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Flickr Fidel Castro lives forever and ever and forever yet again VIVA FIDEL CASTRO!!!!!!!!!!

Mahatma Castro joins Che, Ho Chi Minh among the stars now. He is from the people by and for the people for all eternity.

Viva Fidel Castro you live forever among majestic souls towering above the sea of satanic US-Euro-Brit Rothschild-Rockefeller midgets, satanists, tyrants wielding their coward pimps and so you shall live forever.

Great Universe please bless Fidel as he blessed us all with his truth , we bathe in his light by his light great universe.

Yes hold up Fidel's many sins, warts, his truths and all a brilliant light shined for humanity a human gift unto all humans who like Fidel shall never be beaten to their knees bowed before the monied midget-tyrants and their terrorist Wall Street sewer lined with glad gold-filling the grotesque gutters of Wall Street the ass-licking destructive dogs.

Viva Fidel Castro! -RT
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Fidel Castro

from Wikipedia

This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Castro and the second or maternal family name is Ruz.
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This article is about a person who has recently died. Some information, such as the circumstances of the person's death and surrounding events, may change as more facts become known. Initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information.

It has been suggested that Death and state funeral of Fidel Castro be merged into this article. (Discuss)

Proposed since November 2016.
Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro - MATS Terminal Washington 1959.jpg
Castro visiting the United States in 1959
17th President of Cuba
In office
December 2, 1976 – February 24, 2008
Prime Minister Himself
Vice President Raúl Castro
Preceded by Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado
Succeeded by Raúl Castro
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba
In office
June 24, 1961 – April 19, 2011
Deputy Raúl Castro
Preceded by Blas Roca Calderio
Succeeded by Raúl Castro
President of the Council of Ministers of Cuba
In office
December 2, 1976 – February 24, 2008
President Himself
Preceded by Himself (as Prime Minister)
Succeeded by Raúl Castro
16th Prime Minister of Cuba
In office
February 16, 1959 – December 2, 1976
President Manuel Urrutia Lleó
Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado
Preceded by José Miró Cardona
Succeeded by Himself (as President of Council of Ministers)
7th & 23rd Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
September 16, 2006 – February 24, 2008
Preceded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Succeeded by Raúl Castro
In office
September 10, 1979 – March 6, 1983
Preceded by Junius Richard Jayawardene
Succeeded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Personal details
Born Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz
August 13, 1926
Birán, Holguin Province, Cuba
Died November 25, 2016 (aged 90)
Havana, Cuba
Political party Orthodox Party
(1946–52)
26th of July Movement
(1953–65)
Communist Party of Cuba
(1965–2016)
Spouse(s) Mirta Diaz-Balart (1948–55)
Dalia Soto del Valle (1980–2016; his death)
Relations Raúl, Ramon, Juanita
Children 9, including Alina Fernández
Residence Santiago de Cuba
Alma mater University of Havana
Profession Lawyer
Signature

Presidential powers were transferred to Raúl Castro from July 31, 2006.

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (American Spanish: [fiˈðel aleˈxandɾo ˈkastɾo ˈrus] About this sound audio (help·info); August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban politician, and revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.[1] Politically a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, he also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration Cuba became a one-party socialist state; industry and business were nationalized, and state socialist reforms implemented throughout society.

Born in Birán as the son of a wealthy farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist politics while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista, launching a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks in 1953. After a year's imprisonment, he traveled to Mexico where he formed a revolutionary group, the 26th of July Movement, with his brother Raúl Castro and Che Guevara. Returning to Cuba, Castro took a key role in the Cuban Revolution by leading the Movement in a guerrilla war against Batista's forces from the Sierra Maestra. After Batista's overthrow in 1959, Castro assumed military and political power as Cuba's Prime Minister. The United States opposed Castro's government, and unsuccessfully attempted to remove him by assassination, economic blockade, and counter-revolution, including the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961. Countering these threats, Castro formed an alliance with the Soviets. In response to U.S. nuclear missiles in Turkey, and perceived U.S. threats against Cuba, Castro allowed the Soviet Union to place nuclear weapons on Cuba, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis—a defining incident of the Cold War—in 1962.

Adopting a Marxist-Leninist model of development, Castro converted Cuba into a one-party socialist state under Communist Party rule, the first in the Western Hemisphere. Reforms introducing central economic planning and expanding healthcare and education were accompanied by state control of the press and the suppression of internal dissent. Abroad, Castro supported anti-imperialist revolutionary groups, backing the establishment of Marxist governments in Chile, Nicaragua, and Grenada, and sending troops to aid allies in the Yom Kippur War, Ogaden War, and Angolan Civil War. These actions, coupled with Castro's leadership of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1979–83 and Cuba's medical internationalism, increased Cuba's profile on the world stage and earned its leader great respect in the developing world. Following the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991, Castro led Cuba into its "Special Period" and embraced environmentalist and anti-globalization ideas. In the 2000s he forged alliances in the Latin American "pink tide"—namely with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela—and signed Cuba to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. In 2006 he transferred his responsibilities to Vice-President Raúl Castro, who formally assumed the presidency in 2008.

Castro was decorated with various international awards, and was lauded as a champion of socialism, anti-imperialism, and humanitarianism, whose revolutionary regime secured Cuba's independence from American imperialism. In Latin America, Castro was inspirational for leaders like Hugo Chavez[2] and Evo Morales[3] and, in Africa, he was viewed as an inspiration by leaders like Nelson Mandela.[4] He was also regarded highly in Asia; the former Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described Castro as "one of the greatest men of our times".[5] Conversely, critics in the United States alleged that he was a dictator whose administration oversaw human-rights abuses in Cuba.[6] Through his actions and his writings, he significantly influenced the politics of various individuals and groups across the world.

Contents

1 Early life
1.1 Youth: 1926–47
1.2 Rebellion and Marxism: 1947–50
1.3 Career in law and politics: 1950–52
2 Cuban Revolution
2.1 The Movement and the Moncada Barracks attack: 1952–53
2.2 Imprisonment and the 26th of July Movement: 1953–55
2.3 Guerrilla war: 1956–59
2.4 Provisional government: 1959
3 Premiership
3.1 Consolidating leadership: 1959–60
3.2 Bay of Pigs Invasion and "Socialist Cuba": 1961–62
3.3 Cuban Missile Crisis and furthering socialism: 1962–68
3.4 Economic stagnation and Third World politics: 1969–74
4 Presidency
4.1 Foreign wars and NAM Presidency: 1975–79
4.2 Reagan and Gorbachev: 1980–89
4.3 Special Period: 1990–2000
4.4 Pink tide: 2000–06
5 Later years
5.1 Stepping down: 2006–08
5.2 Retirement: 2008–16
6 Death
7 Political ideology
8 Personal and public life
8.1 Public image
8.2 Family and friends
9 Reception and legacy
10 References
10.1 Notes
10.2 Citations
10.3 Bibliography
10.4 Further reading
11 External links

