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Most recent 100 results returned for keyword: Sindh (Search this on MAP)

Flickr Haleji Lake, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: winter   lake   march   lakes   wetlands   sindh   wildlifesanctuary   ramsar   thatta   haleji   halejilake   lakesinpakistan   protectedareasinpakistan   wildlifesanctuariesinpakistan   wetlandsinpakistan   birdwatchinginpakistan   conservationinpakistan   importantwinteringareasforwaterfowlineurasia   importantwinteringareasforwaterfowlinasia   importantwinteringareasforwaterfowlinpakistan   importantwetlandsinpakistan   importantwetlandsineurasia   importantwetlandsinasia   outdoorattractionsinsindh   natureinsindh   natureofsindh   sindh’snaturalheritage   pakistannaturalheritage   protectedareasinsindh   wheretowatchbird’sinpakistan   ramsarwetlandsites   ramsarwetlandsitesinpakistan   greatdaysoutnearkarachi   springinpakistan   ramsarsitesinpakistan   placestovisitinsindh   naturalheritageofsindh   tourisminsindh   birdwatchinginsindh   landscapesinsindh   ecotourisminpakistan   ecotourisminsindh   wetlandconservationinpakistan   marchinpakistan   pakistaninmarch   lakesinsindh   largestfreshwaterlakeinpakistan   hydrologyofsouthasia   halejijheel   tourisminthatta   biggestmanmadelakeinpakistan   freshwaterlakesinpakistan   ecologyofsindh   ecologyofthatta   wildlifesanctuaryofsindh   ramsarsitesinsindh   internationallyimportantbirdwinteringareasinpakistan   winterinthatta   sindhgeography   naturalheritageofthatta   naturalbeautyofsindh   naturalbeautyofthatta   marchinsindh   marchinthatta   thattainmarch   sindhinmarch   springinsindh   thattainspring   sindhinspring   
Lake Haleji is an ideal refuge for wintering and home of thousands of birds and regarded as one of the most important wintering areas of migratory waterfowl in Eurasia. It is located at 240 48 N and 600 47'E, and is within easy motoring distance, 88 Km, of Karachi. A sanctuary for birds and an outdoor attraction for humans. Haleji, a salt-water lake was formed by seasonal water, collecting in a depression. For additional water needed for troops stationed at Karachi, during world war II, salt water was drained out and an embankment was constructed around the lake which was fed by fresh water through a canal. Resultantly, Haleji became one of the major sources of water supply to the increasing population of Karachi as well as an exquisite refuge for waterfowl.
Haleji lake and its lagoons together with Hudero lake at a hopping distance, which in turn whispers to the keenjhar lake, forms a very large complex of waterfowl habitat. This complex is now home to divers, dabblers, surface and deep-water feeders and fresh and brackish water lovers. All these find this strange salt and fresh water mix a fascinating place to suit their moods and requirements. It is also ideal for guest birds that come here from colder regions.
Complete circuit of Haleji is about 12 miles. The main water reservoir covers an area of 6.58 Sq. miles and the maximum depth being 17 feet. Shady trees surround it. Phragmites, Typha, Hydrilla and Lotus cover parts of the lake in swaying patches of colours.
The rocky out crops which jut out of the lake at various points are home of a number of migratory and resident waterfowl. One of them is known as Pelican Island and the other as Cormorant Island. On both these islands, hundreds of these birds can be seen resting and enjoying the sun. Evening is the best time for them, for then they all come home. There are marsh crocodiles too.
Haleji is a bird watcher's paradise. As many as 223 bird species have been recorded in the environs of Haleji lake. For instance, osprey, Pallas's fish eagle, Buzzards, Harriers, falcons, Wigeon, coot, shoveller, pintail, Teals, Mallard, heron, Jacana, flamingos and some times Bewick's swan, all form a marvellous sight for a bird watcher.
The Government of Sindh have provided legal cover to preserve ecology of the region and Haleji has been declared a Wildlife Sanctuary and later on as a Ramsar wetland site .


Recent Updated: 6 days ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   archaeology   graveyards   sindh   tombs   necropolis   historicalbuildings   southasia   thatta   maklihills   muslimhistory   islamichistoryinsouthasia   sindhiheritage   interestinggraveyards   historyofsindh   sindhheritage   
One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

Recent Updated: 1 month ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Salt work at Sindh..........IMG_7949-
Tags: pakistan   salt   worker   sindh   saltworker   nadeemkhawar   banbhore   
Salt worker at Banbore, Sindh. Pakistan.
Recent Updated: 1 month ago - Created by Nadeem Khawar. - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Nadeem Khawar.
Flickr Haleji Lake, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: winter   lake   march   lakes   wetlands   sindh   wildlifesanctuary   ramsar   thatta   haleji   halejilake   lakesinpakistan   protectedareasinpakistan   wildlifesanctuariesinpakistan   wetlandsinpakistan   birdwatchinginpakistan   conservationinpakistan   importantwinteringareasforwaterfowlineurasia   importantwinteringareasforwaterfowlinasia   importantwinteringareasforwaterfowlinpakistan   importantwetlandsinpakistan   importantwetlandsineurasia   importantwetlandsinasia   outdoorattractionsinsindh   natureinsindh   natureofsindh   sindh’snaturalheritage   pakistannaturalheritage   protectedareasinsindh   wheretowatchbird’sinpakistan   ramsarwetlandsites   ramsarwetlandsitesinpakistan   greatdaysoutnearkarachi   springinpakistan   ramsarsitesinpakistan   placestovisitinsindh   naturalheritageofsindh   tourisminsindh   birdwatchinginsindh   landscapesinsindh   ecotourisminpakistan   ecotourisminsindh   wetlandconservationinpakistan   marchinpakistan   pakistaninmarch   lakesinsindh   largestfreshwaterlakeinpakistan   hydrologyofsouthasia   halejijheel   tourisminthatta   biggestmanmadelakeinpakistan   freshwaterlakesinpakistan   ecologyofsindh   ecologyofthatta   wildlifesanctuaryofsindh   ramsarsitesinsindh   internationallyimportantbirdwinteringareasinpakistan   winterinthatta   sindhgeography   naturalheritageofthatta   naturalbeautyofsindh   naturalbeautyofthatta   marchinsindh   marchinthatta   thattainmarch   sindhinmarch   springinsindh   thattainspring   sindhinspring   
Lake Haleji is an ideal refuge for wintering and home of thousands of birds and regarded as one of the most important wintering areas of migratory waterfowl in Eurasia. It is located at 240 48 N and 600 47'E, and is within easy motoring distance, 88 Km, of Karachi. A sanctuary for birds and an outdoor attraction for humans. Haleji, a salt-water lake was formed by seasonal water, collecting in a depression. For additional water needed for troops stationed at Karachi, during world war II, salt water was drained out and an embankment was constructed around the lake which was fed by fresh water through a canal. Resultantly, Haleji became one of the major sources of water supply to the increasing population of Karachi as well as an exquisite refuge for waterfowl.
Haleji lake and its lagoons together with Hudero lake at a hopping distance, which in turn whispers to the keenjhar lake, forms a very large complex of waterfowl habitat. This complex is now home to divers, dabblers, surface and deep-water feeders and fresh and brackish water lovers. All these find this strange salt and fresh water mix a fascinating place to suit their moods and requirements. It is also ideal for guest birds that come here from colder regions.
Complete circuit of Haleji is about 12 miles. The main water reservoir covers an area of 6.58 Sq. miles and the maximum depth being 17 feet. Shady trees surround it. Phragmites, Typha, Hydrilla and Lotus cover parts of the lake in swaying patches of colours.
The rocky out crops which jut out of the lake at various points are home of a number of migratory and resident waterfowl. One of them is known as Pelican Island and the other as Cormorant Island. On both these islands, hundreds of these birds can be seen resting and enjoying the sun. Evening is the best time for them, for then they all come home. There are marsh crocodiles too.
Haleji is a bird watcher's paradise. As many as 223 bird species have been recorded in the environs of Haleji lake. For instance, osprey, Pallas's fish eagle, Buzzards, Harriers, falcons, Wigeon, coot, shoveller, pintail, Teals, Mallard, heron, Jacana, flamingos and some times Bewick's swan, all form a marvellous sight for a bird watcher.
The Government of Sindh have provided legal cover to preserve ecology of the region and Haleji has been declared a Wildlife Sanctuary and later on as a Ramsar wetland site .


Recent Updated: 1 month ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr In Jacobabad - Sindh
Tags: pakistan   portrait   people   bakery   sindh   lunaphoto   jacobabad   osaid   kehar   osaidullah   vision:people=099   vision:face=099   vision:groupshot=099   vision:outdoor=0654   vision:sky=0617   

Recent Updated: 9 months ago - Created by osaid- - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - osaid-
Flickr KOT DIJI FORT KHAIRPUR, SINDH
Tags: heritage   fort   sindh   kot   khairpur   diji   kotdijifort   kotdiji   vision:mountain=0687   vision:outdoor=099   vision:sky=0789   vision:clouds=0828   
The ancient site at Kot Diji (Urdu: کوٹ ڈیجی‎) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. The people of this site lived about 3000 BCE. The remains consist of two parts; the citadel area on high ground (about 12 m), and outer area. The Pakistan Department of Archaeology excavated at Kot Diji in 1955 and 1957.

Located about 22 kilometers south of Khairpur in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The site is situated at the foot of the Rohri Hills where a fort (Kot Diji Fort) was built around 1790 by Talpur dynasty ruler of Upper Sindh, Mir Suhrab who reigned from 1783 to 1830 AD. This fort built on the ridge of a steep narrow hill is well preserved.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kot_Diji

Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by S.M.Rafiq - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - S.M.Rafiq
Flickr Faiz Mahal, Khairpur Mirs Sindh
Tags: family   pakistan   classic   architecture   mahal   ali   khan   sindh   mir   rulers   faiz   murad   iqbal   mirs   khairpur   khatri   talpur   iqbalkhatri   
An architectural classic is the Faiz Mahal, built in 1798 as the palace of the Talpur family in Khairpur Mirs. Faiz Mahal was the residence of Rulers of Khairpur state.

The current descendant of the Talpur family, Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur, who acceded to the Pakistani state in 1956, is an environmentalist and has to his credit an extraordinary flora and fauna safe haven called the Mehrano, notorious for its black buck, and hog deer, both of which have turn out to be rare in Sindh, Pakistan.

Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Iqbal.Khatri - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Iqbal.Khatri
Flickr Kids of Sindh ! A09A8448
Tags: kids   sindh   indus   colorsofsindh   vision:text=058   vision:people=099   vision:face=099   
Kids of Sindh at the bank of River Indus !!
Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Nadeem Khawar. - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Nadeem Khawar.
Flickr Kids of Sindh ! A09A8438
Tags: kids   sindh   indus   colorsofsindh   vision:people=099   vision:face=099   vision:outdoor=0928   vision:sky=0553   
Kids of Sindh at the bank of River Indus !!
Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Nadeem Khawar. - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Nadeem Khawar.
Flickr Edge Of Sindh River
Tags: life   bridge   family   pakistan   people   colors   face   river   children   boat   fisherman   expression   sindh   lansdowne   ayub   sukkur   rohri   iqbalkhatri   dailyroutne   
Kids at the bank of Sindh River, sukkur Sindh Pakistan
Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Iqbal.Khatri - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Iqbal.Khatri
Flickr Kids of Sindh ! A09A8391
Tags: kids   sindh   indus   colorsofsindh   vision:text=051   vision:people=099   vision:face=099   vision:outdoor=0663   
Kids of Sindh at the bank of River Indus !!
Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Nadeem Khawar. - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Nadeem Khawar.
Flickr Farmer of Sindh, Pakistan .A09A8142
Tags: pakistan   sindh   pakistaniphotographer   cultureofpakistan   cultureofsindh   vision:flower=0605   vision:outdoor=0856   vision:plant=075   farmerofsindh   
A Sindhi farmer returning to home with the bundle of green Grass for their cattle.
Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Nadeem Khawar. - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Nadeem Khawar.
Flickr Young boy of Sindh, A09A7807
Tags: sindh   daraza   cultureofsindh   sachalsarmast   peopleofsindh   colorsofsindh   vision:text=054   vision:people=099   vision:face=099   vision:outdoor=0665   
A young boy returning to home with the branches of tree at Sachal sarmast, Daraza, Sindh Pakistan.
Recent Updated: 10 months ago - Created by Nadeem Khawar. - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Nadeem Khawar.
Flickr Sonamarg Valley : A View from River Sindh.
Tags: travel   valley   kashmir   imagesofindia   sonamarg   sonmarg   sindhnallah   barzmanhotel   
Sonamarg (meaning, Meadow of Gold; 2800m), an alpine valley nestled with in the imposing Himalayan peaks at the bank of Nallah Sindh, 87 km north-east from Srinagar, is a popular tourist destination in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Barzman Hotel, Sonamarg, Kashmir
www.barzmanhotel.com


Recent Updated: 1 year ago - Created by biswarupsarkar72 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - biswarupsarkar72
Flickr Portrait of a girl in Dadu, Sindh
Tags: pakistan   portrait   girl   smile   nikon   colorful   dadu   cloth   sindh   balochi   dupatta   d7000   nikond7000   vision:people=099   vision:face=099   
One of my greatest joys is photographing children in Sindh. They are so full of life despite living in extremely difficult conditions and have some of the best smiles I've seen.

Copyrights - The Maternal and Newborn Health Programme - Research and Advocacy Fund (RAF).

Recent Updated: 1 year ago - Created by Mobeen_Ansari - View

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Flickr The SINDH RIVER flowing through the Lush Green SONAMARG VALLEY
Tags: blue   india   green   river   landscape   nikon   valley   jammuandkashmir   sonamarg   sindhriver   nikond90   afsnikkor18105vr   sonamargvalley   
Place - SONAMARG, JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA
Camera - NIKON D90
Lens - AF-S NIKKOR 18-105 VR

Recent Updated: 1 year ago - Created by Shakyasom Majumder - View

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Flickr Portrait: Faqir at Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (RA), SIndh
Tags: new   old   pakistan   portrait   man   50mm   wooden   beads   hands   nikon   shrine   tomb   pakistani   malang   sind   mazar   ppa   colourphotography   historicalcity   faqir   shrinesinpakistan   hazratlalshahbazqalandar   shrinesinsindh   centralsindh   muslimsaintsofpakistan   jholaylalsarkarmastqalandar   
I have found this Faqir whenever I have visited this most important Muslim Saint Shrine in province of Sindh, Pakistan. Faqirs or malangs, as they are known here locally, belong to a rather interesting and rare creed of men who devote themselves to Shrines or wanderings. They get food and money from devotees, as in this case. This man carries huge wooden beads and strange instruments and never begs for money. People, if they like, can give them whatever they wish to.
Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by Ameer Hamza - View

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Flickr Sindhi Man at Bhit Shah in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   shrine   islam   religion   language   sufi   sindh   hala   sindhi   sindhiculture   islaminsindh   bhitshah   shahabdullatifbhittai   literaturehistory   sindhhistorical   islamaroundtheworld   placestovisitinsindh   shrinesinsindh   religioninsindh   architectureinsindh   historicalarchitectureinsindh   ursinsindh   sindhipeople   shrinecultureinpakistan   bhitshahsindh   mysticpoets   peotssufi   mysticsufism   islamsufismsindhi   poetrypakistani   poetssindhi   literaturesindhi   figurespakistanisufis   sindhisufis   1689births   1752deaths   mitiari   mitiraidistrict   placestovisitnearhyderabad   halasindh   historicalarchitectureinmitiari   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people


Sindhis (Sindhi: سنڌي, Urdu: سندھی , Sindhi Devanagari script: सिन्धी, Sindhī) are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province of Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity. After the Partition of India into two dominion countries in 1947 i.e. India and Pakistan, a large number of Muslim immigrants (Muhajirs) shifted to Pakistan and settled in Sindh region like other regions of Pakistan. At the same time Sindhi Hindus migrated to India in large numbers and have settled in many parts of the world.


History
Prehistoric period
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages of the Indus Valley civilization around 3000 BC.
The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline around the year 1700 BC for reasons that are not entirely known, though its downfall was probably precipitated by a massive earthquake that dried up the Ghaggar River. This decline coincided with the arrival of Aryan tribes from Central Asia. The Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic civilization that existed between the Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.
In his book Kitab-ul-Hind, the Persian scholar Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī (Al-Beruni) declared that even before the advent of Islam into Sindh (711 A.D.), the Sindhi language was prevalent in Sindh.

Historical period
Because of its location at the western edge of South Asia, Sindh was one of the earliest regions to be influenced by Islam. It was part of the Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting millions of native Sindhis to Islam. At the same time, Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. Settled by Turks, Pashtuns, and Mughals. Habbari, Soomra, Samma, Arghun dynasties ruled Sindh. The Baloch tribes migrated and settled in Sindh. These Baloch assimilated with Sindhis and now they constitute a significant population of Sindh. Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state; by the time of British colonial occupation it was ruled by Baloch kings.


Independence
In 1947, Pakistan gained independence from British India. Sindh was a Muslim-majority province and its elected provincial assembly voted to join Pakistan before any other province. Many Hindus who lived in Sindh were killed and robbed and forced to leave Sindh by Muslims due to post independence violent communal riots. The community which left Sindh has preserved its custom and culture after migration to India. There are millions of Sindhis living in India and all over the world now. In Pakistan, there population has continued to decline. Today Hindu Sindhis form only 1.846% of Pakistan's total population. Properties and land of original Sindhu Hindus were given to Muslim migrants from India by a board constituted for the purpose at time of partition. Those remaining were stripped of their property, land and wealth. Their wives, sisters and daughters were forcibly married off to Muslims whereas males were forced to become bonded labours on their own land and serve Muslim masters. [3]Popati Hiranandani [4] writes in her autobography that the local police were complicit in the anti-Hindu violence. These Hindus were settled in refugee camps in India, and went on to assimilate into the local population, mainly in Western India. Many cities in India, including Rajasthan, Ulhasnagar, Gandhidham, Ahmedabad, Bhopal and Pimpri-Chinchwad, served as refugee camps for Sindhis who fled from Pakistan and now house a large number of Hindu Sindhis.[5]
Sindhi people have dominated both provincial and federal politics. The Sindhi politicians have held the offices of President, Prime Minister, Speaker of the National Assembly, Chairman of the Senate, and other senior ministerial positions in Pakistan. In India, majority of Hindu Sindhis have through their hard work and business ethic and stress on education, girl child equality, have done well financially and are considered one of the most progressive people of India. However, regrettably, the Sindhi culture itself is decline in India. Reasons for this are manifold. Firstly, Hindu Sindhis, being migrants, do not have their own "state" or region like all other communities of India. They are spread far and wide, and found in small pockets surrounded by other communities. As such, due to lack of community strength, the culture has declined. Sindhi language is not officially taught in any mainstream school in India, the festivals though celebrated, are mostly organised by group of volunteers, Sindhi cinema is non-existant, young Sindhi kids often have no peers or friends within community in their neighbourhood so they do not develop any appreciation or knowledge of their rich culture. Secondly, being open-minded and progressive, Sindhis are very open to cross culture marriages, which further dilutes the culture. It can be said that Sindhi culture today is on decline in India, and even though Sindhi people will remain, very little will be left of culture.


