UKRAINE with 44 subsiduaries registered WEST OF AMSTERDAM. On goes the list Severn TV, Discovery Channel UK, Cable TV International, Neptune. ONLY 14 live now including Russias Future & Hermitage Museum MOSCOW still. The 4th Company is Queens Court Haywards Heath W Sussex Osborne Arnet. So GEORGEs family sell wallpaper and floor coverings and SHARES in the FTSE 100 since their boy became the chancellor in the Clegg Cameron coalition racket for Rothschild and the Constitutional Monarchy who now control the issuance of money EVERYWHERE ON THE GLOBE. When the coalition took over Browns Chancellor left a statement that the treasury was empty already. The family have been accused of tax evasion and George engaged in Mortgage frauds as the AUSTERITY pretender whos mission is to declare the accounting myth that every GOVT across the world is in debt to un-named private creditors like the future of russia directors. The SHARE releases I profile, £2M carved up between tiny numbers of family directors occurred right up to May of 2016 THEN HE RESIGNED & was replaced by HAMMOND. So one of the family directors is John Noakes in the PEERAGE not on Blue Peter. When 11 Downing St became his home he could not find the right door under the eyes of Murdoch's Press who picked them and ROTHSCHILDS' yachts in CAPRI were used to issue the BUNGS through Nathan Jr linkage in the BULLINGDON Club to Boris Johnson et al and the WHOLE NATION is SOLD. Mandelson is part of those ILICIT deals and Iraq Lebannon Libya is history CHANNEL output now. Oh on the celeb trivia George looks nothing like his dad the BARON but is a dead ringer for Sir Simon Jenkins boss at ROTHSCHILD National Trust. Sir Peter Osborne runs OSBORNE & LITTLE and is current BARON OSBORNE of out of mansions in County Cork. I will explain Ms Savill further down she was a dinner lady at the VIC & ALBERT museum and is now an advisor on the National Mint when George is Head of the TREASURY ops. Do you get the PAEDO stories now since I revealed HEARTS AND HIBS directors crimes and we get football dressing room kiddy fiddling claims all over the UK. George was a PUBLIC SCHOOLBOY, on that theme, AT WELLINGTON who won the BofE at Waterloo. The sovereign debt RATING AGENCY bogus economics has stolen all central banks since CAMERON replaced Brown and all are allowed to RESIGN for shame with NO PROSECUTIONS cos the PISO POLIS Met Police are picked from the same inbred families & police Scotlands has released a new 16 year old child killing case this week & AMAZON/GOOGLE are evading tax and abusing their workforce. When I find George's "LEGAL" "Christian" name George GIDEON Oliver Osborne you discover he uses it to run the CONSERVATIVE CLUB UK which is NOT in a Debt Pool NOR ARE THE Museums and Art Collections they run with SAVILL' s bake off skills & training. Osborne was openly PRO-AUSTERITY for the people but all the PRIVATE ORGS for the politicians are solvent with millions at the BANKS the issue profits from too. George is HIGHLY inbred Fry Aspinall, Loxton- Peacock, SEEBAG Montefiore,, Horn & Fisher appear in the Baronetcy family tree and George Married Classy CURZON wife in 2000. So now NEGOTIATIONS of the Bullingdon /Billderberg boys Cameron Johnson and Osborne with Nathan rothschild on their yacht inthe Aegean offshore from Roth's Isle of Corfu . Mandelson had his fingers in the pot too which is why he is adored by Hannah Mary Rothschild as our most humourous war criminal profiteer. CENSORED GO to https://sites.google.com/site/profgeorgeleesrevelations/george-osborne-inc-pocket-money-ftse100-shares-hedge-f-roths-russia-s-future-tory-club-in-red
Watch the video: George Osborne INC pocket money FTSE100 Shares Hedge F & Roths Russia's Future,Tory Club in RED
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/mNrdrJuvcZKkaEm_nHZUPC-JCnIKfNIPKZzUrQ4uCAzbxdb6BNxdfYdTrzr4NLAH3jGbHjsherJ3p8Ny1zT_ew=w506-h284-n
Let me explain why young Bullingdon Boy George Osborne resigned as Chancellor of the Exchequer. I show you first the business directorates run by Lord Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild which is the Future of Russia Foundation with Kissinger , Hartmann Murdoch BSKYB interlocking with the the Princess Trust involving TIMOTHY William OSBORNE. BUT he & Cameron survived that reputational hit. Since WW2 Kissinger has been USA's CIA founder and a MOSSAD double agent the WORLDS BIGGEST KILLER. There is even a Russian call Leonid on the board!!!! The TSARS that were "EXECUTED" have now become Vladimir Romanov Nicholevich Rothschild of Heart of Midlothian and LITHUANIAN central banking fame. So there are 4 TW Osbornes on Company check, The one with dir no 911 (and registered at Shakespearian PUCK's Hill in Gloucester) is the FUTURE of Russia listing with 48 other registrations. The 3rd one on the list cannot be opened and god only knows what the English speaking directors have scammed t...
3 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/103406240604912371782 David Stead : The Weston front 😥 a movie by Dave stead 2016😥
The Weston front 😥 a movie by Dave stead 2016😥
Watch the video: MOV_0006_1.mp4
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-gpNt6ks6ytI/WFG_j_QJ2KI/AAAAAAAAX-I/DnWC7MzHvrMq3btndvZUI2pPP_Mx6XtfACL0B/w506-h379-n-o/MOV_0006_1.mp4

3 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/108675403005541025868 Rajnish Ranjan : At the time of the 2011 bid, MPs passed a motion demanding it be withdrawn.  Former Labour leader Ed...
At the time of the 2011 bid, MPs passed a motion demanding it be withdrawn.  Former Labour leader Ed Miliband said today given there was still phone hacking cases unresolved in the courts the new bid should be vetoed by culture secretary Karen Bradley.…
Theresa May Pressed To Reveal Details Of Rupert Murdoch Meeting Ahead Of BSKYB Bid - Times of News United Kingdom
Theresa May Pressed To Reveal Details Of Rupert Murdoch Meeting Ahead Of BSKYB Bid-At the time of the 2011 bid, MPs passed a motion demanding it be withdrawn. Former Labour leader Ed Miliband said today given there was still phone hackin
3 months ago - Via - View -
https://plus.google.com/103406240604912371782 David Stead :

Watch the video: MOV_0006_1.mp4
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-XLFEy2tuFzg/WE1Oypi0liI/AAAAAAAAX5E/evQ3VVcwP8sykQxsj5jEuFczm88TIc47gCJoC/w506-h379-n-o/MOV_0006_1.mp4

3 months ago - Via Google+ - View -
https://plus.google.com/108804084223334346656 3Novices Australian Life : Despite the provocations of the Brexit vote, the downfall of Roger Ailes at Fox, and Trump’s triumph...
Despite the provocations of the Brexit vote, the downfall of Roger Ailes at Fox, and Trump’s triumph, Rupert Murdoch’s Twitter account has been dormant since his famous sign off tweet in March. But that should not be mistaken for inactivity. #3Novices…
3Novices:All the signs were there of Rupert Murdoch’s latest move on BSkyB
Despite the provocations of the Brexit vote, the downfall of Roger Ailes at Fox, and Trump’s triumph, Rupert Murdoch’s Twitter account has been dormant since his famous sign off tweet i…
3 months ago - Via - View -