Early life
Main article: Early life of Fidel Castro
Youth: 1926–47

Castro was born out of wedlock at his father's farm on August 13, 1926.[7] His father, Ángel Castro y Argiz, was a migrant to Cuba from Galicia, Northwest Spain.[8] He had become financially successful by growing sugar cane at Las Manacas farm in Birán, Oriente Province,[9] and after the collapse of his first marriage, he took his household servant, Lina Ruz González - also of Spanish origin, as his mistress and later on second wife; together they had seven children, among them Fidel.[10] Aged six, Castro was sent to live with his teacher in Santiago de Cuba,[11] before being baptized into the Roman Catholic Church at the age of eight.[12] Being baptized enabled Castro to attend the La Salle boarding school in Santiago, where he regularly misbehaved, so he was sent to the privately funded, Jesuit-run Dolores School in Santiago.[13] In 1945 he transferred to the more prestigious Jesuit-run El Colegio de Belén in Havana.[14] Although Castro took an interest in history, geography and debating at Belén, he did not excel academically, instead devoting much of his time to playing sport.[15]

In 1945, Castro began studying law at the University of Havana.[16] Admitting he was "politically illiterate", he became embroiled in student activism,[17] and the violent gangsterismo culture within the university.[18] Passionate about anti-imperialism and opposing U.S. intervention in the Caribbean,[19] he unsuccessfully campaigned for the presidency of the Federation of University Students on a platform of "honesty, decency and justice".[20] Castro became critical of the corruption and violence of President Ramón Grau's government, delivering a public speech on the subject in November 1946 that received coverage on the front page of several newspapers.[21]

In 1947, Castro joined the Party of the Cuban People (Partido Ortodoxo), founded by veteran politician Eduardo Chibás. A charismatic figure, Chibás advocated social justice, honest government, and political freedom, while his party exposed corruption and demanded reform. Though Chibás lost the election, Castro remained committed to working on his behalf.[22] Student violence escalated after Grau employed gang leaders as police officers, and Castro soon received a death threat urging him to leave the university; refusing, he began carrying a gun and surrounding himself with armed friends.[23] In later years anti-Castro dissidents accused him of committing gang-related assassinations at the time, but these remain unproven.[24]
Rebellion and Marxism: 1947–50

I joined the people; I grabbed a rifle in a police station that collapsed when it was rushed by a crowd. I witnessed the spectacle of a totally spontaneous revolution... [T]hat experience led me to identify myself even more with the cause of the people. My still incipient Marxist ideas had nothing to do with our conduct – it was a spontaneous reaction on our part, as young people with Martí-an, anti-imperialist, anti-colonialist and pro-democratic ideas.
— Fidel Castro on the Bogotazo, 2009[25]

In June 1947, Castro learned of a planned expedition to overthrow the right-wing military junta of Rafael Trujillo, a U.S. ally, in the Dominican Republic.[26] Being President of the University Committee for Democracy in the Dominican Republic, Castro joined the expedition.[27] The military force consisted of around 1,200 troops, mostly Cubans and exiled Dominicans, and they intended to sail from Cuba in July 1947. However, under U.S. pressure, Grau's government stopped the invasion, although Castro and many of his comrades evaded arrest.[28] Returning to Havana, Castro took a leading role in student protests against the killing of a high school pupil by government bodyguards.[29] The protests, accompanied by a crackdown on those considered communists, led to violent clashes between activists and police in February 1948, in which Castro was badly beaten.[30] At this point his public speeches took on a distinctly leftist slant by condemning social and economic inequality in Cuba. In contrast, his former public criticisms had centered on condemning corruption and U.S. imperialism.[30]

In April 1948, Castro traveled to Bogotá, Colombia, with a Cuban student group sponsored by President Juan Perón's Argentine government. There, the assassination of popular leftist leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala led to widespread rioting and clashes between the governing Conservatives – backed by the army – and leftist Liberals.[31] Castro joined the Liberal cause by stealing guns from a police station, but subsequent police investigations concluded that he had not been involved in any killings.[31] Returning to Cuba, Castro became a prominent figure in protests against government attempts to raise bus fares.[32] That year, he married Mirta Díaz Balart, a student from a wealthy family through whom he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite. The relationship was a love match, disapproved of by both families, but Mirta's father gave them tens of thousands of dollars to spend on a three-month New York City honeymoon.[33]

Marxism taught me what society was. I was like a blindfolded man in a forest, who doesn't even know where north or south is. If you don't eventually come to truly understand the history of the class struggle, or at least have a clear idea that society is divided between the rich and the poor, and that some people subjugate and exploit other people, you're lost in a forest, not knowing anything.
— Fidel Castro on discovering Marxism, 2009[34]

That same year, Grau decided not to stand for re-election, which was instead won by his Partido Auténtico's new candidate, Carlos Prío Socarrás.[35] Prío faced widespread protests when members of the MSR, now allied to the police force, assassinated Justo Fuentes, a socialist friend of Castro's. In response, Prío agreed to quell the gangs, but found them too powerful to control.[36] Castro had moved further to the left, influenced by the Marxist writings of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Lenin. He came to interpret Cuba's problems as an integral part of capitalist society, or the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", rather than the failings of corrupt politicians, and adopted the Marxist view that meaningful political change could only be brought about by proletariat revolution. Visiting Havana's poorest neighborhoods, he became active in the student anti-racist campaign.[37]

In September 1949, Mirta gave birth to a son, Fidelito, so the couple moved to a larger Havana flat.[38] Castro continued to put himself at risk, staying active in the city’s politics and joining the September 30 Movement, which contained within it both communists and members of the Partido Ortodoxo. The group’s purpose was to oppose the influence of the violent gangs within the university; despite his promises, Prío had failed to control the situation, instead offering many of their senior members jobs in government ministries.[39] Castro volunteered to deliver a speech for the Movement on November 13, exposing the government’s secret deals with the gangs and identifying key members. Attracting the attention of the national press, the speech angered the gangs, and Castro fled into hiding, first in the countryside and then in the U.S.[40] Returning to Havana several weeks later, Castro lay low and focused on his university studies, graduating as a Doctor of Law in September 1950.[41]
Career in law and politics: 1950–52
Castro intended to overthrow the presidency of General Fulgencio Batista (left, with U.S. Army Chief of staff Malin Craig, in 1938).

Castro co-founded a legal partnership that primarily catered for poor Cubans, although it proved a financial failure.[42] Caring little for money or material goods, Castro failed to pay his bills; his furniture was repossessed and electricity cut off, distressing his wife.[43] He took part in a high-school protest in Cienfuegos in November 1950, fighting with police in protest at the Education Ministry's ban on student associations; arrested and charged for violent conduct, the magistrate dismissed the charges.[44] His hopes for Cuba still centered on Chibás and the Partido Ortodoxo, and he was present at Chibás' politically motivated suicide in 1951.[45] Seeing himself as Chibás' heir, Castro wanted to run for Congress in the June 1952 elections, though senior Ortodoxo members feared his radical reputation and refused to nominate him.[46] Instead he was nominated as a candidate for the House of Representatives by party members in Havana's poorest districts, and began campaigning.[46] The Ortodoxo had considerable support and was predicted to do well in the election.[47]