Ethnicity

Sindh, as a western frontier of the South Asia, has always been exposed to the entry of migrants from Central Asia and the Middle East. The invasion of the Aryans around 1500 BC altered the demographic composition of Sindh forever. The Dravidians were the original inhabitants of Sindh and founded the prosperous Indus Valley Civilizations, which included the cites of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. However, the arrival of the Aryans pushed Dravidian populations southward into the Deccan plateau. The people known as Sindhis today, like most of the inhabitants of South Asia, are mainly the product of Aryan-Dravidian intermarriages. Sindh has continued to experience immigration from Central Asia and the Middle East since the arrival of the Aryans. Iranians, Turks and other Central Asian ethnic groups migrated in large numbers to further curry the ethnic composition of Sindh.
As regards the composition of the non-ethnic Sindhi population, the two main groups that inhabited Sindh are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority group is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas, Kushans and Huns. During Kalhora rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called the Seraiki (i.e., people from the north), and speak Seraiki. This group overlaps and is sometimes considered transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhi people.
The two main Rajput tribes of Sindh are: the Samma, descendants of the Samma Dynasty who ruled Sindh during (1351 - 1521 A.D.); and the Soomra, descendants of the Soomra Dynasty who ruled Sindh during (750 - 1350 A.D.). Among other Sindhi Rajputs are the Bhachos, Bhuttos, Bhattis, Buriros, Lakha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahars, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah, etc. The Sindhi-Sipahi of Rajasthan and the Sandhai Muslims of Gujarat are communities of Sindhi Rajputs settled in India. Closely related to the Sindhi Rajputs are the Jats of Sindh, who are found mainly in the Indus delta region.
The smaller group is that of Balochi tribes settled in various parts of Sindh mostly during the last five hundred years or so. Since they were martial people and ruled over Sindh for some time before the arrival of the British, they acquired vast lands in the province, with the result that a large number of present-day Sindhi landlords are of Baloch origin. According to the 1941 census, which was the last one held before independence, Balochis formed 23% of the total population of Sindh. Balochi tribes are spread over Balochistan, Sindh and the south-western districts of the Punjab. This group is almost entirely Muslim.
A third sub-group of the Sindhi population comprises the descendants of Muslim conquerors, administrators and missionaries who were Arabs, Persians, Afghans and Turks (including the Mughals). They are a small minority settled in cities and towns and have largely blended with the other components of the population while maintaining something of a sub-culture; they are often referred to as Ashraf or the "noble". Of this third element, Muslim Arabs have possibly contributed the most to the development of the modern Sindhi language and literature and to the advancement of its intellectual and cultural activities.
Another group of people who are largely overlooked in any discussions about groups and culture of Sindh are the Haris, whose name is derived from the term "Harijan."[6] These people are generally believed to be the descendants of indigenous Dravidian populations that were enslaved by various invading people. Many are still living in abject poverty and under slave-like conditions in rural Sindh, because of the benign neglect and only nominal efforts by the government to improve the situation. The majority of Haris are Muslims, while some are nominally Hindus. Many Muslim Haris have moved on as artisans and wage laborers.
Nearly 14 million Muslim refugees (Muhajirs) escaped from communal riots and genocide in various parts of India and settled in Sindh after the independence of Pakistan, populating mostly urban centers of the province. They spoke Urdu, Gujarati, Bengali as well as other languages that reflect their different regions of origin.


Islamic influence
With Sindh’s stable prosperity and its strategic geographical possession, it is not surprising that it was subject to successive conquests by foreign empires. In 712 A.D., Sindh was incorporated into the Arab empire and became the ‘Arabian gateway’ into India (later to become known as Bab-ul-Islam, the gate of Islam). After the conquest by the Arabs, the people of Sindh were influenced by Islam.[8]
Sindhi culture is also highly Persianized as Sindh was exposed to cultural, religious and linguistic influence from Islamic Persia. Most significantly, numerous Persian loanwords made their way into the Sindhi language along with the Nastaʿlīq script, in which modern Sindhi is written today.
Muslim Sindhis tend to follow the Sunni Hanafi fiqh with a substantial minority of Shia Ithna 'ashariyah. The Sufism has made a deep impact on Sindhi Muslims and Sufi shrines dot the landscape of Sindh. However, Sindh is also home to the Hindus as well as other religious groups such as Parsis (Zoroastrians) from Persia.


Culture
Sindhi names
Muslim Sindhis tend to have traditional Muslim first names, sometimes with localized variations. Most Sindhis have tribal and clan names as their surnames. Nearly forty percent of Sindhis have Baloch tribal names.
Hindu Sindhis tend to have surnames that end in '-ani' (a variant of 'anshi', derived from the Sanskrit word 'ansh', which means 'descended from'). The first part of a Sindhi Hindu surname is usually derived from the name of an ancestor. In northern Sindh, surnames ending in 'ja' (meaning 'of') are also common. A person's surname would consist of the name of his or her native village, followed by 'ja'.


Sufism
Sindhi culture has been strongly influenced by Sufism. Jhulelal, the Sufi pioneer of Sindh, is revered by both Hindus and Muslims. A common greeting among Sindhis "Jhulelal Bera-Hee-Paar".[9]
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689–1752) was a Sufi scholar and saint, and is considered one of the greatest poets of the Sindhi language. Bhittai settled in the town of Bhit Shah in Matiari, Pakistan where his shrine is located. Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai's most famous written work is the Shah Jo Risalo, which is a masterpiece of Sindhi literature as well. The major themes of his poetry include Unity of God, love for Prophet, religious tolerance and humanistic values. Islamic philosopher Seyyed Hossein Nasr describes Bhittai's works as "direct emanations of Rūmī's spirituality in the Indian world."


Notable Sindhis
Famous Sindhis include Pir Hisamudin Rashidi,[11] G. M. Syed, Shaikh Ayaz, Amar Jaleel, Mirza Qalich Baig, Umar Bin Muhammad Daudpota, Ghulam Ali Allana and Imdad Ali Imam Ali Kazi.


Politics
Pakistan's political scene has been dominated by Sindhi politicians, including Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Ubaidullah Sindhi, G. M. Syed, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto, Muhammad Khan Junejo, Elahi Bux Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Asif Zardari, Fahmida Mirza and Muhammad Mian Soomro (who has served as President, Prime Minister and Senate chairman). In the province of Sindh, Sindhis have been dominant in the government and its various departments.
In India, notable Sindhi politicians include Lal Krishna Advani (former deputy prime minister of India) and Ram Jethmalani.
Historical Sindhi leaders include Raja Dahir, Darya Khan Rind, Soreh Badshah, Hoshu Sheedi and Hemu Kalani.


Entertainment
Famous Sindhis in the Indian movie industry include: Aftab Shivdasani, Jackky Bhagnani, Tamannaah Bhatia[12], Vashu Bhagnani, Tarun Mansukhani, Ritesh Sidhwani, Rajkumar Hirani, Dalip Tahil, Ramesh Taurani, Nikhil Advani, Sadhana Shivdasani, Babita, Sangeeta Bijlani, Hiten Tejwani, Leena Jumani, Shilpa Saklani, Preeti Jhangiani, Kitu Gidwani, Hansika Motwani, Ramesh Sippy, G. P. Sippy, Rohan Sippy, Ramsay Brothers, Govind Nihalani, Vishal Dadlani, Ehsaan Noorani, Roma, Asrani and Apurva Asrani,Akshay Kumar,Govinda_(actor).


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Flickr Entrance to Bhit Shah in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhit_Shah

Bhit Shah is name of two places in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. According to NADEEM WAGAN, Bhitshah is a very legendary city positioned near Hala and 40 kilometers far away Hyderabad city. This city is well-liked because of the great saint Hazrat shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. He is one of the greatest poets in the world. Bhit shah is away on drive 45 kilometers on the highway and then three kilometers east on a side road to reach the town of Bhit Shah. Bhit Shah is famous for the tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689–1752) who is considered by far the greatest poet of Sindhi language. The shrine is situated on a ‘Bhit’ (mound) and hence the name of the place Bhit Shah, the Mound of the King. Millions of devotees come to his tomb every year. The tomb was raised by the first of the Kalhoras and subsequently beautified by the Talpur Mirs. The tomb and an adjacent mosque are famous for the tile and mirror work done on them. Bhit shah is counted as the largest town of the district Matiari.
•Bhit (also called Bhit Shah) is the town where the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, the patron saint of Sindh, is located.
•Bhit Shah Island is located near Hala New, Sindh. At BhitShah are also buried some Sindhi Literary Personalities as Allama Daud Pota, Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Shaik Mubarak Ali Ayaz, Banho Khan Shaikh.
Prominent Personalities of Bhitshah
Pir Nisar Hussein Shah
Pir Mazhar Hussain Shah
Zulfiqar Ali Larik
Ramz Ali Larik
Late Ustad Qurban Ali Azad(Poet)
Mohammad Soomar Wafa
Javed Ali Larik


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Flickr The Tomb of Shah Habib at Bhit Shah in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   shrine   islam   religion   language   sufi   sindh   hala   sindhi   sindhiculture   islaminsindh   bhitshah   shahabdullatifbhittai   literaturehistory   sindhhistorical   islamaroundtheworld   placestovisitinsindh   shrinesinsindh   religioninsindh   architectureinsindh   historicalarchitectureinsindh   ursinsindh   sindhipeople   shrinecultureinpakistan   bhitshahsindh   mysticpoets   peotssufi   mysticsufism   islamsufismsindhi   poetrypakistani   poetssindhi   literaturesindhi   figurespakistanisufis   sindhisufis   1689births   1752deaths   mitiari   mitiraidistrict   placestovisitnearhyderabad   halasindh   historicalarchitectureinmitiari   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhit_Shah

Bhit Shah is name of two places in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. According to NADEEM WAGAN, Bhitshah is a very legendary city positioned near Hala and 40 kilometers far away Hyderabad city. This city is well-liked because of the great saint Hazrat shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. He is one of the greatest poets in the world. Bhit shah is away on drive 45 kilometers on the highway and then three kilometers east on a side road to reach the town of Bhit Shah. Bhit Shah is famous for the tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689–1752) who is considered by far the greatest poet of Sindhi language. The shrine is situated on a ‘Bhit’ (mound) and hence the name of the place Bhit Shah, the Mound of the King. Millions of devotees come to his tomb every year. The tomb was raised by the first of the Kalhoras and subsequently beautified by the Talpur Mirs. The tomb and an adjacent mosque are famous for the tile and mirror work done on them. Bhit shah is counted as the largest town of the district Matiari.
•Bhit (also called Bhit Shah) is the town where the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, the patron saint of Sindh, is located.
•Bhit Shah Island is located near Hala New, Sindh. At BhitShah are also buried some Sindhi Literary Personalities as Allama Daud Pota, Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Shaik Mubarak Ali Ayaz, Banho Khan Shaikh.
Prominent Personalities of Bhitshah
Pir Nisar Hussein Shah
Pir Mazhar Hussain Shah
Zulfiqar Ali Larik
Ramz Ali Larik
Late Ustad Qurban Ali Azad(Poet)
Mohammad Soomar Wafa
Javed Ali Larik


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Flickr The Inner side of the Dome of Bhit Shah's Tomb in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   shrine   islam   religion   language   sufi   sindh   hala   sindhi   sindhiculture   islaminsindh   bhitshah   shahabdullatifbhittai   literaturehistory   sindhhistorical   islamaroundtheworld   placestovisitinsindh   shrinesinsindh   religioninsindh   architectureinsindh   historicalarchitectureinsindh   ursinsindh   sindhipeople   shrinecultureinpakistan   bhitshahsindh   mysticpoets   peotssufi   mysticsufism   islamsufismsindhi   poetrypakistani   poetssindhi   literaturesindhi   figurespakistanisufis   sindhisufis   1689births   1752deaths   mitiari   mitiraidistrict   placestovisitnearhyderabad   halasindh   historicalarchitectureinmitiari   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhit_Shah

Bhit Shah is name of two places in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. According to NADEEM WAGAN, Bhitshah is a very legendary city positioned near Hala and 40 kilometers far away Hyderabad city. This city is well-liked because of the great saint Hazrat shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. He is one of the greatest poets in the world. Bhit shah is away on drive 45 kilometers on the highway and then three kilometers east on a side road to reach the town of Bhit Shah. Bhit Shah is famous for the tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689–1752) who is considered by far the greatest poet of Sindhi language. The shrine is situated on a ‘Bhit’ (mound) and hence the name of the place Bhit Shah, the Mound of the King. Millions of devotees come to his tomb every year. The tomb was raised by the first of the Kalhoras and subsequently beautified by the Talpur Mirs. The tomb and an adjacent mosque are famous for the tile and mirror work done on them. Bhit shah is counted as the largest town of the district Matiari.
•Bhit (also called Bhit Shah) is the town where the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, the patron saint of Sindh, is located.
•Bhit Shah Island is located near Hala New, Sindh. At BhitShah are also buried some Sindhi Literary Personalities as Allama Daud Pota, Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Shaik Mubarak Ali Ayaz, Banho Khan Shaikh.
Prominent Personalities of Bhitshah
Pir Nisar Hussein Shah
Pir Mazhar Hussain Shah
Zulfiqar Ali Larik
Ramz Ali Larik
Late Ustad Qurban Ali Azad(Poet)
Mohammad Soomar Wafa
Javed Ali Larik


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Flickr Entrance to the Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai at Bhit Shah in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   shrine   islam   religion   language   sufi   sindh   hala   sindhi   sindhiculture   islaminsindh   bhitshah   shahabdullatifbhittai   literaturehistory   sindhhistorical   islamaroundtheworld   placestovisitinsindh   shrinesinsindh   religioninsindh   architectureinsindh   historicalarchitectureinsindh   ursinsindh   sindhipeople   shrinecultureinpakistan   bhitshahsindh   mysticpoets   peotssufi   mysticsufism   islamsufismsindhi   poetrypakistani   poetssindhi   literaturesindhi   figurespakistanisufis   sindhisufis   1689births   1752deaths   mitiari   mitiraidistrict   placestovisitnearhyderabad   halasindh   historicalarchitectureinmitiari   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhit_Shah

Bhit Shah is name of two places in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. According to NADEEM WAGAN, Bhitshah is a very legendary city positioned near Hala and 40 kilometers far away Hyderabad city. This city is well-liked because of the great saint Hazrat shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. He is one of the greatest poets in the world. Bhit shah is away on drive 45 kilometers on the highway and then three kilometers east on a side road to reach the town of Bhit Shah. Bhit Shah is famous for the tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689–1752) who is considered by far the greatest poet of Sindhi language. The shrine is situated on a ‘Bhit’ (mound) and hence the name of the place Bhit Shah, the Mound of the King. Millions of devotees come to his tomb every year. The tomb was raised by the first of the Kalhoras and subsequently beautified by the Talpur Mirs. The tomb and an adjacent mosque are famous for the tile and mirror work done on them. Bhit shah is counted as the largest town of the district Matiari.
•Bhit (also called Bhit Shah) is the town where the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, the patron saint of Sindh, is located.
•Bhit Shah Island is located near Hala New, Sindh. At BhitShah are also buried some Sindhi Literary Personalities as Allama Daud Pota, Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Shaik Mubarak Ali Ayaz, Banho Khan Shaikh.
Prominent Personalities of Bhitshah
Pir Nisar Hussein Shah
Pir Mazhar Hussain Shah
Zulfiqar Ali Larik
Ramz Ali Larik
Late Ustad Qurban Ali Azad(Poet)
Mohammad Soomar Wafa
Javed Ali Larik


Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

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Flickr The Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai Bhit Shah in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   shrine   islam   religion   language   sufi   sindh   hala   sindhi   sindhiculture   islaminsindh   bhitshah   shahabdullatifbhittai   literaturehistory   sindhhistorical   islamaroundtheworld   placestovisitinsindh   shrinesinsindh   religioninsindh   architectureinsindh   historicalarchitectureinsindh   ursinsindh   sindhipeople   shrinecultureinpakistan   bhitshahsindh   mysticpoets   peotssufi   mysticsufism   islamsufismsindhi   poetrypakistani   poetssindhi   literaturesindhi   figurespakistanisufis   sindhisufis   1689births   1752deaths   mitiari   mitiraidistrict   placestovisitnearhyderabad   halasindh   historicalarchitectureinmitiari   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shah_Abdul_Latif_Bhittai

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (also referred to by the honorifics Lakhino Latif, Latif Ghot, Bhittai, and Bhitt Jo Shah) (1689 – 1752) (Sindhi: شاھ عبدالطيف ڀٽائيِ, Urdu: ,شاہ عبداللطیف بھٹائی) was a Sindhi Sufi scholar, mystic, saint, poet, and musician. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest poets of the Sindhi language. His collected poems were assembled in the compilation Shah Jo Risalo, which exists in numerous versions and has been translated to English, Urdu, and other languages. His work frequently has been compared to that of Rūmī: Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University, described Shah Latif as a "direct emanation Rūmī's spirituality in the Indian world."[1]

He settled in the town of Bhit Shah in Matiari, Pakistan where his shrine is located. The major themes of his poetry include Unity of God, love for Prophet, religious tolerance and humanistic values.

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai was born in 1689 in Hala Haveli's village Sui-Qandar located near Hyderabad, Pakistan. Shah Abdul Latif was son of Syed Habibullah and grandson of Syed Abdul Quddus Shah.



Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (also referred to by the honorifics Lakhino Latif, Latif Ghot, Bhittai, and Bhitt Jo Shah) (1689 – 1752) (Sindhi: شاھ عبدالطيف ڀٽائيِ, Urdu: ,شاہ عبداللطیف بھٹائی) was a Sindhi Sufi scholar, mystic, saint, poet, and musician. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest poets of the Sindhi language. His collected poems were assembled in the compilation Shah Jo Risalo, which exists in numerous versions and has been translated to English, Urdu, and other languages. His work frequently has been compared to that of Rūmī: Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University, described Shah Latif as a "direct emanation Rūmī's spirituality in the Indian world."[1]

He settled in the town of Bhit Shah in Matiari, Pakistan where his shrine is located. The major themes of his poetry include Unity of God, love for Prophet, religious tolerance and humanistic values.

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai was born in 1689 in Hala Haveli's village Sui-Qandar located near Hyderabad, Pakistan. Shah Abdul Latif was son of Syed Habibullah and grandson of Syed Abdul Quddus Shah.


The early life
Debal, mid-1500sMost of the information that has come down to us has been collected from oral traditions. A renowned Pakistani scholar, educationist, and a foremost writer of plays, dramas and stories, Mirza Kalich Beg has rendered a yeoman service to Sindhi literature by collecting details about the early life of Shah Bhittai, from the dialogues that he has constantly held with some of the old folks, still living at that time, who knew these facts from their fathers and grandfathers for they had seen Shah Latif in person and had even spoken to him.

“ "The next day I sat down, and listened to the Story of the 'Vairagis.' Their salmon-coloured clothes were covered with dust. The lonely ones never talk to anyone about their being. They move about unmarked amongst the common folk." ........Shah Latif Bhittai


He was born around 1689 CE (1102 A.H.) to Shah Habib in the village Sui-Qandar a few miles to the east of the present town of Bhit Shah (named after him), on Safar 14, 1102 A.H. i.e. November 18, 1690 CE. He died at Bhit Shah on Safar 14, 1165 A.H., i.e. January 3, 1752 CE. In his memory, every year, on 14th Safar of the Hijri Calendar, an Urs is held at Bhit Shah, where he spent the last years of his life and where his elaborate and elegant mausoleum stands.

Latif got his early education in the school (maktab) of Akhund Noor Muhammad in basic Persian (the government language at that time) and Sindhi (local spoken language). He also learned the Qur'an. His correspondence in Persian with contemporary scholar Makhdoom Moinuddin Thattvi, as contained in the Risala-i-Owaisi, bears witness to his scholastic competence.

“ "Beloved's separation kills me friends, At His door, many like me, their knees bend. From far and near is heard His beauty's praise, My Beloved's beauty is perfection itself." .....Bhittai [Sur Yaman Kalyan]



The UrsThe Urs is a grand festival in Sindh, where people from almost every village and town of Sindh and from different cities of other provinces of Pakistan - rich and poor, young and old, scholars and peasants - make a determined effort to attend. The Urs commences every year from 14th Safar (2nd month of Hijra calendar) and lasts for three days. Along with other features, like food fairs, open-air markets selling Ajrak and Sindhi Caps among others, and entertaining and competitive sports, a literary gathering is also held where papers concerning the research work done on the life, poetry, and message of Bhittai, are read, by scholars and renowned literary figures. His disciples and ascetics, singers and artists, gather around and sing passages from his Risalo. Scholarly debates and exhibitions of his work and traditional Sindhi artefacts are also organised.

“ "Sleeping on the river's bank, I heard of Mehar's glory, Bells aroused my consciousness, longing took its place, By God! fragrance of Mehar's love to me came, Let me go and see Mehar face to face." .....Bhittai [Sur Suhni]


The mausoleum over his tomb was built by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, to commemorate his victory over the Rao of Kuchh a Maratha ally in the Thar Desert.



Education
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, had emerged as a very popular figure during his lifetime, due to the increasing and growing numbers of his followers.Young Shah Abdul was raised during the golden age of sindhi culture. His first teacher was Noor Muhammad Bhatti Waiwal. Mostly, Shah Latif was self-educated. Although he has received scanty formal education, the Risalo gives us an ample proof of the fact that he was well-versed in Arabic and Persian. The Qur'an, the Hadiths, the Masnawi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi, Shah Inayatullah, along with the collection of Shah Karim's poems, were his constant companions, copious references of which have been made in Shah Jo Risalo. He is also known for his famed Calligraphic, and hand written skills he made several copies of the Qur'an.

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, received his higher education in the Maktab of Akhund Noor Muhammad in basic Persian (the official language of the Mughal Empire) and Sindhi. He is also known to have memorized vast passages of the Qur'an. His correspondence in Persian with contemporary scholar Makhdoom Moinuddin Thattavi, as contained in the Risala-i-Owaisi, bears witness to his scholastic competence. In his poems he writes about Sindh and its neighbouring regions, he mentions the distant cities such as Istanbul and Samarqand, he also writes about Sindhi sailors (Samundi) their navigation techniques voyages as far to the Malabar coast, Sri Lanka and the island of Java.

Appearance and characteristics
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, mentions his travels in the Risalo.
Sindhi historians believe that the Tambura was invented by Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai.In appearance, Bhittai was a handsome man, of average height. He was strongly built, had black eyes and an intelligent face, with a broad and high forehead. He grew a beard of the size of Muhammad's beard. He had a serious and thoughtful look about himself and spent much time in contemplation and meditation, since he was concerned about his moral and spiritual evolution with the sole purpose of seeking proximity of the Divine. He would often seek solitude and contemplate on the burning questions running through his mind concerning man's spiritual life:

Why was man created?
What is his purpose on this earth? What is his relationship with his Creator?
What is his ultimate destiny?
Although he was born in favoured conditions, being the son of a well-known and very much respected Sayed family, he never used his position in an unworthy manner, nor did he show any liking for the comforts of life. He was kind, compassionate, generous and gentle in his manner of speech and behaviour which won him the veneration of all those who came across him. He had great respect for woman, which, unfortunately, the present day Vaderas (the landlords) do not have, and he exercised immense reserve in dealing with them, in an age when these qualities were rare. He hated cruelty and could never cause physical pain to any man or even to an animal. He lived a very simple life of self-restraint. His food intake was simple and frugal, so was his dressing which was often deep yellow, the colour of the dress of sufis, jogis, and ascetics, stitched with black thread. To this day, his relics are preserved at Bhitsah (where his mausoleum stands), some of which include a "T"-shaped walking stick, two bowls, one made of sandal-wood and another of transparent stone, which he used for eating and drinking. His long cap and his black turban are also preserved.

“ "Cloud was commanded to prepare for rain, Rain pattered and poured, lightning flared. Grain hoarders, hoping for high prices, wring their hands, Five would become fifteen in their pages they had planned. From the land may perish all the profiteers, Herdsmen once again talk of abundant showers, Latif says have hope in God's blessed grace." ......Bhittai [Sur Sarang]


Quest for religious truths
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, traveled throughout Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan and the Thar Desert.In quest of religious truths, Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai traveled to many parts of Sindh and also went to the bordering lands as far as Multan. He became well known to the rulers at height of the power and rule of Kalhoras in Sindh. However he independently traveled with Sufi brotherhoods visiting towns and cities, to preach the teachings of Islam. Throughout his travels he went to hills, valleys, riverbanks, fields and mountains where he met the ordinary simple people. He is known to have traveled to the Ganjo Hills in the south of Hyderabad, Sindh.

He also writes about the adventures of Samundis (Sindhi Sailors) and how they voyaged to Lanka and Java, in the Sur Surirag and Sur Samundi, he writes a detailed account on Thatta and the port Debal. He is known to have traveled with Baloch nomads and tribes into the mountains in Las Bela, Balochistan. For three years, he traveled with these jogis and sanyasis, in search of the truth, peace, and harmony. At several places in the Risalo, mention has been made of these jogis and of his visits to these wonderful, holy and peaceful places. He also traveled to such far away places in the Thar desert such as Junagadh, Jaisalmer.

“ "In deserts, wastes and Jessalmir it has rained, Clouds and lightning have come to Thar's plains; Lone, needy women are now free from care, Fragrant are the paths, happy herdsmen's wives all this share." ..........Bhittai [Sur Sarang]


Piety and ascetismBy the time he was a young man of twenty one years, he began to be known for his piety, his ascetic habits and his absorption in prayers. Observation and contemplation were chief traits of his character. A number of people flocked round him adding to the already large number of his disciples. This aroused jealousy of some powerful, ruthless, tyrannical persons - landlords, Pirs, Mirs, and Rulers - who became his enemies for some time. Later, seeing his personal worth, and the peaceful and ascetic nature of his fame, abandoned their rivalry. At this time he was living with his father at Kotri, five miles away from the present site of Bhitshah. It was here that his marriage was solemnised in 1713 CE with Bibi Sayedah Begum, daughter of Mirza Mughul Beg. She was a very virtuous and pious lady, who was a proper companion for him. The disciples had great respect for her. They had no children.

In the true ascetic spirit, Shah Latif was now in search of a place where in solitude, he could devote all his time in prayers and meditation. Such a place he found near Lake Karar, a mere sand hill, but an exotic place of scenic beauty, four miles away from New Hala. This place was covered by thorny bushes surrounded by many pools of water. It was simply and aptly called 'Bhit' (the Sand Hill). On the heaps of its sandstones he decide to settle down and build a village. As it was sandy, he along with his disciples dug out the hard earth from a distance and covered the sand with it to make the ground firm. After months of hard labour, carrying the earth on their heads and shoulders, the place was now fit enough for the construction of an underground room and two other rooms over it, along with a room for his old parents. A mosque was also built and the houses of his disciples properly marked out. In 1742, whilst he was still busy setting up a new village, Bhit, he got the sad news of the death of his dear father.. Soon after this Shah Latif shifted all his family members from Kotri to Bhitsah, as the village now began to be called. His father was buried there, in accordance to his will, where his mausoleum stands only eight paces away, from that of Shah Abdul Latif, towards its north.


The final years
For the last eight years of his remarkable life, Shah Latif lived at Bhitshah. A few days before his death, he retired to his underground room and spent all his time in prayers and fasting, eating very little.

“ "Laggi Laggi wa'a-u wiarra angrra latji, Pa-i khanen pasah-a pasan karran-i pirin-a jay." ......Bhittai "Wind blew! The sand enveloped the body, Whatever little life left, is to see the beloved."


After 21 days in there, he came out and having bathed himself with a large quantity of water, covered himself with a white sheet and asked his disciples to sing and start the mystic music. This went on for three days continuously, when the musicians, concerned about the motionless poet, found that his soul had already left for its heavenly abode to be in the proximity of the Beloved for who he had longed for, all his life, and only the body was there. He suffered from no sickness or pain of any kind. The date was 14th Safar 1165 Hijra corresponding to 1752 CE. He was buried at the place where his mausoleum now stands, which was built by the ruler of Sindh, Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. His name literally means 'the servant of the Shah'. He, along with his mother, had adored and revered Shah Latif and were his devoted disciples. The work of the construction of the mausoleum was entrusted to the well-known mason, Idan from Sukkur. The mausoleum, as well as the mosque adjoining it, were later repaired and renovated by another ruler of Sindh, Mir Nasir Khan Talpur. A pair of kettle drums, that are beaten every morning and evening even till today by the fakirs, jogis and sanyasis, who frequent the mausoleum, were presented by the Raja of Jesalmeer.

“ "Korren kan-i salam-u achio a'atand-a unn-a jay." "Countless pay homage and sing peace at his abode."

"Tell me the stories, oh thorn-brush, Of the mighty merchants of the Indus, Of the nights and the days of the prosperous times, Are you in pain now, oh thorn-brush? Because they have departed: In protest, cease to flower. Oh thorn-brush, how old were you When the river was in full flood? Have you seen any way-farers Who could be a match of the Banjaras? True, the river has gone dry, And worthless plants have begun to flourish on the brink, The elite merchants are on decline, And the tax collectors have disappeared, The river is littered with mud And the banks grow only straws The river has lost its old strength, You big fish, you did not return When the water had its flow Now it's too late, You will soon be caught For fishermen have blocked up all the ways. The white flake on the water: Its days are on the wane." ......Bhittai [translated by Prof. D. H. Butani (1913-1989) in The Melody and Philosophy of Shah Latif


According to Sindhi historians young scholars such as Abul Hassan Thattvi (author of the Muqadamah as-Salawat, Hanafi Compendium) also wrote and sought advise from the elderly Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai and frequently traveled to Bhit Shah.



The Seven Queens of SindhThe women of Shah Abdul Latif's poetry are known as the Seven Queens, heroines of Sindhi folklore who have been given the status of royalty in Shah Jo Risalo. The Seven Queens were celebrated throughout Sindh for their positive qualities: their honesty, integrity, piety and loyalty. They were also valued for their bravery and their willingness to risk their lives in the name of love. The Seven Queens mentioned in Shah Jo Risalo are Marvi, Momal, Sassi, Noori, Sohni, Sorath, and Lila.

Perhaps what Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai saw in his tales of these women was an idealised view of womanhood, but the truth remains that the Seven Queens inspired women all over Sindh to have the courage to choose love and freedom over tyranny and oppression. The lines from the Risalo describing their trials are sung at Sufi shrines all over Sindh, and especially at the urs of Shah Abdul Latif every year at Bhit Shah.


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Flickr Bhit Shah in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhit_Shah

Bhit Shah is name of two places in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. According to NADEEM WAGAN, Bhitshah is a very legendary city positioned near Hala and 40 kilometers far away Hyderabad city. This city is well-liked because of the great saint Hazrat shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. He is one of the greatest poets in the world. Bhit shah is away on drive 45 kilometers on the highway and then three kilometers east on a side road to reach the town of Bhit Shah. Bhit Shah is famous for the tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689–1752) who is considered by far the greatest poet of Sindhi language. The shrine is situated on a ‘Bhit’ (mound) and hence the name of the place Bhit Shah, the Mound of the King. Millions of devotees come to his tomb every year. The tomb was raised by the first of the Kalhoras and subsequently beautified by the Talpur Mirs. The tomb and an adjacent mosque are famous for the tile and mirror work done on them. Bhit shah is counted as the largest town of the district Matiari.
•Bhit (also called Bhit Shah) is the town where the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, the patron saint of Sindh, is located.
•Bhit Shah Island is located near Hala New, Sindh. At BhitShah are also buried some Sindhi Literary Personalities as Allama Daud Pota, Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Shaik Mubarak Ali Ayaz, Banho Khan Shaikh.
Prominent Personalities of Bhitshah
Pir Nisar Hussein Shah
Pir Mazhar Hussain Shah
Zulfiqar Ali Larik
Ramz Ali Larik
Late Ustad Qurban Ali Azad(Poet)
Mohammad Soomar Wafa
Javed Ali Larik


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Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

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Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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The Thar Desert is one of the most beautiful places I have visited. It is not only a great place to watch birds but an area full of history. There are historical buildings belonging to Jain, Islam and the Hindu religions. It is a great place to visit in the winter, autumn and spring. After the monsoon rains the desert becomes even greener full of flowers. Temporary marshes appear. It is surprising how green the desert is. It is one of the few places in Pakistan where wild Peacocks occur in good numbers and the only place to see the Indian Wild Ass or Asiatic Onager. The main town is Mithi which is 4 hours from Hyderabad and 6 hours from Karachi. The journey is fairly pleasant.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   nature   desert   sindh   desertlandscapes   thardesert   tharparkar   placestovisitinpakistan   desertsoftheworld   winterinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   landscapesinpakistan   natureinpakistan   desertinpakistan   naturalheritageofpakistan   placestovisitinsindh   natureofpakistan   sindhinjanuary   naturalheritageofsindh   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   landscapesinsindh   desertinsindh   thardesertinjanuary   tharparkarinjanuary   desertlandscapesinpakistan   ecosystemsinpakistan   biodeiversityinsindh   biodiversityinpakistan   naturalareasinsindh   ecotourisminpakistan   ecotourisminsindh   thegreatthar   winterinsindh   winterinthethardesert   winterintharparkar   wheretoseewildlifeinpakistan   wheretoseewildlifeinsindh   
The Thar Desert is one of the most beautiful places I have visited. It is not only a great place to watch birds but an area full of history. There are historical buildings belonging to Jain, Islam and the Hindu religions. It is a great place to visit in the winter, autumn and spring. After the monsoon rains the desert becomes even greener full of flowers. Temporary marshes appear. It is surprising how green the desert is. It is one of the few places in Pakistan where wild Peacocks occur in good numbers and the only place to see the Indian Wild Ass or Asiatic Onager. The main town is Mithi which is 4 hours from Hyderabad and 6 hours from Karachi. The journey is fairly pleasant.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   nature   desert   sindh   desertlandscapes   thardesert   tharparkar   placestovisitinpakistan   desertsoftheworld   winterinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   landscapesinpakistan   natureinpakistan   desertinpakistan   naturalheritageofpakistan   placestovisitinsindh   natureofpakistan   sindhinjanuary   naturalheritageofsindh   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   landscapesinsindh   desertinsindh   thardesertinjanuary   tharparkarinjanuary   desertlandscapesinpakistan   ecosystemsinpakistan   biodeiversityinsindh   biodiversityinpakistan   naturalareasinsindh   ecotourisminpakistan   ecotourisminsindh   thegreatthar   winterinsindh   winterinthethardesert   winterintharparkar   wheretoseewildlifeinpakistan   wheretoseewildlifeinsindh   
The Thar Desert is one of the most beautiful places I have visited. It is not only a great place to watch birds but an area full of history. There are historical buildings belonging to Jain, Islam and the Hindu religions. It is a great place to visit in the winter, autumn and spring. After the monsoon rains the desert becomes even greener full of flowers. Temporary marshes appear. It is surprising how green the desert is. It is one of the few places in Pakistan where wild Peacocks occur in good numbers and the only place to see the Indian Wild Ass or Asiatic Onager. The main town is Mithi which is 4 hours from Hyderabad and 6 hours from Karachi. The journey is fairly pleasant.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

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Flickr Pari Nagar Temple in Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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jang.com.pk/thenews/aug2007-weekly/nos-05-08-2007/foo.htm#1

The neglected temple

The reason why a Jain Temple in Tharparkar is in shambles is because the masses are becoming increasingly apathetic towards heritage, and also because of the scarce resources available with the government

By Shahid Husain

The Jain Temple of Pari Nagar, situated at Virawah, some four miles from Nagarparkar in district Tharparkar is in shambles. This is because of the general apathy of our people towards heritage and scarce resources available with the Department of Archeology, Sindh. It has also been an eyesore to religious bigots who reportedly disfigured two idols, which were in an intimate embrace.