During his campaign, Castro met with General Fulgencio Batista, the former president who had returned to politics with the Unitary Action Party; although both opposing Prío's administration, their meeting never got beyond polite generalities.[48] In March 1952, Batista seized power in a military coup, with Prío fleeing to Mexico. Declaring himself president, Batista cancelled the planned presidential elections, describing his new system as "disciplined democracy": Castro, like many others, considered it a one-man dictatorship.[49] Batista moved to the right, solidifying ties with both the wealthy elite and the United States, severing diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, suppressing trade unions and persecuting Cuban socialist groups.[50] Intent on opposing Batista, Castro brought several legal cases against the government, but these came to nothing, and Castro began thinking of alternate ways to oust the regime.[51]
Cuban Revolution
Main article: Fidel Castro in the Cuban Revolution
The Movement and the Moncada Barracks attack: 1952–53

In a few hours you will be victorious or defeated, but regardless of the outcome – listen well, friends – this Movement will triumph. If you win tomorrow, the aspirations of Martí will be fulfilled sooner. If we fail, our action will nevertheless set an example for the Cuban people, and from the people will arise fresh new men willing to die for Cuba. They will pick up our banner and move forward... The people will back us in Oriente and in the whole island. As in '68 and '92, here in Oriente we will give the first cry of Liberty or Death!
— Fidel Castro's speech to the Movement just before the Moncada Attack, 1953[52]

Castro formed a group called "The Movement" which operated along a clandestine cell system, publishing underground newspaper El Acusador (The Accuser), while arming and training anti-Batista recruits.[53] From July 1952 they went on a recruitment drive, gaining around 1,200 members in a year, the majority from Havana's poorer districts.[54] Although a revolutionary socialist, Castro avoided an alliance with the communist PSP, fearing it would frighten away political moderates, but kept in contact with PSP members like his brother Raúl.[55] Castro stockpiled weapons for a planned attack on the Moncada Barracks, a military garrison outside Santiago de Cuba, Oriente. Castro's militants intended to dress in army uniforms and arrive at the base on July 25, seizing control and raiding the armory before reinforcements arrived.[56] Supplied with new weaponry, Castro intended to spark a revolution among Oriente's impoverished cane cutters and promote further uprisings.[57] Castro's plan emulated those of the 19th-century Cuban independence fighters who had raided Spanish barracks; Castro saw himself as the heir to independence leader José Martí.[58]
Fidel Castro under arrest after the Moncada attack, 1953

Castro gathered 165 revolutionaries for the mission,[59] ordering his troops not to cause bloodshed unless they met armed resistance.[60] The attack took place on July 26, 1953, but ran into trouble; 3 of the 16 cars that had set out from Santiago failed to get there. Reaching the barracks, the alarm was raised, with most of the rebels pinned down by machine gun fire. 4 were killed before Castro ordered a retreat.[61] The rebels suffered 6 fatalities and 15 other casualties, whilst the army suffered 19 dead and 27 wounded.[62] Meanwhile, some rebels took over a civilian hospital; subsequently stormed by government soldiers, the rebels were rounded up, tortured and 22 were executed without trial.[63] Accompanied by 19 comrades, Castro set out for Gran Piedra in the rugged Sierra Maestra mountains several miles to the north, where they could establish a guerrilla base.[64] Responding to the attack, Batista's government proclaimed martial law, ordering a violent crackdown on dissent, and imposing strict media censorship.[65] The government broadcast misinformation about the event, claiming that the rebels were communists who had killed hospital patients, although news and photographs of the army's use of torture and summary executions in Oriente soon spread, causing widespread public and some governmental disapproval.[65]

Over the following days, the rebels were rounded up; some were executed and others – including Castro – transported to a prison north of Santiago.[66] Believing Castro incapable of planning the attack alone, the government accused Ortodoxo and PSP politicians of involvement, putting 122 defendants on trial on September 21 at the Palace of Justice, Santiago.[67] Acting as his own defense counsel, Castro cited Martí as the intellectual author of the attack and convinced the 3 judges to overrule the army's decision to keep all defendants handcuffed in court, proceeding to argue that the charge with which they were accused – of "organizing an uprising of armed persons against the Constitutional Powers of the State" – was incorrect, for they had risen up against Batista, who had seized power in an unconstitutional manner.[68] The trial embarrassed the army by revealing that they had tortured suspects, after which they tried unsuccessfully to prevent Castro from testifying any further, claiming he was too ill.[69] The trial ended on October 5, with the acquittal of most defendants; 55 were sentenced to prison terms of between 7 months and 13 years. Castro was sentenced on October 16, during which he delivered a speech that would be printed under the title of History Will Absolve Me.[70] Castro was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment in the hospital wing of the Model Prison (Presidio Modelo), a relatively comfortable and modern institution on the Isla de Pinos.[71]
Imprisonment and the 26th of July Movement: 1953–55

I would honestly love to revolutionize this country from one end to the other! I am sure this would bring happiness to the Cuban people. I would not be stopped by the hatred and ill will of a few thousand people, including some of my relatives, half the people I know, two-thirds of my fellow professionals, and four-fifths of my ex-schoolmates
— Fidel Castro, 1954.[72]

Imprisoned with 25 comrades, Castro renamed his group the "26th of July Movement" (MR-26-7) in memory of the Moncada attack's date, and formed a school for prisoners.[73] He read widely, enjoying the works of Marx, Lenin, and Martí but also reading books by Freud, Kant, Shakespeare, Munthe, Maugham and Dostoyevsky, analyzing them within a Marxist framework.[74] Corresponding with supporters, he maintained control over the Movement and organized the publication of History Will Absolve Me.[75] Initially permitted a relative amount of freedom within the prison, he was locked up in solitary confinement after inmates sang anti-Batista songs on a visit by the President in February 1954.[76] Meanwhile, Castro's wife Mirta gained employment in the Ministry of the Interior, something he discovered through a radio announcement. Appalled, he raged that he would rather die "a thousand times" than "suffer impotently from such an insult".[77] Both Fidel and Mirta initiated divorce proceedings, with Mirta taking custody of their son Fidelito; this angered Castro, who did not want his son growing up in a bourgeois environment.[77]

In 1954, Batista's government held presidential elections, but no politician stood against him; the election was widely considered fraudulent. It had allowed some political opposition to be voiced, and Castro's supporters had agitated for an amnesty for the Moncada incident's perpetrators. Some politicians suggested an amnesty would be good publicity, and the Congress and Batista agreed. Backed by the U.S. and major corporations, Batista believed Castro to be no threat, and on May 15, 1955, the prisoners were released.[78] Returning to Havana, Castro gave radio interviews and press conferences; the government closely monitored him, curtailing his activities.[79] Now divorced, Castro had sexual affairs with two female supporters, Naty Revuelta and Maria Laborde, each conceiving him a child.[80] Setting about strengthening the MR-26-7, he established an 11-person National Directorate but retained autocratic control, with some dissenters labeling him a caudillo (dictator); he argued that a successful revolution could not be run by committee and required a strong leader.[81]
Fidel's brother Raúl (left) and Che Guevara (right).