Similarly, while the road network in Tharparkar has connected the impoverished land with urban centres, including Karachi, it has also been a bad omen for heritage sites. Picnickers who frequent the desert after monsoon when it becomes lush green visit Tharparkar and feel no qualms in taking away statues from the temples just for fun. The more enterprising amongst them indulge in such acts in the hope that they will make a fortune by selling the artefacts to foreign buyers.

"It is presumed that the Temple is a part of the city of Pari Nagar. If the area is properly excavated we can find a lot about the history and layout of the lost city besides precious artefacts of that unique period," Qasim Ali Qasim, Director, Department of Archaeology & Museums, government of Pakistan, told TNS.

Captain Stanley Napier Raikes, author of 'Memoir on the Thurr and Parkur' traces the history of Jain temples as under: "They (the temples) clearly demonstrate that at the time of their construction -- and which, from dates engraved on some of the slabs, was probably in the middle of the eleventh century --the artisans were by no means behind those of after-times in the art of sculpture. The figures and ornamental sculpture and designs in various parts of the buildings are beautifully executed, particularly the figures, which are better proportioned and executed than almost any I have seen in the East."

According to Qasim, the Ran of Kutch happened to be a sea and Pari Nagar was established as a seaport in 500B.C. It was a busy port of the area, had international significance and enjoyed trade links with Kutch Buj, Peer Bandar, Mandlay, Lanka and Sumatra.

It is said that Pari Nagar seaport was destroyed by an earthquake. According to Tarikh Farishta, Abn-e-Batuta also passed from here and it was destroyed by Jalaluddin Khawariza Shah in 1223 A.D.

Initially there were six Jain temples in the area. The Verawah temple consists of two rooms having a large hall called mandapa besides a small, dark chamber called vehana. These rooms have lost their glory with the passage of time and most of the sculptures and paintings have been defaced or usurped.

Despite the fact that the temple is in bad shape due to a host of factors, it is a finished example of building art. Its masonry is orderly and the architectural treatment of the parts is still in a position to show how knowledgeable its builders were.

"As many as 21 sculptures of Jain period were recovered in January 2006 during the construction of Virawah-Nagarparkar road from local people and Rangers posted nearby. Initially, Rangers did not allow us to enter their camps but we were able to inspect them when their high-ups were contacted," says Qasim.

"We found 35 carved architectural elements on marble. On January 24, 2006, these were staked at Veriwah temple while small items were shifted to Umerkot Museum," he adds.

Today, the white marble temple looks deserted and without any guard despite the fact that it's a site of immense heritage value. Around the temple have cropped up thick bushes while a green solitary tree stands on the left side of the temple as if silently registering the plunder of precious artefacts. Pieces of red bricks are scattered everywhere.

A notice at the site placed by the Department of Archeology & Museums, Pakistan, warns: "Under the provision of Section 19 of the Antiquities Act 1975 (VII of 1976), any person who destroys, damages, alters, disfigures or scribbles, writes or engages any inscription or sign on the place shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine or with both."

However, the thieves and robbers of artefacts are seldom apprehended because the guard posted there is never present. In 2006, it was reported that two operators of an excavator digging the Virawah-Nagarparkar road found a very old pitcher filled with gold jewellery and simply disappeared with the bounty.

But, Qasim believes, the remains of Pari Nagar not only provide an opportunity to explore history but could also become a site of religious tourism.

"The pieces of iron found here are an indication of ship making industry in the old Pari Nagar dockyard," he says.

Qasim also points out that the Jains in India are pretty rich and could become a major source of attraction if "religious tourism" (in his words) is promoted well.

"Our department has prepared a master plan for the conservation and restoration of heritage sites and to make them a tourist attraction. With the advent of Thar Express we can attract the Jain population in India and promote religious tourism," he says.

The pilgrimage would also provide job opportunities to the local people and boost relations between Pakistan and India, he says.

"Two pillars of Virawah Temple have also been preserved in the Karachi National Musuem during the colonial period."

He says that the government has earmarked Rs 500 million for conservation work in Sindh and an additional Rs 500 million for survey and documentation under a 10-year plan that extends up to 2011.

Chacha Ali Nawaz, 81, a respected figure of Nagarparkar declares that he is a witness to the fact that the people of Jain religion lived in Tharparkar prior to Partition, but after Pakistan achieved independence in 1947 they migrated to India and took many statues with them.

"There were about 800 Jain families in Pari Nagar prior to Partition but they were looted by Thakurs and they shifted to India," he says.

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Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

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Flickr Marvi's Well in Thar Desert, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umar_Marvi


Umar Marvi (Sindhi: عمر ماروي) is a Sindh love story that appears in Shah Jo Risalo. It is a love story set in Sindh, Pakistan. It has become part of the cultural identity of Pakistan, as have stories like Sassi Punnun, Heer Ranjha, and Sohni Mahiwal.


Synopsis
Marvi (Sindhi: ماروي) was a Sindhi heroine famous for her chastity, patriotism, and simplicity. Phog (Sindhi: ڦوڳ), an orphan boy, lived with Marvi's family. As children, Marvi and Phog played together. Attracted by Marvi's beauty, he wanted to marry her, but Marvi had always treated him like a brother. She told him not to expect anything beyond that. Rebuffed, Phog sulked and withdrew. Marvi found her ideal in Khet, a cousin who lived in a neighbouring village. He was handsome and brave, and he was deeply in love with Marvi. She lived in a village called Malir in Tharparkar desert. She was a beautiful village girl and was engaged to her cousin Khet (Sindhi: کيت). One day while she was filling water in her pots from a well (now called "Marvi's Well" (Sindhi: ماروي جو کوھ) Marvi jo khooh) to provide water for her goats, was seen by Prince Umar Soomro (Sindhi: عمر سومرو). Umar (Sindhi: عمر) was immediately dazzled by her beauty. Umar proposed to marry her and tried to win her over with jewels and gifts, but Marvi refused, as she was deeply devoted to her cousin. Angered by her refusals, Umar abducted her and imprisoned her his palace in Umerkot for a whole year, but she remained faithful and longed for her native terrain. Finally, Umar was deeply touched by her dedication and piety and set Marvi free.


Umar knowing about Marvi
In those days Sindh was ruled by Umar Soomro, whose capital was Umarkot, now in Pakistan. He was known for his justice. He had only one weakness: he loved beautiful women. His palace was full of beautiful damsels from all parts of Sindh. Phog left Malir and went to Umarkot to seek his fortune. He managed to secure employment under Umar. He soon won Umar's confidence and was put to work managing matters relating to women. One day he told Umar about the most beautiful woman in Sindh. Curious, the Umar asked, "Who is she?" Phog replied, "Her name is Marvi."


Adaptations
Umar Marvi was recreated in Pakistan in the form of a television series recreating the story of Marvi in a more modern setting, where Marvi is depicted as a Sindhi village girl who is educated and wants to go to the city for further education. Marvi's best friend, with whom she dorms in the city, has a brother named Umar who falls in love with her and proposes to her. Upon Marvi's refusal to marry him he consults his friend, a rich land owner in Marvi's village. The two devise a plan to abduct Marvi and keep her at Umar Sommro's mansion. Marvi somehow manages to escape from Umar Summro's, but upon her return, the villagers demand where she has been and question her chastity. Marvi's friend, who is aware of her brother's acts, consults a journalist and a lawyer to have her brother arrested for kidnapping. During the trial, Marvi has to face all kinds of questions about her piety and chastity, but finally Umar stands up in the courtroom and admits he is guilty and that Marvi is indeed a woman of great character.

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Flickr Gori Temple in Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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Dedicated to the Jain God Prasanth, Gori temple lies outside of the village of Gori between Islamkot and Nagarparkar. The various legends point to its foundations by a rich Hindu merchant six hundreds years ago. A more likely date is the middle of the 16th century. Though the impressive spire that typifies Jain temples fell in the earthquake of 1898, the rish frescoes in the main dome are still intact. Here can be seen princesses in royal coaches and elegant palanquins, equestrian processions and bevies of dark-skinned beauties in flowing Rajasthani robes at their household chores. The pillar interior is marble of the purest white and masterfully crafte stucco plaster. But the sanctum sanctorum is empty. The Prasanth icon, believed to have been studded with one large diamond between its eyes and two smaller ones on its breasts, was removed from the temple in 1716 by Sutojee Sodha, ruler of Virawah. Its new location was kept secret by succeeding heads of the family, and wehn Punjajee Sodha was defeated and killed by Talpurs in 1831 the icon was lost forever.

Above information taken from the Insight Guides Pakistan.

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Flickr Chaunra (Hut) in the Thar Desert, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   home   hut   sindh   thar   thardesert   thatchedroofs   tharparkar   chaunra   sindhiculturesoutheast   thatchedroofsinpakistan   thatchedroofsinsindh   lifestyleinpakistan   lifestyleinsindh   hutsinpakistan   hutsinsindh   hutsinthethardesert   howpeopleliveinpakistan   howpeopleliveinsindh   howpeopleliveinthethardesert   homesinpakistan   homesinsindh   homesinthethardesert   
These huts have one room which house the people of the Thar desert. The roofs are thatched and the buildings made of mud.
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Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   nature   desert   sindh   desertlandscapes   thardesert   tharparkar   earthasia   placestovisitinpakistan   desertsoftheworld   winterinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   landscapesinpakistan   natureinpakistan   desertinpakistan   naturalheritageofpakistan   placestovisitinsindh   natureofpakistan   sindhinjanuary   naturalheritageofsindh   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   landscapesinsindh   desertinsindh   thardesertinjanuary   tharparkarinjanuary   desertlandscapesinpakistan   ecosystemsinpakistan   biodeiversityinsindh   biodiversityinpakistan   naturalareasinsindh   ecotourisminpakistan   ecotourisminsindh   thegreatthar   winterinsindh   winterinthethardesert   winterintharparkar   wheretoseewildlifeinpakistan   wheretoseewildlifeinsindh   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Thar Desert in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   nature   desert   sindh   desertlandscapes   thardesert   tharparkar   earthasia   placestovisitinpakistan   desertsoftheworld   winterinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   landscapesinpakistan   natureinpakistan   desertinpakistan   naturalheritageofpakistan   placestovisitinsindh   natureofpakistan   sindhinjanuary   naturalheritageofsindh   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   landscapesinsindh   desertinsindh   thardesertinjanuary   tharparkarinjanuary   desertlandscapesinpakistan   ecosystemsinpakistan   biodeiversityinsindh   biodiversityinpakistan   naturalareasinsindh   ecotourisminpakistan   ecotourisminsindh   thegreatthar   winterinsindh   winterinthethardesert   winterintharparkar   wheretoseewildlifeinpakistan   wheretoseewildlifeinsindh   
The Thar Desert is one of the most beautiful places I have visited. It is not only a great place to watch birds but an area full of history. There are historical buildings belonging to Jain, Islam and the Hindu religions. It is a great place to visit in the winter, autumn and spring. After the monsoon rains the desert becomes even greener full of flowers. Temporary marshes appear. It is surprising how green the desert is. It is one of the few places in Pakistan where wild Peacocks occur in good numbers and the only place to see the Indian Wild Ass or Asiatic Onager. The main town is Mithi which is 4 hours from Hyderabad and 6 hours from Karachi. The journey is fairly pleasant.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert


The Thar Desert (Rajasthani: थार मरुधर), also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi),[1] it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert.[2]
It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.


Location and description
In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan.
Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C.


Physiography and geology

There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.
On the whole the Thar Desert slopes imperceptibly towards the Indus Plain and surface unevenness is mainly due to sand dunes. The dunes in the south are higher, rising sometimes to 152 m whereas in the north they are lower and rise to 16 m above the ground level.
The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard panSome of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous.


Origin
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier.
Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-daro.
It has been observed through remote sensing techniques that Late Quaternary climatic changes and neotectonics have played a significant role in modifying the drainage courses in this part and a large number of palaeochannels exist.
Most of the studies did not share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide with the bed of present day Ghaggar and believe that the Sutlej along with the Yamuna once flowed into the present Ghaggar riverbed. It has been postulated that the Sutlej was the main tributary of the Ghaggar and that subsequently the tectonic movements might have forced the Sutlej westwards, the Yamuna eastwards and thus dried up the Ghaggar.
The studies about Kalibanga in the desert region by Robert Raikes[3] indicate that Kalibangan was abandoned because the river dried up. Prof. B. B. Lal (retd. Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) supports this view by asserting: "Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Mature Harappan settlement at Kalibangan had to be abandoned around 2000-1900 BCE. And, as the hydrological evidence indicates, this abandonment took place on account of the drying up of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar). This latter part is duly established by the work of Raikes, an Italian hydrologist, and of his Indian collaborators".

Thar in ancient literature

The Indian epics describe this region as Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean).
Ramayana mentions about Lavanasagara (Salt-ocean) when Rama goes to attack Lanka with the army of vanaras. Rama uses his agneyashtra-amogha to dry up the sea named drumakulya situated on north of Lavanasagara. A fresh water source named Pushkar surrounded by Marukantara was created.[5]
According to Jain cosmology, Jambūdvīpa is at the centre of Madhyaloka, or the middle part of the universe, where the humans reside. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti or the treatise on the island of Roseapple tree contains a description of Jambūdvīpa and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata. Jambūdvīpa continent is surrounded by ocean Lavanoda (Salt-ocean).
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.
Most scholars agree that at least some of the references to the Sarasvati in the Rigveda refer to the Ghaggar-Hakra River, while the Helmand River is often quoted as the locus of the early Rigvedic river. Whether such a transfer of the name has taken place, either from the Helmand to the Ghaggar-Hakra, or conversely from the Ghaggar-Hakra to the Helmand, is a matter of dispute.
There is also a small present-day Sarasvati River (Sarsuti) that joins the Ghaggar river.
Mahabharata mentions about Kamyaka Forest situated on the western boundary of the Kuru Kingdom (Kuru Proper + Kurujangala), on the banks of the Saraswati River. It lay to the west of the Kurukshetra plain. It contained within it a lake called the Kamyaka lake (2,51). Kamyaka forest is mentioned as being situated at the head of the Thar desert,[6] near the lake Trinavindu (3,256). The Pandavas on their way to exile in the woods, left Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga and went towards Kurukshetra, travelling in a western direction, crossing the rivers Yamuna and Drishadvati. They finally reached the banks of the Saraswati River. There they saw the forest of Kamyaka, the favourite haunt of ascetics, situated on a level and wild plain on the banks of the Saraswati (3-5,36) abounding in birds and deer (3,5). There the Pandavas lived in an ascetic asylum (3,10). It took 3 days for Pandavas to reach the Kamyaka forest, setting out from Hastinapura, on their chariots (3,11).
In Rigveda we also find mention of a River named Aśvanvatī along with river Drishadvati.[7] Some scholars consider both Saraswati and Aśvanvatī same river.[6]
The human habitations on the banks of rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati had shifted to the east and south directions prior to Mahabharata period. During those days The present day Bikaner and Jodhpur areas were known as Kurujangala and Madrajangala provinces.[8]
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer has a collection of fossils of animals and plants of 180 million years old. Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have also been found in the area.

Biodiversity
Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) in the Rann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region. The peacock is designated as the national bird of India and the provincial bird of the Punjab (Pakistan). It can be seen sitting on Khejri or Pipal trees in villages or Deblina.

Natural vegetation
The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest [9] occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species

Tree species
Acacia jacquemontii, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus rotundifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Tecomella undulata, Tamarix articulata
Small trees and shrubs
Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus zizyphus, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, Crotalaria burhia, Aerva tomentosa, Clerodendrum multiflorum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium barbarum, Grewia populifolia, Commiphora mukul, Euphorbia neriifolia, Cordia rothii, Maytenus emarginata, Capparis decidua. Mimosa hamata
Herbs and grasses
Eleusine compressa, Dactyloctenium scindicum, Cenchrus biflorus, Cenchrus setigerus, Lasiurus hirsutus, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum turgidum, Panicum antidotale, Dichanthium annulatum, Sporobolus marginatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata, Erogrostis species, Ergamopagan species, Phragmitis species, Tribulus terrestris, Typha species, Sorghum halepense, Citrullus colocynthis


Threats and preservation
There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Others include: the Desert National Park, Jaisalmer (3162 km²) is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert; Tal Chhapar Sanctuary a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of Blackbuck while fox and caracal can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse; Jalore Wildlife Sanctuary (130 km from Jodhpur) is another small sanctuary that is privately owned where a sizeable population of rare and endangered wildlife is present including the Asian-Steppe Wildcat([Ornata]), Leopard, Zird, Desert Fox and herds of Indian Gazelle.

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Flickr Purana Qila or Alexander's Fort in Sehwan, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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archives.dawn.com/archives/105476

MICHEL Boivin is no stranger to Karachi or the rest of Sindh. The French scholar`s love affair with this region began more than a decade ago and over the past few years, he has made several trips to Sindh. He was recently in Karachi to launch Sindh Through History and Representations French Contributions to Sindhi Studies, a collection of nine essays authored by French academics he has edited.
Dr Boivin sat down with Dawn after the launch for a brief chat about his fascination with Sindh and its culture.
At university he read modern history, Arabic and Islamic studies and Persian literature and Civilization and defended his PhD thesis at the University of Paris III-Sorbonne Nouvelle. The author of several books and papers on the modern history of the Sindhi-speaking area (including Kutch), he has focussed mainly on the impact British col
onialism has had on Sindh, as well as the impact of partition on the region. Currently teaching at the University of Savoie (Chambery), his upcoming book is titled Interpreting the Sindhi World Essays on Society and History.
When asked what inspired him to study Sindh, he said his journey to the land of the Indus began in the Arab world.
“As a student I studied history. I was interested in Muslim civilization. I began with the Visitors` Log
Arab world, moved on to Iran and made my way to the Indus Valley and Sindh. I came to live in Karachi around 10 to 12 years ago. I spent a year here with my family. I did a lot of tours inside Sindh. I was fascinated by Sindhi culture. It has a very rich history.”
He claimed that interest among European scholars in Sindh is quite high.
“Last year I launched a study group on Sindh in the University of Paris and now, the programme we have focusing on Sehwan Sharif is the result,” he said, referring to a current project where a long-term study of Sehwan is being planned. “To give you another example, next year in June at the University of Paris a PhD student will defend a thesis on Sehwan Sharif, especially the archaeology of Sehwan.”
When asked why he was focussing on Sehwan, Dr Boivin said it was because of the large amount of work already done in the area by French scholars.
“Before me a French archaeologist, Professor Dr Monik Kervran, did a lot of work on the Purana Qila or Alexander`s Fort in Sehwan. She did a lot of excavations in 2002. She asked me to join her because I was already working on Sufism in Sindh and she asked me if I wanted to do a study on Lal Shahbaz (Qalandar). That is why I came to Sehwan. Afterwards, I went to other French scholars and asked if they wanted to do research programme with me.”—

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Flickr View from Purana Qila or Alexander's Fort in Sehwan, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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archives.dawn.com/archives/105476

MICHEL Boivin is no stranger to Karachi or the rest of Sindh. The French scholar`s love affair with this region began more than a decade ago and over the past few years, he has made several trips to Sindh. He was recently in Karachi to launch Sindh Through History and Representations French Contributions to Sindhi Studies, a collection of nine essays authored by French academics he has edited.
Dr Boivin sat down with Dawn after the launch for a brief chat about his fascination with Sindh and its culture.
At university he read modern history, Arabic and Islamic studies and Persian literature and Civilization and defended his PhD thesis at the University of Paris III-Sorbonne Nouvelle. The author of several books and papers on the modern history of the Sindhi-speaking area (including Kutch), he has focussed mainly on the impact British col
onialism has had on Sindh, as well as the impact of partition on the region. Currently teaching at the University of Savoie (Chambery), his upcoming book is titled Interpreting the Sindhi World Essays on Society and History.
When asked what inspired him to study Sindh, he said his journey to the land of the Indus began in the Arab world.
“As a student I studied history. I was interested in Muslim civilization. I began with the Visitors` Log
Arab world, moved on to Iran and made my way to the Indus Valley and Sindh. I came to live in Karachi around 10 to 12 years ago. I spent a year here with my family. I did a lot of tours inside Sindh. I was fascinated by Sindhi culture. It has a very rich history.”
He claimed that interest among European scholars in Sindh is quite high.
“Last year I launched a study group on Sindh in the University of Paris and now, the programme we have focusing on Sehwan Sharif is the result,” he said, referring to a current project where a long-term study of Sehwan is being planned. “To give you another example, next year in June at the University of Paris a PhD student will defend a thesis on Sehwan Sharif, especially the archaeology of Sehwan.”
When asked why he was focussing on Sehwan, Dr Boivin said it was because of the large amount of work already done in the area by French scholars.
“Before me a French archaeologist, Professor Dr Monik Kervran, did a lot of work on the Purana Qila or Alexander`s Fort in Sehwan. She did a lot of excavations in 2002. She asked me to join her because I was already working on Sufism in Sindh and she asked me if I wanted to do a study on Lal Shahbaz (Qalandar). That is why I came to Sehwan. Afterwards, I went to other French scholars and asked if they wanted to do research programme with me.”—

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Flickr Rural Scenes from Dadu District in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dadu_District

Dadu (Urdu: ضلع دادو) is a district of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Dadu district was created in 1933 by the British Indian administration by merging Kotri and Kohistan tehsils from Karachi district and Mehar, Khairpur Nathan Shah, Dadu, Johi and Sehwan tehsils from Larkana district. The population of the district is 1,688,810 according to 1998 census report. The rural and urban population of the district constitutes 79% and 21% of the total population respectively. The area of district is 19,070 square kilometres divided in seven talukas yielding population density of 88.6 persons per square kilometre. The average household size of the district is 5.5 persons, which is higher in urban areas at 6.3 as compared to that in rural areas at 5.3 implying more congestion in urban areas. More than 73% of the housing units in Dadu district are single room houses. The average annual rainfall in the district is about 120 millimetres. The total area under forest is district Dadu is 217,000 hectares yielding timber and firewood. . In 2004 another district by the name of Jamshoro was carved out of District Dadu which comprised Taluka Kotri, Taluka Sehwan and Taluka Jamshoro which is the headquarter of the new district.

Tribes & ClansThe majority of the population is Muslim. It includes: Jatoi, Malik(Sindhi), Narejo, Soomro, Jamali, Palh, Khushk, Kalhoro, Dawachh, Channah, Panhwar, Solangi, Qazi, Syed, Shah, Mirani, Babar, Mallah, Vighio, Mirbahar, Chandio, Pahi baloch, Brohi, Shahani, Gabol, Lund, Khero, Magsi, Bozdar, Leghari, Unar Bahota, Dahiri, Charan, Babar, Memon, Abbasi, Bhatti, Joyo and others. Many of these tribes have a great role in the Politics of Pakistan.

Notable People in Dadu District

Liaquat Ali Khan Jatoi - Former Chief Minister of Sindh, Ex Federal Minster
Mr. Justice Ghulam Nabi Soomro - Hon'ble Justice, High Court of Sindh, Presently Chairman of Sindh Services Tribunal
Haji Zaffar Ali Khan Leghari - Ex MPA
Rafiq Ahmad Jamali - State Minister for Food
Pir Mazhar-Ul-Haq - Provincial Minister for Education, Sindh


Demographics

Following are the demographic indicators of the district as per the 1998 census of Pakistan (including Jamshoro District which was a part of Dadu at that time):

Religion:

Islam: 97.49%
Hinduism: 2.05%
Christianity: 0.37%
Ahmaddiya: 0.08%
Others: 0.02%
Hindus and Christians are mainly concentrated in the urban areas.

Languages:

Sindhi: 50.0%
Seraiki: 43.33%
Urdu: 2.56%
Punjabi:1.88%
Pashto:1.17%
Baluchi:0.42%
Others:0.28%
Urdu speakers are mainly concentrated in the urban areas.

Talukas/TehsilsMehar Taluka
Khairpur Nathan Shah Taluka
Dadu Taluka
Johi Taluka

Places of interest

Gorakh Hill - First Ever Hill Station in Sindh

Manchar Lake - Largest Ever Lake in Pakistan and one of the Largest Lakes in Asia

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Flickr Rural Scenes from Dadu District in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dadu_District

Dadu (Urdu: ضلع دادو) is a district of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Dadu district was created in 1933 by the British Indian administration by merging Kotri and Kohistan tehsils from Karachi district and Mehar, Khairpur Nathan Shah, Dadu, Johi and Sehwan tehsils from Larkana district. The population of the district is 1,688,810 according to 1998 census report. The rural and urban population of the district constitutes 79% and 21% of the total population respectively. The area of district is 19,070 square kilometres divided in seven talukas yielding population density of 88.6 persons per square kilometre. The average household size of the district is 5.5 persons, which is higher in urban areas at 6.3 as compared to that in rural areas at 5.3 implying more congestion in urban areas. More than 73% of the housing units in Dadu district are single room houses. The average annual rainfall in the district is about 120 millimetres. The total area under forest is district Dadu is 217,000 hectares yielding timber and firewood. . In 2004 another district by the name of Jamshoro was carved out of District Dadu which comprised Taluka Kotri, Taluka Sehwan and Taluka Jamshoro which is the headquarter of the new district.

Tribes & ClansThe majority of the population is Muslim. It includes: Jatoi, Malik(Sindhi), Narejo, Soomro, Jamali, Palh, Khushk, Kalhoro, Dawachh, Channah, Panhwar, Solangi, Qazi, Syed, Shah, Mirani, Babar, Mallah, Vighio, Mirbahar, Chandio, Pahi baloch, Brohi, Shahani, Gabol, Lund, Khero, Magsi, Bozdar, Leghari, Unar Bahota, Dahiri, Charan, Babar, Memon, Abbasi, Bhatti, Joyo and others. Many of these tribes have a great role in the Politics of Pakistan.

Notable People in Dadu District

Liaquat Ali Khan Jatoi - Former Chief Minister of Sindh, Ex Federal Minster
Mr. Justice Ghulam Nabi Soomro - Hon'ble Justice, High Court of Sindh, Presently Chairman of Sindh Services Tribunal
Haji Zaffar Ali Khan Leghari - Ex MPA
Rafiq Ahmad Jamali - State Minister for Food
Pir Mazhar-Ul-Haq - Provincial Minister for Education, Sindh


Demographics

Following are the demographic indicators of the district as per the 1998 census of Pakistan (including Jamshoro District which was a part of Dadu at that time):

Religion:

Islam: 97.49%
Hinduism: 2.05%
Christianity: 0.37%
Ahmaddiya: 0.08%
Others: 0.02%
Hindus and Christians are mainly concentrated in the urban areas.

Languages:

Sindhi: 50.0%
Seraiki: 43.33%
Urdu: 2.56%
Punjabi:1.88%
Pashto:1.17%
Baluchi:0.42%
Others:0.28%
Urdu speakers are mainly concentrated in the urban areas.

Talukas/TehsilsMehar Taluka
Khairpur Nathan Shah Taluka
Dadu Taluka
Johi Taluka

Places of interest

Gorakh Hill - First Ever Hill Station in Sindh

Manchar Lake - Largest Ever Lake in Pakistan and one of the Largest Lakes in Asia

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Flickr Women from the Mohana Fishing Community in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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jang.com.pk/thenews/oct2008-weekly/nos-05-10-2008/kol.htm#3


Rising hopes of fishermen; unfulfilled promises of the govt
By Jan Khaskheli
The delayed Manchar Lake housing project has added to the miseries of the fishermen who have been putting up with the repeated injustices meted out by the government.
Thirteen years ago in 1995, when the PPP-led provincial government launched the housing project for fishermen near the Manchar Lake, it raised hopes of the community that had earlier been residing in their traditional boat villages scattered in the surrounding area of the lake. However, today, beneficiaries of the project appear disappointed as certain parties with vested interests have been involved in the manipulation of funds allocated for setting up of the model villages, including donation of some fishing tools for the fishermen community.
The project was initially launched by the PPP-led government in 1995 to accommodate the fishermen families. The government also identified the deserving families and sites for establishing four villages.
The site identified for one of the villages was in Jhangara Union Council and the other three in Bobak Union Council – all situated near the bank of Manchar Lake. Under the said project, the first village, Haji Abdul Rehman Mallah comprises 200 homes, Haji Qadir Bakhsh Mallah village consists of 300 homes, Haji Malook Mallah village of 375 homes and some 150 homes make up the fourth village, Maula Bakhsh Mallah.
Apart from this, under the project, the government was to donate 375 boats, 375 engines, fishing nets and bicycles to the deserving people. "The idea of donating bicycles was to facilitate the youth of the community to sell their product in the nearby areas themselves without being exploited at the hands of the middleman," Kolachi learnt from activists in the area.
The provincial government purchased the land in 1995 following which allotment orders (of the plots) were issued to the families. The plots were spread over an area of 2400 sq ft each.
Before the announcement of this project, the fishermen community had been quite marginalized. There was no concept of education among the community and even the young members of the children were not enrolled neighbouring educational institutes due to poverty.
It has been learnt that poverty struck the fishermen community in this area when lake water became toxic due to the discharge of poisonous agricultural and urban waste released into the lake through the mega water project 'Right Bank Outfall Drainage (RBOD)' flowing from upcountry areas. This toxic water affected marine life and the lake was rendered useless, which was a source of livelihood for hundreds of families.
Following the tradition of their forefathers, children of fishermen are born and raised on the boats and spend their entire life at the sea. The leisure activities of the children include swimming, fishing, running small boats in the water and poaching birds.
However, the former Chief Minister Sindh Arbab Rahim, whose government re-launched the development project, raised the hopes of this ignored community until bureaucratic hurdles and political instability once again sabotaged the project depriving the people of basic housing facility for long.
Mustafa Meerani, a local activist told Kolachi that at the time (in 1995) the population of the lake comprised some 25,000 people. But later when the Manchar Lake became polluted through the foreign funded RBOD, a large number of families migrated to other water bodies in search of livelihood. The remaining population deriving their livelihood from the Manchar comprises approximately 10,000 to 15,000 people. Most of them are still living at their traditional boats under the lake water in shape of boat villages, referred by different names.
Although the present PPP-led government decided to continue with the project and awarded contracts to initiate construction work at 120 homes in Maula Bakhsh village as well, the work could not be completed in the stipulated time of two months. Activists say it is the responsibility of the Department of Fisheries to monitor and implement the project.
Meerani revealed that that when the project was initiated recently, some 'corrupt elements' within the community were active in manipulating the funds – a fact activists pointed out to the concerned authorities to save the funds for the community.
According to Meerani, activists witnessed that substandard construction material was being used to construct the boats. After much hue and cry, the government took notice following which the community formed an 11-member committee to monitor the entire project and implement the same in close cooperation with concerned contractor, government officials and the community elders, he added.
He said the PC-I prepared for the project shows the actual cost of a single boat was Rs50,000. The government had allocated fund for the purpose, but the community observed that the contractor was building small boats, which could be purchased at Rs25000. The remaining amount from government funds was being pocketed by the concerned officials.
The lake was the only source of livelihood for fishermen and agriculturists as well, who used the water to irrigate lands of two Talukas, Sehwan and Johi of the Dadu district around 15 to 20 years ago. But since the government found it fit to discharge agricultural water through the RBOD, both the communities are facing difficulty. The toxic water is not suitable for consumption, marine life or cultivation, forcing the community to opt for alternatives for the survival of their families.
Due the increasing marine pollution in Manchar Lake, certain fish and birds species are depleting and water vegetables are being destroyed too. Besides, the pollution has also led widespread waterborne diseases. The community is facing acute shortage of drinking water too.
Recalling their blissful days, the old fishermen said there were days when there was an abundance of fish, bird species and water vegetables for their earning as well as for their families' nutrition. "The people of Manchar looked healthier and were generous too. They used to celebrate their marriages with traditional enthusiasm."
However, the RBOD effluent has occupied thousands of acres fertile land and villages from different sides, displacing hundreds of fishermen, agriculturists along with their families. Communities that migrated to safer locations have not yet received compensation from the authorities either, said activists.
Earlier, the lake received most of its fresh water from River Indus, and surrounding hills, apart from the torrential rain and floods, but there is a drought-like situation in the mountainous areas depriving the River Indus of fresh water. The Manchar Lake consequently receives no fresh water and on top of it, effluent is being discharged into it through RBOD and other waterways threatening those dependent on the lake for their livelihood.
Some environmentalists earlier suggested that the government establish a Manchar Development Authority, so violators can be held accountable. They blamed the government departments, including Sindh Wildlife, Fisheries, Irrigation and Tourism departments for their lack of interest in resolving the problems of the area. "The concerned departments that are responsible for the improvement of these water bodies are not playing their due role," they complained.
Moreover, there is not a single hut for tourists visiting the area, which proves that the Manchar Lake is not a priority of the Tourism Department, say observers.
Now that government has launched a laudable project, it should also make arrangements to monitor the scheme and prevent corrupt practices, as pointed out by the activists, to improve the living conditions of this deserving community.


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Flickr The Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar at Sehwan, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Shahbaz_Qalandar

Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (1177–1274) (Sindhi: لال شھباز قلندر), a Persian (Tajik) Sufi saint, philosopher, poet, and qalandar. Born Syed Usman Shah Marwandi,[1] he belonged to the Suhrawardiyya order of Sufis. He preached religious tolerance among Muslims and Hindus. Thousands of pilgrims visit his shrine every year, especially at the occasion of his Urs.


Life
Shahbaz Qalandar (Shaikh Usman Marwandi) was born in Marwand, Afghanistan[2] to a dervish, Syed Ibrahim Kabiruddin[3] whose ancestors migrated from Baghdad and settled down in Mashhad, a center of learning and civilization, before migrating again to Marwand.
A contemporary of Baha-ud-din Zakariya, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari Surkh-posh of Uchch, Shams Tabrizi and Rumi, he travelled around the Muslim world settled in Sehwan (Sindh, Pakistan) and was buried there.[4]
His dedication to the knowledge of various religious disciplines enabled him to eventually become a profound scholar. During his lifetime, he witnessed the Ghaznavid and Ghurids rules in South Asia.[5] He became fluent in many languages including Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Sindhi and Sanskrit. His mysticism attracted people from all religions. He was called Lal (red) after his usual red attire, Shahbaz due to his noble and divine spirit, and Qalandar for his Sufi affilitation. Hindus regarded him as the incarnation of Bhrithari. Lal Shahbaz lived a celibate life.
Evidence shows that Shahbaz Qalander was in Sindh before 1196, when he met Pir Haji Ismail Panhwar of Paat; it is believed he entered Sehwan in 1251. Shahbaz Qalander established his Khanqah in Sehwan and started teaching in Fuqhai Islam Madarrsah; during this period he wrote his treatises Mizna-e-Sart, Kism-e-Doyum, Aqd and Zubdah.


In poetry and prose
A qawwal sung by Abida Parveen and many others, "Lal Meri Pat Rakhiyo ..." is in honour of Shahbaz Qalandar, as is one sung in various versions by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and the Sabri Brothers, "Mast Qalandar".
This famous mystic often quoted the teachings of Maulana Jalal ad-Din Rumi. A book detailing his life is called "Solomon's Ring" by Gul Hasan.
Bu Ali Shah Qalandar's famous Persian verses showing his love and honour for Hazrat Ali are engraved on his shrine:
“Haiderium Qalandram Mastam
Banda e Murtaza Ali Hastam
Peshwa e tamam Rindanam
Ke Sag e Koo e Sher e Yazdanam!”

Translation:
I am Haideri (relating to Haider, a second name for Ali ibn Abi Talib), Qalandar and Mast (intoxicated)
I am a servant of Ali Murtaza
I am leader of all saints
Because I am a dog of the lane of "Allah's Lion" (referring to Ali Murtaza)

Legends and Stories
On his way from Baluchistan to Sindh, he also stayed in present day Karachi's Manghopir area for muraqba (meditation), and it is said that Manghopir's natural warm fountain is a miracle of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. That warm fountain started to flow from beneath the hill, on which Lal Shahbaz sat for muraqba (meditation). After passing hundreds of years, that warm fountain is still flowing continuously and is said to have miraculous healing power especially for asthma patients.
In Multan, Lal Shahbaz met Bahauddin Zachariah Multani of the Suhurwardiya order, Baba Farid Ganjshakar of Chishtiya order, and Makhdoom Jahanian Surkh Bukhari. The attachment was so cordial and spiritual that their friendship became legendary. They were known as Chahar Yar (Persian = four friends). According to some historians, the four friends visited various parts of Sindh and Punjab, in present day Pakistan.
Many saints of Sindh, including Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Makhdoom Bilawal and Sachal Sarmast, were devout followers of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar.
It is also believed that he turned into a falcon to pick up his friend Fariduddin Ganjshakar from the gallows. The legend goes that the incumbent fakirs in Sehwan sent him a bowl of milk filled to the brim, indicating that there was no room for anything more. But surprisingly, he returned the bowl with a beautiful flower floating on the top. This legend spread far and wide by the time of his death in 1274, after living a good span of 97 years.