In 1955, bombings and violent demonstrations led to a crackdown on dissent, with Castro and Raúl fleeing the country to evade arrest.[82] Castro sent a letter to the press, declaring that he was "leaving Cuba because all doors of peaceful struggle have been closed to me ... As a follower of Martí, I believe the hour has come to take our rights and not beg for them, to fight instead of pleading for them."[83] The Castros and several comrades traveled to Mexico,[84] where Raúl befriended an Argentine doctor and Marxist-Leninist named Ernesto "Che" Guevara. Fidel liked him, later describing him as "a more advanced revolutionary than I was".[85] Castro also associated with the Spaniard Alberto Bayo, who agreed to teach Castro's rebels the necessary skills in guerrilla warfare.[86] Requiring funding, Castro toured the U.S. in search of wealthy sympathizers, there being monitored by Batista's agents, who allegedly orchestrated a failed assassination attempt against him.[87] Castro kept in contact with the MR-26-7 in Cuba, where they had gained a large support base in Oriente.[88] Other militant anti-Batista groups had sprung up, primarily from the student movement; most notable was the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (DRE), founded by José Antonio Echeverría. Antonio met with Castro in Mexico City, but Castro opposed the student's support for indiscriminate assassination.[89]

After purchasing the decrepit yacht Granma, on November 25, 1956, Castro set sail from Tuxpan, Veracruz, with 81 armed revolutionaries.[90] The 1,200-mile (1,900 km) crossing to Cuba was harsh, with food running low and many suffering seasickness. At some points, they had to bail water caused by a leak, and at another, a man fell overboard, delaying their journey.[91] The plan had been for the crossing to take 5 days, and on the Granma's scheduled day of arrival, November 30, MR-26-7 members under Frank País led an armed uprising in Santiago and Manzanillo. However, the Granma's journey ultimately lasted 7 days, and with Castro and his men unable to provide reinforcements, País and his militants dispersed after two days of intermittent attacks.[92]
Guerrilla war: 1956–59
The thickly forested mountain range of the Sierra Maestra, from where Castro and his revolutionaries led guerrilla attacks against Batista's forces for two years. Castro biographer Robert E. Quirk noted that there was "no better place to hide" in all the island.[93]

The Granma ran aground in a mangrove swamp at Playa Las Coloradas, close to Los Cayuelos, on December 2, 1956. Fleeing inland, its crew headed for the forested mountain range of Oriente's Sierra Maestra, being repeatedly attacked by Batista's troops.[94] Upon arrival, Castro discovered that only 19 rebels had made it to their destination, the rest having been killed or captured.[95] Setting up an encampment, the survivors included the Castros, Che Guevara, and Camilo Cienfuegos.[96] They began launching raids on small army posts to obtain weaponry, and in January 1957 they overran the outpost at La Plata, treating any soldiers that they wounded but executing Chicho Osorio, the local mayoral (land company overseer), who was despised by the local peasants and who boasted of killing one of Castro's rebels.[97] Osorio's execution aided the rebels in gaining the trust of locals, although they largely remained unenthusiastic and suspicious of the revolutionaries.[98] As trust grew, some locals joined the rebels, although most new recruits came from urban areas.[99] With volunteers boosting the rebel forces to over 200, in July 1957 Castro divided his army into three columns, commanded by himself, his brother, and Guevara.[100] The MR-26-7 members operating in urban areas continued agitation, sending supplies to Castro, and on February 16, 1957 he met with other senior members to discuss tactics; here he met Celia Sánchez, who would become a close friend.[101]

Across Cuba, anti-Batista groups carried out bombings and sabotage; police responded with mass arrests, torture, and extrajudicial executions.[102] In March 1957, the DR launched a failed attack on the presidential palace, during which Antonio was shot dead.[102] Frank País was also killed, leaving Castro the MR-26-7's unchallenged leader.[103] Although Guevara and Raúl were well known for their Marxist-Leninist views, Castro hid his, hoping to gain the support of less radical revolutionaries.[104] In 1957 he met with leading members of the Partido Ortodoxo, Raúl Chibás and Felipe Pazos, authoring the Sierra Maestra Manifesto, in which they demanded that a provisional civilian government be set up to implement moderate agrarian reform, industrialization, and a literacy campaign before holding multiparty elections.[104] As Cuba's press was censored, Castro contacted foreign media to spread his message; he became a celebrity after being interviewed by Herbert Matthews, a journalist from The New York Times.[105] Reporters from CBS and Paris Match soon followed.[106]
Castro (right) with fellow revolutionary Camilo Cienfuegos entering Havana on January 8, 1959.

Castro's guerrillas increased their attacks on military outposts, forcing the government to withdraw from the Sierra Maestra region, and by spring 1958, the rebels controlled a hospital, schools, a printing press, slaughterhouse, land-mine factory and a cigar-making factory.[107] By 1958, Batista was under increasing pressure, a result of his military failures coupled with increasing domestic and foreign criticism surrounding his administration's press censorship, torture, and extrajudicial executions.[108] Influenced by anti-Batista sentiment among their citizens, the U.S. government ceased supplying him with weaponry.[108] The opposition called a general strike, accompanied by armed attacks from the MR-26-7. Beginning on April 9, it received strong support in central and eastern Cuba, but little elsewhere.[109]

Batista responded with an all-out-attack, Operation Verano, in which the army aerially bombarded forested areas and villages suspected of aiding the militants, while 10,000 soldiers commanded by General Eulogio Cantillo surrounded the Sierra Maestra, driving north to the rebel encampments.[110] Despite their numerical and technological superiority, the army had no experience with guerrilla warfare, and Castro halted their offensive using land mines and ambushes.[110] Many of Batista's soldiers defected to Castro's rebels, who also benefited from local popular support.[111] In the summer, the MR-26-7 went on the offensive, pushing the army out of the mountains, with Castro using his columns in a pincer movement to surround the main army concentration in Santiago. By November, Castro's forces controlled most of Oriente and Las Villas, and divided Cuba in two by closing major roads and rail lines, severely disadvantaging Batista.[112]

Fearing Castro was a socialist, the U.S. instructed Cantillo to oust Batista.[113] Cantillo secretly agreed to a ceasefire with Castro, promising that Batista would be tried as a war criminal;[113] however, Batista was warned, and fled into exile with over US$300,000,000 on December 31, 1958.[114] Cantillo entered Havana's Presidential Palace, proclaimed the Supreme Court judge Carlos Piedra to be President, and began appointing the new government.[115] Furious, Castro ended the ceasefire,[116] and ordered Cantillo's arrest by sympathetic figures in the army.[117] Accompanying celebrations at news of Batista's downfall on January 1, 1959, Castro ordered the MR-26-7 to prevent widespread looting and vandalism.[118] Cienfuegos and Guevara led their columns into Havana on January 2, while Castro entered Santiago and gave a speech invoking the wars of independence.[119] Heading toward Havana, he greeted cheering crowds at every town, giving press conferences and interviews.[120]
Provisional government: 1959