Shrine
The shrine around his tomb, built in 1356, gives a dazzling look with its Sindhi kashi tiles, mirror work and one gold-plated door - donated by the late Shah of Iran, and installed by the late Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[2] The inner sanctum is about 100 yards square with the silver canopied grave in the middle. On one side of the marble floor is a row of about 12-inch-high (300 mm) folding wooden stands on which are set copies of Quran for devotees to read. On the other side, beside a bundle of burning agarbattis (joss sticks), are rows of diyas (small oil lamps) lighted by devotees.

Urs
His annual Urs (death anniversary celebration) is held on the 18 Sha'aban - the eighth month of the Muslim lunar calendar. Thousands of devotees flock to the tomb while every Thursday their number stands multiplied especially at the time of his ‘Urs’ being a carnival as well a religious festival and celebrated every year. Sehwan springs to life and becomes the focal point of more than half a million pilgrims from all over Pakistan. On each morning of the three day feast, the narrow lanes of Sewhan are packed to capacity as thousands and thousands of pilgrims, fakirs and devotees make their way to the shrine to commune with the saint, offer their tributes and make a wish. Most of the people present garlands and a green chadar (a cloth used to cover a tomb) with Qur’anic inscriptions in silver or gold threads. Humming of verses, singing and dancing in praise of the saint continues till late at night. A devotional dance known as ‘dhamal’, being a frenzied and ecstatic swirl of the head and body, is a special ritual that is performed at the rhythmic beat of the [dhol] (a big barrel-shaped drum), some of them being of giant size and placed in the courtyard of the shrine. Bells, gongs, cymbals and horns make a thunderous din, and the dervishes, clad in long robes, beads, bracelets and colored head-bands whirl faster and faster in a hypnotic trance, until with a final deafening scream they run wildly through the doors of the shrine to the courtyard beyond.




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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lal_Shahbaz_Qalandar

Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (1177–1274) (Sindhi: لال شھباز قلندر), a Persian (Tajik) Sufi saint, philosopher, poet, and qalandar. Born Syed Usman Shah Marwandi,[1] he belonged to the Suhrawardiyya order of Sufis. He preached religious tolerance among Muslims and Hindus. Thousands of pilgrims visit his shrine every year, especially at the occasion of his Urs.


Life
Shahbaz Qalandar (Shaikh Usman Marwandi) was born in Marwand, Afghanistan[2] to a dervish, Syed Ibrahim Kabiruddin[3] whose ancestors migrated from Baghdad and settled down in Mashhad, a center of learning and civilization, before migrating again to Marwand.
A contemporary of Baha-ud-din Zakariya, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari Surkh-posh of Uchch, Shams Tabrizi and Rumi, he travelled around the Muslim world settled in Sehwan (Sindh, Pakistan) and was buried there.[4]
His dedication to the knowledge of various religious disciplines enabled him to eventually become a profound scholar. During his lifetime, he witnessed the Ghaznavid and Ghurids rules in South Asia.[5] He became fluent in many languages including Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Sindhi and Sanskrit. His mysticism attracted people from all religions. He was called Lal (red) after his usual red attire, Shahbaz due to his noble and divine spirit, and Qalandar for his Sufi affilitation. Hindus regarded him as the incarnation of Bhrithari. Lal Shahbaz lived a celibate life.
Evidence shows that Shahbaz Qalander was in Sindh before 1196, when he met Pir Haji Ismail Panhwar of Paat; it is believed he entered Sehwan in 1251. Shahbaz Qalander established his Khanqah in Sehwan and started teaching in Fuqhai Islam Madarrsah; during this period he wrote his treatises Mizna-e-Sart, Kism-e-Doyum, Aqd and Zubdah.


In poetry and prose
A qawwal sung by Abida Parveen and many others, "Lal Meri Pat Rakhiyo ..." is in honour of Shahbaz Qalandar, as is one sung in various versions by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and the Sabri Brothers, "Mast Qalandar".
This famous mystic often quoted the teachings of Maulana Jalal ad-Din Rumi. A book detailing his life is called "Solomon's Ring" by Gul Hasan.
Bu Ali Shah Qalandar's famous Persian verses showing his love and honour for Hazrat Ali are engraved on his shrine:
“Haiderium Qalandram Mastam
Banda e Murtaza Ali Hastam
Peshwa e tamam Rindanam
Ke Sag e Koo e Sher e Yazdanam!”

Translation:
I am Haideri (relating to Haider, a second name for Ali ibn Abi Talib), Qalandar and Mast (intoxicated)
I am a servant of Ali Murtaza
I am leader of all saints
Because I am a dog of the lane of "Allah's Lion" (referring to Ali Murtaza)

Legends and Stories
On his way from Baluchistan to Sindh, he also stayed in present day Karachi's Manghopir area for muraqba (meditation), and it is said that Manghopir's natural warm fountain is a miracle of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. That warm fountain started to flow from beneath the hill, on which Lal Shahbaz sat for muraqba (meditation). After passing hundreds of years, that warm fountain is still flowing continuously and is said to have miraculous healing power especially for asthma patients.
In Multan, Lal Shahbaz met Bahauddin Zachariah Multani of the Suhurwardiya order, Baba Farid Ganjshakar of Chishtiya order, and Makhdoom Jahanian Surkh Bukhari. The attachment was so cordial and spiritual that their friendship became legendary. They were known as Chahar Yar (Persian = four friends). According to some historians, the four friends visited various parts of Sindh and Punjab, in present day Pakistan.
Many saints of Sindh, including Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Makhdoom Bilawal and Sachal Sarmast, were devout followers of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar.
It is also believed that he turned into a falcon to pick up his friend Fariduddin Ganjshakar from the gallows. The legend goes that the incumbent fakirs in Sehwan sent him a bowl of milk filled to the brim, indicating that there was no room for anything more. But surprisingly, he returned the bowl with a beautiful flower floating on the top. This legend spread far and wide by the time of his death in 1274, after living a good span of 97 years.

Shrine
The shrine around his tomb, built in 1356, gives a dazzling look with its Sindhi kashi tiles, mirror work and one gold-plated door - donated by the late Shah of Iran, and installed by the late Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[2] The inner sanctum is about 100 yards square with the silver canopied grave in the middle. On one side of the marble floor is a row of about 12-inch-high (300 mm) folding wooden stands on which are set copies of Quran for devotees to read. On the other side, beside a bundle of burning agarbattis (joss sticks), are rows of diyas (small oil lamps) lighted by devotees.

Urs
His annual Urs (death anniversary celebration) is held on the 18 Sha'aban - the eighth month of the Muslim lunar calendar. Thousands of devotees flock to the tomb while every Thursday their number stands multiplied especially at the time of his ‘Urs’ being a carnival as well a religious festival and celebrated every year. Sehwan springs to life and becomes the focal point of more than half a million pilgrims from all over Pakistan. On each morning of the three day feast, the narrow lanes of Sewhan are packed to capacity as thousands and thousands of pilgrims, fakirs and devotees make their way to the shrine to commune with the saint, offer their tributes and make a wish. Most of the people present garlands and a green chadar (a cloth used to cover a tomb) with Qur’anic inscriptions in silver or gold threads. Humming of verses, singing and dancing in praise of the saint continues till late at night. A devotional dance known as ‘dhamal’, being a frenzied and ecstatic swirl of the head and body, is a special ritual that is performed at the rhythmic beat of the [dhol] (a big barrel-shaped drum), some of them being of giant size and placed in the courtyard of the shrine. Bells, gongs, cymbals and horns make a thunderous din, and the dervishes, clad in long robes, beads, bracelets and colored head-bands whirl faster and faster in a hypnotic trance, until with a final deafening scream they run wildly through the doors of the shrine to the courtyard beyond.




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Flickr Larkana Rural Scenes in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larkana_District


Larkana or Larkano (Sindhi: ضلعو لاڙڪاڻو) (Urdu: ضلع لاڑکانہ) is a district of Sindh province of Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, it had a population of 1,927,066 of which 28.70% were urban[1]. Its main city is Larkana. It is home district of two former Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto. Other towns of the district include Miro Khan, Ratodero, Dokri, Bakrani and Naodero. In 2005, the Government of Pakistan under Pervez Musharraf bifurcated the district, forming a new district called Qamber and Shahdadkot, with two towns of Qambar Khan and Shahdadkot. The historic city of Mohenjo-Daro is located about 30 kilometres in the south of Larkana city, in Dokri taluka, on the right bank of river Indus. Rice canal (seasonal) and Dadu Canal (perennial) pass through the district and irrigate the agricultural fields. Taluka Larkana and Ratodero are famous for Guava orchards. Rice is a major Kharif crop while Rabi crops include wheat, Mustard, Linseed and various kinds of vegetables.


Administration
The district of Larkana is administratively subdivided into the following talukas:[2]
•Dokri
•Bakrani
•Larkana
•Ratodero
Following are the demographic indicators of the district (including Qambar Dist) as per the 1998 census of Pakistan:
Religion:
Islam: 98.45%
Hinduism: 1.42% (mainly concentrated in the urban areas)
Christianity: 0.06%
Ahmaddiya: 0.06%
Others: 0.01%
Languages:
Sindhi: 95.08%
Urdu:3.57% (mainly concentrated in the urban areas)
Baluchi:0.50%
Punjabi:0.31%
Seraiki:0.12%
Pashto:0.06%
Others:0.35%
See also
•Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
•Benazir Bhutto
•Cadet College Larkana
•ZA Bhutto Agricultural College

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larkana_District


Larkana or Larkano (Sindhi: ضلعو لاڙڪاڻو) (Urdu: ضلع لاڑکانہ) is a district of Sindh province of Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, it had a population of 1,927,066 of which 28.70% were urban[1]. Its main city is Larkana. It is home district of two former Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto. Other towns of the district include Miro Khan, Ratodero, Dokri, Bakrani and Naodero. In 2005, the Government of Pakistan under Pervez Musharraf bifurcated the district, forming a new district called Qamber and Shahdadkot, with two towns of Qambar Khan and Shahdadkot. The historic city of Mohenjo-Daro is located about 30 kilometres in the south of Larkana city, in Dokri taluka, on the right bank of river Indus. Rice canal (seasonal) and Dadu Canal (perennial) pass through the district and irrigate the agricultural fields. Taluka Larkana and Ratodero are famous for Guava orchards. Rice is a major Kharif crop while Rabi crops include wheat, Mustard, Linseed and various kinds of vegetables.


Administration
The district of Larkana is administratively subdivided into the following talukas:[2]
•Dokri
•Bakrani
•Larkana
•Ratodero
Following are the demographic indicators of the district (including Qambar Dist) as per the 1998 census of Pakistan:
Religion:
Islam: 98.45%
Hinduism: 1.42% (mainly concentrated in the urban areas)
Christianity: 0.06%
Ahmaddiya: 0.06%
Others: 0.01%
Languages:
Sindhi: 95.08%
Urdu:3.57% (mainly concentrated in the urban areas)
Baluchi:0.50%
Punjabi:0.31%
Seraiki:0.12%
Pashto:0.06%
Others:0.35%

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Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

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Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   unescoworldheritagesite   unesco   sindh   bronzeage   archaelogy   mohenjodaro   ancientcivilisations   larkana   moenjodaro   archaelogicalruins   moundofthedead   earthasia   historyofsindh   larkanadistrict   historicalsitesinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   touristsitesinsindh   sindhinjanuary2011   historyinsindh   induscivilisation   preislamichistoryofpakistan   preislamichistoryintheindiansubcontinent   archaelogicalruinsinpakistan   archaelogicalruinsinsindh   archaelogicalruinsinlarkana   excavationsinlarkana   excavationsinsindh   excavationsinpakistan   historicalsitesinlarkana   historicalsitesinsindh   unescoworldheritagesitesinpakistan   unescoworldheritagesitesinsindh   anancientindusvalleymetropolisworldheritagesitesinpakistan   worldheritagesitesinsindh   worldheritagesitesinasia   26thcenturybcarchitecture   indusvalleysites   ancienthistoryofpakistan   ancienthistoryofsindh   ancienthistoryoftheindiansubcontinent   ancienthistoryofsouthasia   formerpopulatedplacesinpakistan   formerpopulatedplacesinsindh   touristsitesinpakistan   touristsitesinlarkana   wheretovisitinpakistan   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   tourisminlarkana   theinduscivilisation   ancientcivilisationsinpakistan   larkanainjanuary2011   

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr The Great Bath at Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Bath,_Mohenjo-daro

The Great Bath is one of the best known structures among the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro.[1][2] It is located in the well-preserved northern part of Mohenjo-daro's western mound, which is also known as the "Mound of the Great Bath" or the "citadel".[3]

Archaeological evidence indicates that the Great Bath was built just sometime after raising of the mound on which it is located. It was no longer in use during the last phases of the Late Period of the civilization.[4] It was discovered during 1925-26.[1]

The Great Bath measures 11.88 meters x 7.01 meters, and has a maximum depth of 2.43 meters. Two wide staircases, one from the north and one from the south, served as the entry to the structure.[5] The Great Bath is built of fine baked bricks lined with bitumen (presumably to keep water from seeping through), which indicates that it was used for holding water. Many scholars have suggested that it could have been a place for ritual bathing or religious ceremonies, but the actual use remains a mystery.



en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   unescoworldheritagesite   unesco   sindh   bronzeage   archaelogy   mohenjodaro   ancientcivilisations   larkana   moenjodaro   archaelogicalruins   moundofthedead   earthasia   historyofsindh   larkanadistrict   historicalsitesinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   touristsitesinsindh   sindhinjanuary2011   historyinsindh   induscivilisation   preislamichistoryofpakistan   preislamichistoryintheindiansubcontinent   archaelogicalruinsinpakistan   archaelogicalruinsinsindh   archaelogicalruinsinlarkana   excavationsinlarkana   excavationsinsindh   excavationsinpakistan   historicalsitesinlarkana   historicalsitesinsindh   unescoworldheritagesitesinpakistan   unescoworldheritagesitesinsindh   anancientindusvalleymetropolisworldheritagesitesinpakistan   worldheritagesitesinsindh   worldheritagesitesinasia   26thcenturybcarchitecture   indusvalleysites   ancienthistoryofpakistan   ancienthistoryofsindh   ancienthistoryoftheindiansubcontinent   ancienthistoryofsouthasia   formerpopulatedplacesinpakistan   formerpopulatedplacesinsindh   touristsitesinpakistan   touristsitesinlarkana   wheretovisitinpakistan   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   tourisminlarkana   theinduscivilisation   ancientcivilisationsinpakistan   larkanainjanuary2011   

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   day   unescoworldheritagesite   unesco   clear   sindh   bronzeage   archaelogy   mohenjodaro   ancientcivilisations   larkana   moenjodaro   photosandcalendar   archaelogicalruins   moundofthedead   historyofsindh   larkanadistrict   historicalsitesinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   touristsitesinsindh   sindhinjanuary2011   historyinsindh   induscivilisation   preislamichistoryofpakistan   preislamichistoryintheindiansubcontinent   archaelogicalruinsinpakistan   archaelogicalruinsinsindh   archaelogicalruinsinlarkana   excavationsinlarkana   excavationsinsindh   excavationsinpakistan   historicalsitesinlarkana   historicalsitesinsindh   unescoworldheritagesitesinpakistan   unescoworldheritagesitesinsindh   anancientindusvalleymetropolisworldheritagesitesinpakistan   worldheritagesitesinsindh   worldheritagesitesinasia   26thcenturybcarchitecture   indusvalleysites   ancienthistoryofpakistan   ancienthistoryofsindh   ancienthistoryoftheindiansubcontinent   ancienthistoryofsouthasia   formerpopulatedplacesinpakistan   formerpopulatedplacesinsindh   touristsitesinpakistan   touristsitesinlarkana   wheretovisitinpakistan   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   tourisminlarkana   theinduscivilisation   ancientcivilisationsinpakistan   larkanainjanuary2011   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

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Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   unescoworldheritagesite   unesco   sindh   bronzeage   archaelogy   mohenjodaro   ancientcivilisations   larkana   moenjodaro   archaelogicalruins   moundofthedead   earthasia   historyofsindh   larkanadistrict   historicalsitesinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   touristsitesinsindh   sindhinjanuary2011   historyinsindh   induscivilisation   preislamichistoryofpakistan   preislamichistoryintheindiansubcontinent   archaelogicalruinsinpakistan   archaelogicalruinsinsindh   archaelogicalruinsinlarkana   excavationsinlarkana   excavationsinsindh   excavationsinpakistan   historicalsitesinlarkana   historicalsitesinsindh   unescoworldheritagesitesinpakistan   unescoworldheritagesitesinsindh   anancientindusvalleymetropolisworldheritagesitesinpakistan   worldheritagesitesinsindh   worldheritagesitesinasia   26thcenturybcarchitecture   indusvalleysites   ancienthistoryofpakistan   ancienthistoryofsindh   ancienthistoryoftheindiansubcontinent   ancienthistoryofsouthasia   formerpopulatedplacesinpakistan   formerpopulatedplacesinsindh   touristsitesinpakistan   touristsitesinlarkana   wheretovisitinpakistan   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   tourisminlarkana   theinduscivilisation   ancientcivilisationsinpakistan   larkanainjanuary2011   

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   day   unescoworldheritagesite   unesco   clear   sindh   bronzeage   archaelogy   mohenjodaro   ancientcivilisations   larkana   moenjodaro   archaelogicalruins   moundofthedead   historyofsindh   larkanadistrict   historicalsitesinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   touristsitesinsindh   sindhinjanuary2011   historyinsindh   induscivilisation   preislamichistoryofpakistan   preislamichistoryintheindiansubcontinent   archaelogicalruinsinpakistan   archaelogicalruinsinsindh   archaelogicalruinsinlarkana   excavationsinlarkana   excavationsinsindh   excavationsinpakistan   historicalsitesinlarkana   historicalsitesinsindh   unescoworldheritagesitesinpakistan   unescoworldheritagesitesinsindh   anancientindusvalleymetropolisworldheritagesitesinpakistan   worldheritagesitesinsindh   worldheritagesitesinasia   26thcenturybcarchitecture   indusvalleysites   ancienthistoryofpakistan   ancienthistoryofsindh   ancienthistoryoftheindiansubcontinent   ancienthistoryofsouthasia   formerpopulatedplacesinpakistan   formerpopulatedplacesinsindh   touristsitesinpakistan   touristsitesinlarkana   wheretovisitinpakistan   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   tourisminlarkana   theinduscivilisation   ancientcivilisationsinpakistan   larkanainjanuary2011   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

Recent Updated: 3 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Traditional Bullock Cart at Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
Tags: pakistan   history   unescoworldheritagesite   unesco   sindh   bronzeage   archaelogy   mohenjodaro   ancientcivilisations   larkana   moenjodaro   archaelogicalruins   moundofthedead   historyofsindh   larkanadistrict   earthaisa   historicalsitesinpakistan   tourisminpakistan   touristsitesinsindh   sindhinjanuary2011   historyinsindh   induscivilisation   preislamichistoryofpakistan   preislamichistoryintheindiansubcontinent   archaelogicalruinsinpakistan   archaelogicalruinsinsindh   archaelogicalruinsinlarkana   excavationsinlarkana   excavationsinsindh   excavationsinpakistan   historicalsitesinlarkana   historicalsitesinsindh   unescoworldheritagesitesinpakistan   unescoworldheritagesitesinsindh   anancientindusvalleymetropolisworldheritagesitesinpakistan   worldheritagesitesinsindh   worldheritagesitesinasia   26thcenturybcarchitecture   indusvalleysites   ancienthistoryofpakistan   ancienthistoryofsindh   ancienthistoryoftheindiansubcontinent   ancienthistoryofsouthasia   formerpopulatedplacesinpakistan   formerpopulatedplacesinsindh   touristsitesinpakistan   touristsitesinlarkana   wheretovisitinpakistan   wheretovisitinsindh   tourisminsindh   tourisminlarkana   theinduscivilisation   ancientcivilisationsinpakistan   larkanainjanuary2011   
The traditional bullcars in the photograph has been used for centuries and is still used today.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro


Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"


Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.