At Castro's command, the politically moderate lawyer Manuel Urrutia Lleó was proclaimed provisional president, with Castro erroneously announcing he had been selected by "popular election"; most of Urrutia's cabinet were MR-26-7 members.[121] Entering Havana, Castro proclaimed himself Representative of the Rebel Armed Forces of the Presidency, setting up home and office in the penthouse of the Havana Hilton Hotel.[122] Castro exercised a great deal of influence over Urrutia's regime, which was now ruling by decree. He ensured that the government implemented policies to cut corruption and fight illiteracy and that it attempted to remove Batistanos from positions of power by dismissing Congress and barring all those elected in the rigged elections of 1954 and 1958 from future office. He then pushed Urrutia to issue a temporary ban on political parties; he repeatedly said that they would eventually hold multiparty elections.[123] Although repeatedly denying that he was a communist to the press, he began clandestinely meeting members of the Popular Socialist Party to discuss the creation of a socialist state.[124]

We are not executing innocent people or political opponents. We are executing murderers and they deserve it.
— Castro's response to his critics regarding the mass executions, 1959[125]

In suppressing the revolution, Batista's government had killed thousands of Cubans; at the time, Castro and influential sectors of the press put the death toll at 20,000,[126] although more recent estimates place it between 1000[127] and 4000.[128] In response to popular uproar, which demanded that those responsible be brought to justice, Castro helped set up many trials, resulting in hundreds of executions. Although widely popular domestically, critics–in particular the U.S. press–argued that many were not fair trials. Castro responded that "revolutionary justice is not based on legal precepts, but on moral conviction".[129] Acclaimed by many across Latin America, he traveled to Venezuela where he met with President-elect Rómulo Betancourt, unsuccessfully requesting a loan and a new deal for Venezuelan oil.[130] Returning home, an argument between Castro and senior government figures broke out. He was infuriated that the government had left thousands unemployed by closing down casinos and brothels. As a result, Prime Minister José Miró Cardona resigned, going into exile in the U.S. and joining the anti-Castro movement.[131]
Premiership
Main article: Premiership of Fidel Castro
Consolidating leadership: 1959–60
Castro visiting the Lincoln Memorial during his visit to the United States, 1959.

On February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba.[132] In April he visited the U.S. on a charm offensive where he met Vice President Richard Nixon, whom he instantly disliked.[133] Proceeding to Canada, Trinidad, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, Castro attended an economic conference in Buenos Aires, unsuccessfully proposing a $30 billion U.S.-funded "Marshall Plan" for Latin America.[134] In May 1959 Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, setting a cap for landholdings to 993 acres (402 ha) per owner and prohibiting foreigners from obtaining Cuban land ownership. Around 200,000 peasants received title deeds as large land holdings were broken up; popular among the working class, it alienated the richer landowners.[135] Castro appointed himself president of the National Tourist Industry, introducing unsuccessful measures to encourage African-American tourists to visit, advertising Cuba as a tropical paradise free of racial discrimination.[136] Judges and politicians had their pay reduced while low-level civil servants saw theirs raised,[137] and in March 1959, Castro declared rents for those who paid less than $100 a month halved.[138]

Although refusing to categorize his regime as socialist and repeatedly denying being a communist, Castro appointed Marxists to senior government and military positions. Most notably, Che Guevara became Governor of the Central Bank and then Minister of Industries. Appalled, Air Force commander Pedro Luis Díaz Lanz defected to the U.S.[139] Although President Urrutia denounced the defection, he expressed concern with the rising influence of Marxism. Angered, Castro in turn announced his resignation as Prime Minister, blaming Urrutia for complicating government with his "fevered anti-Communism". Over 500,000 Castro-supporters surrounded the Presidential Palace demanding Urrutia's resignation, which he submitted. On July 23, Castro resumed his Premiership and appointed Marxist Osvaldo Dorticós as President.[140]
Castro and Indonesian President Sukarno in Havana, 1960

Castro's government emphasised social projects to improve Cuba's standard of living, often to the detriment of economic development.[141] Major emphasis was placed on education, and during the first 30 months of Castro's government, more classrooms were opened than in the previous 30 years. The Cuban primary education system offered a work-study program, with half of the time spent in the classroom, and the other half in a productive activity.[142] Health care was nationalized and expanded, with rural health centers and urban polyclinics opening up across the island to offer free medical aid. Universal vaccination against childhood diseases was implemented, and infant mortality rates were reduced dramatically.[141] A third part of this social program was the improvement of infrastructure. Within the first six months of Castro's government, 600 miles of roads were built across the island, while $300 million was spent on water and sanitation projects.[141] Over 800 houses were constructed every month in the early years of the administration in an effort to cut homelessness, while nurseries and day-care centers were opened for children and other centers opened for the disabled and elderly.[141]
Castro (far left), Che Guevara (center), and other leading revolutionaries, marching through the streets in protest at the La Coubre explosion, March 5, 1960.

Castro used radio and television to develop a "dialogue with the people", posing questions and making provocative statements.[143] His regime remained popular with workers, peasants, and students, who constituted the majority of the country's population,[144] while opposition came primarily from the middle class; thousands of doctors, engineers and other professionals emigrated to Florida in the U.S., causing an economic brain drain.[145] Productivity decreased and the country's financial reserves were drained within two years.[138] After conservative press expressed hostility towards the government, the pro-Castro printers' trade union disrupted editorial staff, and in January 1960 the government ordered them to publish a "clarification" written by the printers' union at the end of articles critical of the government.[146] Castro's government arrested hundreds of counter-revolutionaries,[147] many of whom were subjected to solitary confinement, rough treatment, and threatening behavior.[148] Militant anti-Castro groups, funded by exiles, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the Dominican government, undertook armed attacks and set up guerrilla bases in Cuba's mountains, leading to the six-year Escambray Rebellion.[149]

By 1960, the Cold War raged between two superpowers: the United States, a capitalist liberal democracy, and the Soviet Union (USSR), a Marxist-Leninist socialist state ruled by the Communist Party. Expressing contempt for the U.S., Castro shared the ideological views of the USSR, establishing relations with several Marxist-Leninist states.[150] Meeting with Soviet First Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan, Castro agreed to provide the USSR with sugar, fruit, fibers, and hides, in return for crude oil, fertilizers, industrial goods, and a $100 million loan.[151] Cuba's government ordered the country's refineries – then controlled by the U.S. corporations Shell, Esso and Standard Oil – to process Soviet oil, but under U.S. pressure, they refused. Castro responded by expropriating and nationalizing the refineries. Retaliating, the U.S. cancelled its import of Cuban sugar, provoking Castro to nationalize most U.S.-owned assets on the island, including banks and sugar mills.[152]
Castro at the United Nations General Assembly in 1960

Relations between Cuba and the U.S. were further strained following the explosion of a French vessel, the Le Coubre, in Havana harbor in March 1960. The ship carried weapons purchased from Belgium, the cause of the explosion was never determined, but Castro publicly insinuated that the U.S. government were guilty of sabotage. He ended this speech with "¡Patria o Muerte!" ("Fatherland or Death"), a proclamation that he made much use of in ensuing years.[153] Inspired by their earlier success with the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, in March 1960, U.S. President Eisenhower authorized the CIA to overthrow Castro's government. He provided them with a budget of $13 million and permitted them to ally with the Mafia, who were aggrieved that Castro's government closed down their brothel and casino businesses in Cuba.[154] On October 13, 1960, the U.S. prohibited the majority of exports to Cuba, initiating an economic embargo. In retaliation, the National Institute for Agrarian Reform INRA took control of 383 private-run businesses on October 14, and on October 25 a further 166 U.S. companies operating in Cuba had their premises seized and nationalized.[155] On December 16, the U.S. ended its import quota of Cuban sugar, the country's primary export.[156]

In September 1960, Castro flew to New York City for the General Assembly of the United Nations. Staying at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, he met with journalists and anti-establishment figures like Malcolm X. He also met Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, with the two publicly condemning the poverty and racism faced by Americans in areas like Harlem. Relations between Castro and Khrushchev were warm; they led the applause to one another's speeches at the General Assembly.[157] Subsequently visited by Polish First Secretary Władysław Gomułka, Bulgarian Chairman Todor Zhivkov, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and Indian Premier Jawaharlal Nehru,[158] Castro also received an evening's reception from the Fair Play for Cuba Committee.[159]

Back in Cuba, Castro feared a U.S.-backed coup; in 1959 his regime spent $120 million on Soviet, French, and Belgian weaponry and by early 1960 had doubled the size of Cuba's armed forces.[160] Fearing counter-revolutionary elements in the army, the government created a People's Militia to arm citizens favorable to the revolution, training at least 50,000 civilians in combat techniques.[161] In September 1960, they created the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR), a nationwide civilian organization which implemented neighborhood spying to detect counter-revolutionary activities as well as organizing health and education campaigns, becoming a conduit for public complaints. By 1970, a third of the population would be involved in the CDR, and this would come to rise to 80%.[162] Castro proclaimed the new administration a direct democracy, in which Cubans could assemble at demonstrations to express their democratic will. As a result, he rejected the need for elections, claiming that representative democratic systems served the interests of socio-economic elites.[163] U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter announced that Cuba was adopting the Soviet model of rule, with a one-party state, government control of trade unions, suppression of civil liberties, and the absence of freedom of speech and press.[164]
Bay of Pigs Invasion and "Socialist Cuba": 1961–62

There was... no doubt about who the victors were. Cuba's stature in the world soared to new heights, and Fidel's role as the adored and revered leader among ordinary Cuban people received a renewed boost. His popularity was greater than ever. In his own mind he had done what generations of Cubans had only fantasized about: he had taken on the United States and won.
— Peter Bourne, Castro biographer, 1986[165]

In January 1961, Castro ordered Havana's U.S. Embassy to reduce its 300-member staff, suspecting that many of them were spies. The U.S. responded by ending diplomatic relations, and it increased CIA funding for exiled dissidents; these militants began attacking ships that traded with Cuba, and bombed factories, shops, and sugar mills.[166] Both Eisenhower and his successor John F. Kennedy supported a CIA plan to aid a dissident militia, the Democratic Revolutionary Front, to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro; the plan resulted in the Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961. On April 15, CIA-supplied B-26's bombed 3 Cuban military airfields; the U.S. announced that the perpetrators were defecting Cuban air force pilots, but Castro exposed these claims as false flag misinformation.[167] Fearing invasion, he ordered the arrest of between 20,000 and 100,000 suspected counter-revolutionaries,[168] publicly proclaiming, "What the imperialists cannot forgive us, is that we have made a Socialist revolution under their noses", his first announcement that the government was socialist.[169]
Che Guevara (left) and Castro, photographed by Alberto Korda in 1961

The CIA and the Democratic Revolutionary Front had based a 1,400-strong army, Brigade 2506, in Nicaragua. On the night of April 16 to 17, Brigade 2506 landed along Cuba's Bay of Pigs, and engaged in a firefight with a local revolutionary militia. Castro ordered Captain José Ramón Fernández to launch the counter-offensive, before taking personal control of it. After bombing the invaders' ships and bringing in reinforcements, Castro forced the Brigade to surrender on April 20.[170] He ordered the 1189 captured rebels to be interrogated by a panel of journalists on live television, personally taking over the questioning on April 25. 14 were put on trial for crimes allegedly committed before the revolution, while the others were returned to the U.S. in exchange for medicine and food valued at U.S. $25 million.[171] Castro's victory was a powerful symbol across Latin America, but it also increased internal opposition primarily among the middle-class Cubans who had been detained in the run-up to the invasion. Although most were freed within a few days, many fled to the U.S., establishing themselves in Florida.[172]

Consolidating "Socialist Cuba", Castro united the MR-26-7, Popular Socialist Party and Revolutionary Directorate into a governing party based on the Leninist principle of democratic centralism: the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations (Organizaciones Revolucionarias Integradas – ORI), renamed the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution (PURSC) in 1962.[173] Although the USSR was hesitant regarding Castro's embrace of socialism,[174] relations with the Soviets deepened. Castro sent Fidelito for a Moscow schooling,[175] Soviet technicians arrived on the island,[175] and Castro was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.[176] In December 1961, Castro admitted that he had been a Marxist–Leninist for years, and in his Second Declaration of Havana he called on Latin America to rise up in revolution.[177] In response, the U.S. successfully pushed the Organization of American States to expel Cuba; the Soviets privately reprimanded Castro for recklessness, although he received praise from China.[178] Despite their ideological affinity with China, in the Sino-Soviet split, Cuba allied with the wealthier Soviets, who offered economic and military aid.[179]

The ORI began shaping Cuba using the Soviet model, persecuting political opponents and perceived social deviants such as prostitutes and homosexuals; Castro considered same-sex sexual activity a bourgeois trait.[180] Gay men were forced into the Military Units to Aid Production (Unidades Militares de Ayuda a la Producción – UMAP); after many revolutionary intellectuals decried this move, the UMAP camps were closed in 1967, although gay men continued to be imprisoned.[181] In 2010, Castro took responsibility for this persecution, regretting it as a "great injustice".[182] By 1962, Cuba's economy was in steep decline, a result of poor economic management and low productivity coupled with the U.S. trade embargo. Food shortages led to rationing, resulting in protests in Cárdenas.[183] Security reports indicated that many Cubans associated austerity with the "Old Communists" of the PSP, while Castro considered a number of them – namely Aníbal Escalante and Blas Roca – unduly loyal to Moscow. In March 1962 Castro removed the most prominent "Old Communists" from office, labelling them "sectarian".[184] On a personal level, Castro was increasingly lonely, and his relations with Guevara became strained as the latter became increasingly anti-Soviet and pro-Chinese.[185]
Cuban Missile Crisis and furthering socialism: 1962–68
U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba

Militarily weaker than NATO, Khrushchev wanted to install Soviet R-12 MRBM nuclear missiles on Cuba to even the power balance.[186] Although conflicted, Castro agreed, believing it would guarantee Cuba's safety and enhance the cause of socialism.[187] Undertaken in secrecy, only the Castro brothers, Guevara, Dorticós and security chief Ramiro Valdés knew the full plan.[188] Upon discovering it through aerial reconnaissance, in October the U.S. implemented an island-wide quarantine to search vessels headed to Cuba, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis. The U.S. saw the missiles as offensive; Castro insisted they were for defense only.[189] Castro urged Khrushchev to threaten a nuclear strike on the U.S. should Cuba be attacked, but Khrushchev was desperate to avoid nuclear war.[190] Castro was left out of the negotiations, in which Khruschev agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a U.S. commitment not to invade Cuba and an understanding that the U.S. would remove their MRBMs from Turkey and Italy.[191] Feeling betrayed by Khruschev, Castro was furious and soon fell ill.[192] Proposing a five-point plan, Castro demanded that the U.S. end its embargo, withdraw from Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, cease supporting dissidents, and stop violating Cuban air space and territorial waters. Presenting these demands to U Thant, visiting Secretary-General of the United Nations, the U.S. ignored them, and in turn Castro refused to allow the U.N.'s inspection team into Cuba.[193]