Location
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh, Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra river on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.[4]
Anthropogenic construction over the years was precipitated by the need for more room. The ridge was expanded via giant mud brick platforms. Ultimately, the settlement grew to such proportions that some buildings reached 12 meters above the level of the modern plain, and therefore much higher than this above the ancient plain.


Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.


Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.

Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.


Current UNESCO status
Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, utilizing monies provided by the U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The funding provides $10 million over two decades to protect the standing structures and the site from flooding.

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Flickr Views of Sukkur City from Minar-i-Masumi, Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukkur


Sukkur, or Sakharu (Urdu: سکھر [səkʰəru], Sindhi: سکر), formerly Aror (Sanskrit: अरोड, Urdu: اروڑ [əroːɽ]), is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River in Pakistan in Sukkur District. One conjecture is that when Arabs invaded Sukkur (Sindh) in the 8th century, they found an extreme climate (hot and cold), and called it Saqar, which means intense.[citation needed] However, the word Sakharu in Sindhi means "superior", which the spelling of the city's name in Sindhi suggests is the origin of the name. Sukkur is nicknamed Darya Dino (درياءَ ڏنو, meaning the gift of river), as without the Indus the city would be a desert. People of Sukkur speak Sindhi (70%), Urdu (17.5%), Punjabi (8%), Pashto (1.5%), Balochi (1%), and others 2%.


Administration
The city of Sukkur, as well as being district headquarters, is the capital of Sukkur Talukas and contains many Union council.


Geography & climate
The district of Sukkur (whose name is derived from its head quarter Sukkur city) covers an area of 5,165 square kilometres. Geographically it is spanned from 27°05' to 28°02' north latitudes and from 68°47' to 69°43' east longitudes. The city of Sukkur is located at an altitude of 220 feet (67 m) from sea level, having terrestrial coordinates 68°52' east and 27°42' north. It is also the narrowest point of the lower Indus course.
Sukkur district shares its northern border with Shikarpur and the recently constituted Kashmore districts. Ghotki is located on the north-eastern side while Khairpur on the south. Sukkur also shares its border with India (Jaisalmer, Rajasthan). Sukkur is also connected by road and by air with all major cities of Pakistan.
The climate of the Sukkur is characterized by hot and hazy weather during summer days with dry and cold weather in winter. During January, the temperature ranges from 7 to 22 °C (45 to 72 °F). The summer (month of June before the monsoon) temperature averages 35 °C (95 °F) though it often reaches up to 42 °C (108 °F). Generally the summer season commences in March - April and ends before October. The average rainfall of the district is 88 mm, and ranges from 0.59 mm to 25.62 mm per month.

History
Sukkur has been an important strategic centre and trading route from time immemorial. Alor (or Aror, Sukkur) held the status of capital under the reign of Musikanos, when Alexander invaded India in 326 BCE. The ruins of this ancient town still exist, 8 km east of Rohri, in Sukkur district. The Rai Dynasty built a huge temple of Shiva (Shankar), hence 'Sukkur'. In 711 CE, the Arabs invaded Sindh, led by 17 year old Muhammad bin Qasim, and Sukkur (including all of Sindh and lower Punjab) became part of the Umayyad Caliphate.
Later Mughals and many semi-autonomous tribes ruled over Sukkur. The city was ceded to Mirs of Khairpur between 1809 and 1824. In 1833, Shah Shuja (a warlord of Kandahar, Afghanistan) defeated the Talpurs near Sukkur and later made a solemn treaty with the Talpur ruler, by which he relinquished all claims on Sindh. In 1843, the British (General Charles James Napier) defeated the Talpurs at the battles of Miani and Dubbo near Hyderabad. Sukkur, along with the rest of Sindh, was under British rule until the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The (current) district of Sukkur was constituted in 1901 out of part of Shikarpur District, the remainder of which was formed into the Larkana District. Sukkur saw a significant socio-economic uplift after the 1930s, when the British built the world's largest barrage here on the Indus River. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, thousands of Muslim escaping from pograms and genocide moved to Pakistan and thousands of Hindu Sindhi refugees escaping from pograms and genocide left Sukkur for India.

Economy
Industry
Sukkur is a hub of many small and large scale industries. Among important industries are cotton textiles, cement, leather, tobacco, paint and varnish, pharmaceuticals, agriculture implements, hand pumps, lock making, rice-husking, and sugar. Small-scale cottage industries comprise hosiery, boat making, fishing accessories, thread ball spooling, trunk making brass-wares, cutlery and ceramics.

Agriculture
Sukkur had a large fertile and cultivable land area until a few decades ago, when the Indus river was not as barren as today. Now its agricultural productivity has been much reduced. It has not achieved a reasonable yield per unit area over time, on account of continuous shortages of water and ignorance of modern irrigation systems. Despite the lack of water, during kharif, rice, bajra, cotton, tomatoes and peas are cultivated; whereas during rabi the main crops are wheat, barley, graham and melons. Sukkur is famous, world over, for its delicious dates. Sukkur also has a large Riveraine forest along the course of the Indus. These tropical forests are found within the protective embankments on either side of the Indus. During 1997-98 the total area under forests was 510 km2 which yielded 55,000 cubic feet (1,600 m3) of timber and 27,000 cubic feet (760 m3) of firewood besides other mine products.


Sites of interest
•War Mubarak Mohammad in Rohri City
•Manzilgah, Bundar road
•Rohri
•Aror (ruins of historical city)
•Shrine of Syed Sadar-Ur-Din-Shah
•Tomb of Shah Khairuddin Jillani
•Tomb of the Seven Maidens Sateen Jo Aastan
•Kot Mir Yakoob Ali Shah Rohri
•Tomb of Abdul Baqi Purani, Ex-Governor of Bukkur.
•Bukkur Island
•Tomb of Syed Hakim Ali
•Minaret of Masum Shah
•Sadh Belo Temple on River Indus
•Thermal Power Station Sukkur
•Lansdowne Bridge Rohri
•Sukkur (Lloyd) Barrage
•Shikarpur Road connecting Quetta via Shikarpur
•Shrine of Qazi Baba
•Adam Shah je Takri
•Degree College
•Islamia College
•Dadu Choke conneting Shikarpur Road, Waritar Rd & Hussaini Rd
•Lab-e-Mehran
•Lansdowne Bridge
•Minara Road (sarak)
•Shahi Bazaar, Frere Road
•Ayub Gate
•Ladies and Children Hill Park
•Looks Park/Qasim Park
•Acher Ghitti
•Bhutta Road (old Garden Road)
•Bunder Road
•Barrage colony
•Mir-ki-street
•Purana Sukkur (Old Sukkur)
•Sheikh Shee Road Sukkur
•Raharki sahib
•Jinnat (Genie's) Building, Old Sukkur
•Hyderi Masjid, Old Sukkur
•Tomb Syed Mukhdoom Shah Badshah
•Shah Khair ud din Shah Badshah (G. A. Shah) - Old Sukkur


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Flickr View of Rohri City in Sindh, Pakistan - January 2011
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohri

Rohri (Sindhi:روهڙي , Urdu:روہڑی ) is a town of Sukkur District, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is located at 27°40'60N 68°54'0E[2] , on the east bank of the Indus River. Rohri town is the administrative headquarters of Rohri Taluka, a tehsil of Sukkur district[3] with which it forms a metropolitan area. Rohri, Sindh was one of the worst affected provinces in the pakistan floods in 2010 that displaced more than 20 million from the Sindh and Punjab regions.
History
Alor was the ancient capital of Sindh, now modern Rohri adjacent to Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. In 711 AD, Alor was captured by the army of Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim. In 962 it was hit by a massive earthquake that changed the course of the Indus River[4].
It is also claimed as their original homeland or originating place by the Arora community. After the earthquake, the Arora community claims to have left Aror and spread to other parts of the Punjab and Sindh.

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Flickr Trees cocooned in spiders webs, an unexpected side effect of the flooding in Sindh, Pakistan
Tags: trees   pakistan   water   landscape   flooding   natural   spiders   health   environment   dadu   mosquitos   sindh   floods   webs   sanitation   cocoon   naturaldisaster   phenomena   malaria   naturalphenomena   humanitarianemergency   
An unexpected side-effect of the flooding in parts of Pakistan was that millions of spiders climbed up into the trees to escape the rising flood waters.

Because of the scale of the flooding and the fact that the water took so long to recede, many trees became cocooned in spiders webs. People in this part of Sindh had never seen this phenomenon before - but they also reported that there were less mosquitos than they would expect, given the amount of stagnant, standing water that was around.

One theory is that mosquitos may have been caught in the spiders webs, which would be one blessing for the people of Sindh, facing so many other hardships after the floods.

UK aid - in response to the Pakistan floods - helped millions of survivors return home and rebuild their lives.

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

Picture: Russell Watkins/Department for International Development

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Flickr Trees cocooned in spiders webs after flooding in Sindh, Pakistan
Tags: trees   pakistan   flooding   spiders   environment   sindh   floods   webs   naturaldisaster   malaria   naturalphenomena   departmentforinternationaldevelopment   dfid   humanitarianemergency   ukaid   img300   floodsrelief   
An unexpected side-effect of the flooding in parts of Pakistan has been that millions of spiders climbed up into the trees to escape the rising flood waters.

Because of the scale of the flooding and the fact that the water has taken so long to recede, many trees have become cocooned in spiders webs. People in this part of Sindh have never seen this phenonemon before - but they also report that there are now less mosquitos than they would expect, given the amount of stagnant, standing water that is around.

One local theory is the mosquitos are getting caught in the spiders webs. This would be one blessing for the people of Sindh, facing so many other hardships after the floods.

UK aid - in response to the Pakistan floods - is helping millions of survivors return home and rebuild their lives.

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

Picture: Russell Watkins/Department for International Development

Terms of use

This image is posted under a Creative Commons - Attribution Licence, in accordance with the Open Government Licence. You are free to embed, download or otherwise re-use it, as long as you credit the source as 'Department for International Development'.

Recent Updated: 4 years ago - Created by DFID - UK Department for International Development - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - DFID - UK Department for International Development
Flickr Trees cocooned in spiders webs after flooding in Sindh, Pakistan
Tags: trees   pakistan   flooding   spiders   environment   sindh   floods   webs   naturaldisaster   malaria   naturalphenomena   departmentforinternationaldevelopment   dfid   humanitarianemergency   ukaid   img294   floodsrelief   
An unexpected side-effect of the flooding in parts of Pakistan has been that millions of spiders climbed up into the trees to escape the rising flood waters.

Because of the scale of the flooding and the fact that the water has taken so long to recede, many trees have become cocooned in spiders webs. People in this part of Sindh have never seen this phenonemon before - but they also report that there are now less mosquitos than they would expect, given the amount of stagnant, standing water that is around.

It is thought that the mosquitos are getting caught in the webs, which would be one blessing for the people of Sindh, facing so many other hardships after the floods.

UK aid - in response to the Pakistan floods - is helping millions of survivors return home and rebuild their lives.

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

Picture: Russell Watkins/Department for International Development

Terms of use

This image is posted under a Creative Commons - Attribution Licence, in accordance with the Open Government Licence. You are free to embed, download or otherwise re-use it, as long as you credit the source as 'Department for International Development'.

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Flickr Trees cocooned in spiders webs after flooding in Sindh, Pakistan
Tags: trees   pakistan   flooding   spiders   environment   sindh   floods   webs   naturaldisaster   malaria   naturalphenomena   departmentforinternationaldevelopment   dfid   humanitarianemergency   ukaid   img295   floodsrelief   
An unexpected side-effect of the flooding in parts of Pakistan has been that millions of spiders climbed up into the trees to escape the rising flood waters.

Because of the scale of the flooding and the fact that the water has taken so long to recede, many trees have become cocooned in spiders webs. People in this part of Sindh have never seen this phenonemon before - but they also report that there are now less mosquitos than they would expect, given the amount of stagnant, standing water that is around.

It is thought that the mosquitos are getting caught in the webs, which would be one blessing for the people of Sindh, facing so many other hardships after the floods.

UK aid - in response to the Pakistan floods - is helping millions of survivors return home and rebuild their lives.

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

Picture: Russell Watkins/Department for International Development

Terms of use

This image is posted under a Creative Commons - Attribution Licence, in accordance with the Open Government Licence. You are free to embed, download or otherwise re-use it, as long as you credit the source as 'Department for International Development'.

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Flickr Trees cocooned in spiders webs after flooding in Sindh, Pakistan
Tags: pakistan   sindh   floods   flooding   spiders   webs   trees   malaria   humanitarianemergency   floodsrelief   ukaid   dfid   departmentforinternationaldevelopment   environment   naturaldisaster   naturalphenomena   img285   
An unexpected side-effect of the flooding in parts of Pakistan has been that millions of spiders climbed up into the trees to escape the rising flood waters.

Because of the scale of the flooding and the fact that the water has taken so long to recede, many trees have become cocooned in spiders webs. People in this part of Sindh have never seen this phenonemon before - but they also report that there are now less mosquitos than they would expect, given the amoungt of stagnant, standing water that is around.

It is thought that the mosquitos are getting caught in the webs, which would be one blessing for the people of Sindh, facing so many other hardships after the floods.

UK aid - in response to the Pakistan floods - is helping millions of survivors return home and rebuild their lives.

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

Picture: Russell Watkins/Department for International Development

Terms of use

This image is posted under a Creative Commons - Attribution Licence, in accordance with the Open Government Licence. You are free to embed, download or otherwise re-use it, as long as you credit the source as 'Department for International Development'.

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Flickr Roshan Ali, 60, stands in front of the remains of his flood-damaged home, in Pakistan's Sindh Province
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Roshan, aged 60, stands in front of the remains of his home in a remote village in Pakistan's Sindh Province. His house was badly damaged by flood water that swept through the village in August 2010, and although it is still standing, it is structurally unsafe, with huge cracks running through the walls.

He and his family returned to their village when the water receded in October 2010, but have been sleeping outside their house in a tent provided by the NGO Concern, with funding from the UK government, since then, as they are scared that the house will collapse.

Ali's beard and chest hair are dyed with henna, a traditional practice amongst muslim men in Sindh and across Pakistan.

Picture: Department for International Development/Russell Watkins

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

DFID is the part of the UK government responsible for leading the UK's efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals and tackle global poverty.

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Flickr Trees cocooned in spiders webs after flooding in Sindh, Pakistan
Tags: trees   pakistan   flooding   spiders   environment   sindh   floods   webs   naturaldisaster   malaria   naturalphenomena   departmentforinternationaldevelopment   dfid   img240   humanitarianemergency   ukaid   floodsrelief   
An unexpected side-effect of the flooding in parts of Pakistan has been that millions of spiders climbed up into the trees to escape the rising flood waters.

Because of the scale of the flooding and the fact that the water has taken so long to recede, many trees have become cocooned in spiders webs. People in this part of Sindh have never seen this phenonemon before - but they also report that there are now less mosquitos than they would expect, given the amount of stagnant, standing water that is around.

It is thought that the mosquitos are getting caught in the webs, which would be one blessing for the people of Sindh, facing so many other hardships after the floods.

UK aid - in response to the Pakistan floods - is helping millions of survivors return home and rebuild their lives.

Find out more about the UK government's response to the Pakistan floods at www.dfid.gov.uk/pakistan-floods-six-months

Picture: Russell Watkins/Department for International Development

Terms of use

This image is posted under a Creative Commons - Attribution Licence, in accordance with the Open Government Licence. You are free to embed, download or otherwise re-use it, as long as you credit the source as 'Department for International Development'.

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Flickr UNHCR News Story: Delays in heeding flood warnings ends in tragedy for some Sindh families
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A young girl waits for water for her family at a relief camp in Sukkur district. / UNHCR Q.Afridi/ August 2010

SUKKUR, Pakistan, September 1 (UNHCR) – Imam and Ghulam are bitterly ruing their decision to ignore flood warnings until the last minute in the vain hope that the swirling waters would leave their humble home in southern Pakistan alone. It cost them their belongings and left one son dead and another missing.