In May 1963, Castro visited the USSR at Khrushchev's personal invitation, touring 14 cities, addressing a Red Square rally, and being awarded both the Order of Lenin and an honorary doctorate from Moscow State University.[194] While there Castro was permitted to sign a Soviet R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile.[195] Castro returned to Cuba with new ideas; inspired by Soviet newspaper Pravda, he amalgamated Hoy and Revolución into a new daily, Granma,[196] and oversaw large investment into Cuban sport that resulted in an increased international sporting reputation.[197] Seeking to further consolidate control, in 1963 the government cracked down on Protestant sects in Cuba, with Castro labeling them counter-revolutionary "instruments of imperialism"; many preachers were found guilty of illegal U.S.-links and imprisoned.[198] Measures were implemented to force perceived idle and delinquent youths to work, primarily through the introduction of mandatory military service,[199] while in September the government temporarily permitted emigration for anyone other than males aged between 15 and 26, thereby ridding the government of thousands of critics, most of whom were from upper and middle-class backgrounds.[200] In 1963 Castro's mother died. This was the last time his private life was reported in Cuba's press.[201] In January 1964, Castro returned to Moscow, officially to sign a new five-year sugar trade agreement, but also to discuss the ramifications of the assassination of John F. Kennedy;[202] Castro had been deeply concerned by the assassination, believing that a far right conspiracy was behind it but that the Cubans would be blamed.[203] In October 1965, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations was officially renamed the "Cuban Communist Party" and published the membership of its Central Committee.[204]

The greatest threat presented by Castro's Cuba is as an example to other Latin American states which are beset by poverty, corruption, feudalism, and plutocratic exploitation ... his influence in Latin America might be overwhelming and irresistible if, with Soviet help, he could establish in Cuba a Communist utopia.
— Walter Lippmann, Newsweek, April 27, 1964[205]

Despite Soviet misgivings, Castro continued calling for global revolution, funding militant leftists and those engaged in national liberation struggles. Cuba's foreign policy was staunchly anti-imperialist, believing that every nation should control its own natural resources.[206] He supported Che Guevara's "Andean project", an unsuccessful plan to set up a guerrilla movement in the highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Argentina, and allowed revolutionary groups from across the world, from the Viet Cong to the Black Panthers, to train in Cuba.[207] He considered Western-dominated Africa ripe for revolution, and sent troops and medics to aid Ahmed Ben Bella's socialist regime in Algeria during the Sand War. He also allied with Alphonse Massamba-Débat's socialist government in Congo-Brazzaville, and in 1965 Castro authorized Guevara to travel to Congo-Kinshasa to train revolutionaries against the Western-backed government.[208] Castro was personally devastated when Guevara was subsequently killed by CIA-backed troops in Bolivia in October 1967 and publicly attributed it to Che's disregard for his own safety.[209] In 1966 Castro staged a Tri-Continental Conference of Africa, Asia and Latin America in Havana, further establishing himself as a significant player on the world stage.[210] From this conference, Castro created the Latin American Solidarity Organization (OLAS), which adopted the slogan of "The duty of a revolution is to make revolution", signifying Havana's leadership of Latin America's revolutionary movement.[211]

Castro's increasing role on the world stage strained his relationship with the USSR, now under the leadership of Leonid Brezhnev. Asserting Cuba's independence, Castro refused to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, declaring it a Soviet-U.S. attempt to dominate the Third World.[212] Diverting from Soviet Marxist doctrine, he suggested that Cuban society could evolve straight to pure communism rather than gradually progress through various stages of socialism.[213] In turn, the Soviet-loyalist Aníbal Escalante began organizing a government network of opposition to Castro, though in January 1968, he and his supporters were arrested for allegedly passing state secrets to Moscow.[214] However, recognising Cuba's economic dependence on the Soviets, Castro relented to Brezhnev's pressure to be obedient, and in August 1968 he denounced the leaders of the Prague Spring and praised the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.[215][216] Influenced by China's Great Leap Forward, in 1968 Castro proclaimed a Great Revolutionary Offensive, closing all remaining privately owned shops and businesses and denouncing their owners as capitalist counter-revolutionaries.[217] The severe lack of consumer goods for purchase led productivity to decline, as large sectors of the population felt little incentive to work hard.[218] This was exacerbated by the perception that a revolutionary elite had emerged consisting of those connected to the administration; they had access to better housing, private transportation, servants, and the ability to purchase luxury goods abroad.[219]
Economic stagnation and Third World politics: 1969–74
Castro and members of the East German Politburo in Berlin, 1972

Castro publicly celebrated his administration's 10th anniversary in January 1969; in his celebratory speech he warned of sugar rations, reflecting the nation's economic problems.[220] The 1969 crop was heavily damaged by a hurricane, and to meet its export quota, the government drafted in the army, implemented a seven-day working week, and postponed public holidays to lengthen the harvest.[221] When that year's production quota was not met, Castro offered to resign during a public speech, but assembled crowds insisted he remain.[222] Despite the economic issues, many of Castro's social reforms were popular, with the population largely supportive of the "Achievements of the Revolution" in education, medical care, housing, and road construction, as well as the policies of "direct democratic" public consultation.[223] Seeking Soviet help, from 1970 to 1972 Soviet economists re-organized Cuba's economy, founding the Cuban-Soviet Commission of Economic, Scientific and Technical Collaboration, while Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin visited in 1971.[224] In July 1972, Cuba joined the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), an economic organization of socialist states, although this further limited Cuba's economy to agricultural production.[225]

In May 1970, the crews of two Cuban fishing boats were kidnapped by Florida-based dissident group Alpha 66, who demanded that Cuba release imprisoned militants. Under U.S. pressure, the hostages were released, and Castro welcomed them back as heroes.[226] In April 1971, Castro was internationally condemned for ordering the arrest of dissident poet Heberto Padilla; Padilla was freed, but the government established the National Cultural Council to ensure that intellectuals and artists supported the administration.[227]

In 1971, Castro visited Chile, where Marxist President Salvador Allende had been elected as the head of a left-wing coalition. Castro supported Allende's socialist reforms, but warned him of right-wing elements in Chile's military. In 1973, the military led a coup d'état and established a military junta led by Augusto Pinochet.[228] Castro proceeded to Guinea to meet socialist President Sékou Touré, praising him as Africa's greatest leader, and there received the Order of Fidelity to the People.[229] He then went on a seven-week tour visiting leftist allies: Algeria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, where he was given further awards. On each trip, he was eager to visit factory and farm workers, publicly praising their governments; privately, he urged the regimes to aid revolutionary movements elsewhere, particularly those fighting the Vietnam War.[230]