The tenant farmers are among tens of thousands of mostly poor people who have sought shelter in Sukkur District after fleeing from other flooded areas of Sindh province. Most have also lost everything and face a tough struggle to rebuild their already harsh lives. And, like Imam and Ghulam, some ignored early warnings to move to higher ground.

"We were sleeping. It was in the dead of night when flash floods hit our area. We could feel and see water everywhere," recalled a weeping Imam, who lived with Ghulam and their seven children near the town of Jacobabad, which has been inundated by floodwaters heading south.

"The floods took away everything: my home, my five-year-old son Naik Mohammad and Irfan, 13, who is missing and might be alive," the 45-year-old told UNHCR staff at a relief camp in Sukkur. The survivors walked for two hours before flagging down a truck and getting a lift to safety.

The family could not have stopped the floodwaters, but they could have escaped earlier and with some of their belongings if they had listened to warnings, as Imam urged her husband to do.

"Some people started leaving before the flooding, but my husband was making fun of me as he had been told by our landlord that the waters could not reach this area," Imam explained. "Now my husband is repenting his decision to not leave in time."

To some extent, the family was a victim of the conservative culture and traditions of the tenant farmers of the region. These have inhibited contact with strangers and included overwhelming respect for the authority and advice of their landlords. This helps explain why they – and others – ignored the danger signs when others were moving to safety.

Imam, Ghulam and the five of their children who made it out safely are now staying at a camp set up by the Pakistan air force, where the UN refugee agency has distributed relief items to new arrivals, most of whom come from the heavily flooded Jacobabad area to the west of the Indus River.

Imam and her family have now been living in a tent in Sukkur for three weeks and she said they faced many problems, including scorching heat, lack of clothing and a shortage of clean, potable water. There are only 25 latrines for a population of 3,000 displaced people.

Moreover, it is the Islamic fasting month of Ramadan, which means they cannot eat until sundown. "These are the worst days of our life," Imam moaned.

Gula also lost relatives when the floodwaters swept through her home in the Jacobabad community during the night. "We were screaming as the water swept away my younger sister and my aunt," she said in the Sukkur camp. The adults had to wade chest deep to safety, carrying children on their shoulders.

"Everything was destroyed and we arrived here with just the clothes on our back," added Gula. But her husband, tenant farmer Imam Din, also ignored early flood warnings after his landlord told him the area would not be flooded.

With floodwaters staring to recede, both families are keen to get back to their homes as soon as possible and Imam hopes she will find her missing son safe and sound.

UNHCR has been distributing tents and other relief items to people staying in camps and other spontaneous sites in Shikarpur, Khairpur, Kashmore, Nowshero Feroz, Sukkur and Jacobabad districts in the northern part of Sindh.

In Sindh, the refugee agency is distributing shelter supplies as well as providing technical assistance to local officials in the coordination and management of camps. So far, some 2,400 camps or spontaneous sites have sprung up in Sindh where flood-affected people are seeking refuge.

By Qaiser Khan Afridi in Sukkur, Pakistan

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Flickr Evening at Rohri, Sindh.
Tags: pakistan   sunset   sindh   blusky   artisticphotos   topphotos   rohri   sukhar   gettyimagesmiddleeast   
An evening aT Rohri, Sindh, Pakistan. on the edge of River Indus near Ayub bridge.
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Flickr Sindh..
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Without a doubt Sindh is the land of colors and it's people , architecture, shrines even every thing prove this. of course this the place where Indus civilization took birth.
thanks for sharing....

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Flickr Sindh..
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Flickr Sindh.
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Colors of Sindh. Sindh the home of Indus civilisation.
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Flickr Sindh Cultural Day
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The Sindh Cultural Day also famous as Sindhi Topi(Cap) and Ajrak Day, will be celebrated today (Saturday) till 3 days (Monday) with great passion and zest across the province. The people of Sindh swiftly came out of the Eidul Azha festivity and were seen busy in purchasing traditional Sindhi clothes, Sindhi Topi (Traditional Sindhi Cap) and Ajraks while the female shoppers preferred to buy ‘Sucee’, dress made of Ajrak, hand made Gajj, Tano and Jhimee Poti.

Read More about Sindh Culture.

I wish Sindh and it's glorious people great joy and Peace.
The Land of Ancient, Wisdom, Mysticism and Purity may flourish in coming Centuries. (A'meen)


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Flickr Sindh
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Flickr Shahjahan mosque thatta-sindh
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The guy reciting the verses from the Holy Quran at Shahjahan Mosque, Thatta, Sindh.
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Flickr Maklee Mausoleum - Sindh Pakistan
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The graveyard of Maklee in the Sindh province in Pakistan dates back to the era of mugal king Shah Jehan. Local kings and nobles wre burried here in brial chambers as the one shown here. The place is near the town of Thatta (about 100 kilometers from Karachi).
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Flickr KOT DIGI FORT SUKKUR SINDH
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The Kot Diji Fort, formally known as Fort Ahmadabad, dominates the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur, Pakistan about 25 miles east of the Indus River at the edge of the Nara-Rajisthan Desert. The fort was built between 1785 to 1795 by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh in 1783. In addition to the fort, a 5 kilometer, 12 feet wide mud wall was built around the city. This defensive wall had bastions throughout its length and a huge iron gate served as the city's only entrance.
The fort was considered invincible and served as the residence of the Ameers of Khairpur in times of peace. It is, therefore, the ancestral home of royal house. During war time the zenana (female members of the royal family), would be shifted to Shahgarh Fort, formerly within the realm but since 1843, after the conquest of the rest of Sindh, it is in the Jaisalmer desert, now in India. When the Zenana moved into the comfort of palaces, it stood mainly as a decorated reminder of more violent times. Throughout its whole history, however, Fort Kot Diji was never attacked.

Kot Diji is a very practical fort constructed on a limestone hill with kiln-baked bricks. Bricks were used because the locally available limestone rock was very brittle and would have shattered easily on impact with a cannonball. The hill is about 110 feet high, above which the walls of the fort rise another 30 feet. It has three strategically placed towers about 50 feet tall.
The fort is over half a kilometer long. Its walls are segmented by about 50 bastions, and its 1.8 km outer perimeter wall identically follows the double crescent-shaped contours of the hill it stands on. This allows the fort to surround the attacking enemy on three sides on the west front. On the east, where the entrance lies, the fort is divided by three elephant-proof gates into three overlapping levels, so that the first two levels can be attacked by the next level above them in the event of the lower level being overrun by the enemy. The first gate is not a prominent portal but rather an indirect entry so that the gate cannot be rammed on a charge. The walls and bastions have arrow slits in them, allowing defenders to attack their enemy from two levels: from the battlement on top and from within the wall.
The fort was built at a time when cannons had become common and its design and position reveals that. It includes a multitude of stations for cannons and, because it is positioned high on a narrow ridge, enemy cannons would have had to fire at a great distance, permitting little accuracy. Cannonballs could either hit the hill or perimeter or would simply fly over the fort and fall on the enemies' own forces on the other side.
[
Kot Diji was located at the edge of the desert; this provided an advantage over enemies marching from the east, because an exhausted army could be met before it could take supplies and water from the irrigated lands. In fact, the Mirwah canal was built in 1790 specifically[edit] Role under the British Empire to irrigate the lands west of the fort and bring water to the military bThe Kingdom of Upper Sindh later was recognized by the British as the princely state of Khayrpur, after the East India Company had reduced its area to less than a third of its original size of over 50,000 km².


Map of Sindh. Confederacy of Talpur Kingdoms
The Fort was allocated the role of central military base for the Kingdom, especially to resist Afghan invasion. It was the strongest of the 20 or so Talpur forts and was named after the Persian architect Ahmed, who designed it. According to folklore it took 30 years to build; in reality, a much shorter, tactically feasible period may have been possible by mobilizing peasants and soldiers on a massive scale

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Flickr colors.of.sindh
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Sunset at the beautiful Kot Diji fort, seen through the ruining baradari.
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Flickr Group Photo - Sehwan Sarif Sindh - Explore
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Photo Club Of Karachi (PCK) Meetup on 3rd May 2009 at Sehwan Sharif Sindh
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Flickr Map: Sindh on clay
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Map of Province of Sindh, Pakistan. Made on clay and painted with hand.

Found at a workshop in Hala, a culturally rich city of Pakistan.

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Flickr Shahjahan Mosque thatha Sindh
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Hand made elegant tiles and decorated exterior, Shahjahan mosque, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan.
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Flickr Pakistan - Sindh - Thatta - Shahjahan Mosque
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Photo ID: 001

1647 Mughal King Shahjahan
The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

Anas - KHI

E Mail: anas.photographer@gmail.com

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© ANAS AHMAD PHOTOGRAPHY

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Flickr Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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Jamia Mosque (also Shahjehani Mosque and Badshahi Mosque), was built by Shah Jahan in 1647-49 and lined with glazed tiles. This edifice has 101 domes and is designed in such a way that imam's voice can reach every corner of this building without the help of any loudspeaker or other device.

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Flickr A face from Sindh.
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Thanks Ishtiaq Ahmed for your kind words.
As the terrain changes, so does the culture, and the faces. From the fair skinned, Hazel eyes people up in the mountains, to the rugged tan skinned people of the coastal line of Pakistan, one can experience the diversity which is matchless to any other part of world.

Every face has to say something, every eye has its story deep into the ever lasting soul. Sometimes the appearance is reflecting the inside, and sometime we quote "Do not judge the book by its cover". Whatever the case is, it is your will to learn what the story may lies behind the wrinkles around the eyes of the old man.

The land of Sindh is the gateway to the sub-continent, embracing his multi millennium history there are places which has been lost in the sand of times. From those forgotten Sands and rigid weather conditions come the tradition of Colors & Pride, rooting deep down in the culture.

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Flickr Naukot Fort, Sindh
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Flickr @Sindh Festival 2008
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Sindh Festival show2008 at seaview karachi,Sindh,Pakistan
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Flickr The Tomb of Diwan Shurfa Khan (1048AH/1638 AD) at Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizamuddin II (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

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Flickr The Tomb of Mirza Isa Khan Turkhan (1644D/1054AH) at Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

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Flickr Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

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Flickr Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

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Flickr The tomb of Jam Nido at Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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This is the tomb of Jam Nido, a Summa ruler who reigned from 1461-1508.

One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

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Flickr Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
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One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

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Flickr Makli Hills, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   archaeology   graveyards   sindh   tombs   necropolis   historicalbuildings   southasia   thatta   maklihills   muslimhistory   islamichistoryinsouthasia   sindhiheritage   interestinggraveyards   historyofsindh   sindhheritage   
One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, Makli Hill is supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan. [1]

Legends abound about its inception, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. The tombs and gravestones spread over the cemetery are material documents marking the social and political history of Sind.

Imperial mausoleums are divided into two major groups, those from the Samma (1352–1520) and Tarkhan (1556–1592) periods. The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum of Isa Khan Tarkhan II (d. 1651), a two-story stone building with majestic cupolas and balconies. In contrast to the syncretic architecture of these two monuments, which integrate Hindu and Islamic motifs, are mausoleums that clearly show the Central Asian roots of the later dynasty. An example is the tomb of Jan Beg Tarkhan (d. 1600), a typical octagonal brick structure whose dome is covered in blue and turquoise glazed tiles. Today, Makli Hill is a United Nations World Heritage Site that is visited by both pilgrims and tourists.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makli_Hill

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Flickr Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   islam   mosque   mosquee   mezquita   sindh   masjid   shahjehan   shahjahan   moghuls   mughal   mughalarchitecture   thatta   historicalmosques   historicalbuildingsinpakistan   greatmughals   southernpakistan   sindhiheritage   historicalmosquesinpakistan   mughallegacyinpakistan   mughalhistoryintheindiansubcontinent   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahjahan_Mosque

The Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage and has been to preserved since its entry.

In the town of Thatta (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) itself, there is famous Shahjahani Mosque with its beautiful architecture. This mosque was built in 1647 during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, also known as the builder King. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

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Flickr Tile work on the roof of Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   islam   mosque   sindh   masjid   shahjehan   shahjahan   mughal   mughalarchitecture   thatta   historicalmosques   historicalbuildingsinpakistan   southernpakistan   sindhiheritage   historicalmosquesinpakistan   mughallegacyinpakistan   mughalhistoryintheindiansubcontinent   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahjahan_Mosque

The Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage and has been to preserved since its entry.

In the town of Thatta (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) itself, there is famous Shahjahani Mosque with its beautiful architecture. This mosque was built in 1647 during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, also known as the builder King. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

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Flickr Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   day   islam   mosque   clear   mezquita   sindh   masjid   moschea   shahjehan   shahjahan   moghuls   mughal   mughalarchitecture   thatta   historicalmosques   historicalbuildingsinpakistan   greatmughals   southernpakistan   sindhiheritage   historicalmosquesinpakistan   mughallegacyinpakistan   mughalhistoryintheindiansubcontinent   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahjahan_Mosque

The Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage and has been to preserved since its entry.

In the town of Thatta (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) itself, there is famous Shahjahani Mosque with its beautiful architecture. This mosque was built in 1647 during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, also known as the builder King. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   islam   mosque   sindh   masjid   shahjehan   shahjahan   mughal   mughalarchitecture   thatta   historicalmosques   historicalbuildingsinpakistan   southernpakistan   sindhiheritage   historicalmosquesinpakistan   mughallegacyinpakistan   mughalhistoryintheindiansubcontinent   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahjahan_Mosque

The Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage and has been to preserved since its entry.

In the town of Thatta (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) itself, there is famous Shahjahani Mosque with its beautiful architecture. This mosque was built in 1647 during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, also known as the builder King. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   islam   mosque   sindh   masjid   shahjehan   shahjahan   mughal   mughalarchitecture   thatta   historicalmosques   historicalbuildingsinpakistan   southernpakistan   sindhiheritage   historicalmosquesinpakistan   mughallegacyinpakistan   mughalhistoryintheindiansubcontinent   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahjahan_Mosque

The Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage and has been to preserved since its entry.

In the town of Thatta (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) itself, there is famous Shahjahani Mosque with its beautiful architecture. This mosque was built in 1647 during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, also known as the builder King. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Jamia Mosque in Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan - March 2008
Tags: pakistan   islam   mosque   sindh   masjid   shahjehan   shahjahan   mughal   mughalarchitecture   thatta   historicalmosques   historicalbuildingsinpakistan   southernpakistan   sindhiheritage   historicalmosquesinpakistan   mughallegacyinpakistan   mughalhistoryintheindiansubcontinent   
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahjahan_Mosque

The Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage and has been to preserved since its entry.

In the town of Thatta (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) itself, there is famous Shahjahani Mosque with its beautiful architecture. This mosque was built in 1647 during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, also known as the builder King. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end.

Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE! - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - SaffyH - BETA IS NOT BETTER IT IS WORSE!
Flickr Summer 97 - At Mohenjaro-daro (Harappan/Indus civilization), Sindh prov.
Tags: pakistan   sindh   indus   mohenjodaro   mohenjo   harappan   
A very significant place, from 2100 - 1750 BC the largest city in the world's largest ancient civilization (the Harrappan/Indus), and the world's largest city yet, with town planning, an advanced sewage system, free-standing 2-story wells, huge granaries, and no evidence of warfare found, no moats or fortifications. The Harrappans had hieroglyphic writing (still undeciphered), grew and raised a great variety of grains and livestock (the chicken is their gift to the world), traded extensively with Mesopotamia, and had it going on until invasion by a horde of inbred Aryans on horseback from that instrument of history the Central Asian steppe (the Harappans didn't have the horse), who destroyed Harappan cities, irrigation systems, etc., imposed the caste system, and pushed ancient India into the longest dark age in world history. For 800-900 years the locals lost their literacy, and writing wouldn't be in use there again until the mid-1st millenium BC when it reemerged in Gandhara under the Persians.
- I like this shot because it looks like the stairs are melting. It was taken in brain-addling heat, I had to wear a sopping wet towel on my head as I toured the ruins. The next day I went on a tour from Karachi to Chaukundi tombs, Makli Hills, Thatta, etc. and it was a great day for photography. I knew it would be because my camera broke here the day before soon after I took this photo, some circuitry must have melted (then I had to buy a 2nd-hand Minolta, the same make, in Lahore). According to legend there's a wind in Sindh called Lu that's so hot it can rip your skin off. (I think there was some Lu in my hotel room in Karachi).

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Flickr Expressive Intention (A girl in Omerkot Sindh Pakistan)
Tags: pakistan   blackandwhite   bw   girl   beautiful   beauty   sweet   expression   culture   nb   pakistani   lovely   sindh   globalvillage   sindhi   pakistaniphotographer   globalcity   omerkot   sindhculture   invitedphotosonly   gvadminshalloffame   itsabeautifulgv   

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Flickr Pakistan Sindh Woman's Dress
Tags: pakistan   woman   art   asian   clothing   dress   embroidery   mirrors   textiles   sindh   fabrics   
The front of the woman's dress from the Sindh region is decorated with fine metallic thread embroidery
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Flickr Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, 1988
Tags: ocean   ladies   pakistan   sea   people   mer   beach   walking   cool   women   asia   asien   waves   walk   ruin   ruine   camel   promenade   bain   asie   bathing   vagues   plage   sind   sindh   tanker   femmes   gens   gettyimages   dromadaire   chameau   océan   arabiansea   marcher   sepromener   baigner   pakistanais   pakistanese   throwbackthursday   merdarabie   
Tanker's beach (III)
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Flickr Island and shrine of Zind Pir, Sukkur Sindh, 1897
Tags: pakistan   history   river   island   asia   sind   sindh   indus   1897   subcontinent   sindhi   sukkur   zindapir   rohri   
Courtesy British Library.

Photograph of the Shrine of Zind Pir at Sukkur in the erstwhile Shikarpur District of Sindh in Pakistan, taken by Henry Cousens in 1896-7. This view looks across the causeway towards the entrance to the tomb. Cousens wrote in the Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1897, "Upon the upper side of Bukkur, and joined to it at low water, is the compact little island upon which, under the cool shade of some large trees, is the famous shrine of Zinda or 'Jind' Pir. The island has been raised and protected against the corrosion of the river by retaining walls of strong rubble masonry all around. The great gateway facing Rohri is a far more imposing structure than the mean little domed shrine itself. The latter occupies the centre of the island, and is a remarkable plain small square building surmounted by a low dome.

Unfortunately this structure on the island shrine doesn't exist anymore. Hence this picture becomes more precious

Recent Updated: 117 years ago - Created by msb1606 - View

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