In September 1973, he returned to Algiers to attend the Fourth Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Various NAM members were critical of Castro's attendance, claiming that Cuba was aligned to the Warsaw Pact and therefore should not be at the conference.[231] At the conference he publicly broke off relations with Israel, citing its government's close relationship with the U.S. and its treatment of Palestinians during the Israel–Palestine conflict. This earned Castro respect throughout the Arab world, in particular from the Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, who became his friend and ally.[232] As the Yom Kippur War broke out in October 1973 between Israel and an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria, Cuba sent 4,000 troops to defend Syrian territory from Israeli incursions.[233] Leaving Algiers, Castro visited Iraq and North Vietnam.[234]

Cuba's economy grew in 1974 as a result of high international sugar prices and new credits with Argentina, Canada, and parts of Western Europe.[235] A number of Latin American states called for Cuba's re-admittance into the Organization of American States (OAS), with the U.S. finally conceding in 1975 on Henry Kissinger's advice.[236] Cuba's government underwent a restructuring along Soviet lines, claiming that this would further democratization and decentralize power away from Castro. Officially announcing Cuba's identity as a socialist state, the first National Congress of the Cuban Communist Party was held, and a new constitution adopted that abolished the position of President and Prime Minister. Castro remained the dominant figure in governance, taking the presidency of the newly created Council of State and Council of Ministers, making him both head of state and head of government.[237]
Presidency
Main article: Presidency of Fidel Castro
Foreign wars and NAM Presidency: 1975–79

Castro considered Africa to be "the weakest link in the imperialist chain", and at the request of Angolan President Agostinho Neto he ordered 230 military advisers into Southern Africa in November 1975 to aid Neto's Marxist MPLA in the Angolan Civil War. When the U.S. and South Africa stepped up their support of the opposition FLNA and UNITA, Castro ordered a further 18,000 troops to Angola, which played a major role in forcing a South African retreat.[238] Traveling to Angola, Castro celebrated with Neto, Sékou Touré and Guinea-Bissaun President Luís Cabral, where they agreed to support Mozambique's Marxist-Leninist government against RENAMO in the Mozambique Civil War.[239] In February, Castro visited Algeria and then Libya, where he spent ten days with Gaddafi and oversaw the establishment of the Jamahariya system of governance, before attending talks with the Marxist government of South Yemen. From there he proceeded to Somalia, Tanzania, Mozambique and Angola where he was greeted by crowds as a hero for Cuba's role in opposing apartheid South Africa.[240] Throughout much of Africa he was hailed as a friend to national liberation from foreign dominance.[241] This was followed with visits to Berlin and Moscow.[242]

There is often talk of human rights, but it is also necessary to talk of the rights of humanity. Why should some people walk barefoot, so that others can travel in luxurious cars? Why should some live for thirty-five years, so that others can live for seventy years? Why should some be miserably poor, so that others can be hugely rich? I speak on behalf of the children in the world who do not have a piece of bread. I speak on the behalf of the sick who have no medicine, of those whose rights to life and human dignity have been denied.
— Fidel Castro's message to the UN General Assembly, 1979[243]

In 1977 the Ethio-Somali War broke out over the disputed Ogaden region as Somalia invaded Ethiopia; although a former ally of Somali President Siad Barre, Castro had warned him against such action, and Cuba sided with Mengistu Haile Mariam's Marxist government of Ethiopia. He sent troops under the command of General Arnaldo Ochoa to aid the overwhelmed Ethiopian army. After forcing back the Somalis, Mengistu then ordered the Ethiopians to suppress the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, a measure Castro refused to support.[244] Castro extended support to Latin American revolutionary movements, namely the Sandinista National Liberation Front in its overthrow of the Nicaraguan rightist government of Anastasio Somoza Debayle in July 1979.[245] Castro's critics accused the government of wasting Cuban lives in these military endeavors; the anti-Castro Center for a Free Cuba has claimed that an estimated 14,000 Cubans were killed in foreign Cuban military actions.[246] When U.S. sta

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Flickr President Mahama at inauguration of Guinea's Alpha Conde

President JD Mahama with Hajia Andre Toure, the widow of Guinea's first President, Ahmed Sekou Toure, in her home, which used to be the Office of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah when he served as co-president of Guinea.
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Flickr President Mahama at inauguration of Guinea's Alpha Conde

President JD Mahama with Hajia Andre Toure, the widow of Guinea's first President, Ahmed Sekou Toure, in her home, which used to be the Office of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah when he served as co-president of Guinea.
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Flickr President Mahama at inauguration of Guinea's Alpha Conde

President JD Mahama with the widow of Guinea's former leader, Ahmed Sekou Toure, during a courtesy call on her in Conakry.
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Flickr President Mahama at inauguration of Guinea's Alpha Conde

Mohammed, son of Guinea's Ahmed Sekou Toure, welcoming President Mahama to their home during a courtesy call on her mother, Hajia Andre Toure, by President Mahama.
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Flickr Sékou Touré
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CCAFS West Africa communications officer during a visit to Fatick FM radio station.

Photos taken 29-30 September in Kaffrine and Niakhar, Senegal. Learn more about this work

Photo: V. Meadu (CCAFS).

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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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Flickr FIPAO 2015
Tags: africa   west   csa   ccafs   
"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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"Foire de l'Innovation Paysanne en Afrique de l'Ouest". Photo: Sékou Touré, Maïmouna Fané (CCAFS W.A).
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Flickr 1984 0110 DIA G53-C016

1984 Janvier, entre le tremblement de terre et le DC de Sékou Touré. (Tribute to the mondial 2014)
Please don't use this image on websites, blogs or other media without my explicit permission.
© All rights reserved

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Flickr Aéroport de Conakry
Tags: aéroport   conakry   guinée   sekoutoure   
image de l´aéroport de Conakry. Appréciez le niveau de développement. Sur le tarmac, l´avion du Roi Mohamed VI, lors de sa visite en Guinée.

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Flickr Salif Keita | Foto: © Eric Froissard · Todas las Fotos del concierto: http://www.ericmacpix.com/salif-keita-niceto-club/ | Niceto Club - Buenos Aires.
Tags: africa   buenosaires   exposition   mali   ml   kora   facebook   afrique   gotanproject   mandjou   soro   mli   ngoni   mandingue   philippecohensolal   lesambassadeurs   continentsetpays   sorykandiakouyaté   sékoutouré   talétour2013   alafon   lavozdoradadeáfrica   lerailband   
Salif Keita | Foto: © Eric Froissard · Todas las Fotos del concierto: www.ericmacpix.com/salif-keita-niceto-club/ | Niceto Club - Buenos Aires. Salif Keita
Niceto Club - Buenos Aires.
TALÉ Tour 2013
Con el apoyo de: Instituto Francés y de Embajada de Francia

Salif Keita, a los 63 años, es una leyenda viva. No sólo por su voz y su carrera, sino también por su increíble historia personal.

Los musicos del Grupo: Djessou Mory Kante (guitarra), Harouna Samake (calabaza), Mamadou Kone (percusiones), Mamadou Kone "Prince" (calabaza), Morike Keita (teclados), N´Goni (calabaza), Salif Keita (cantante).

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Flickr Sekou Toure Way, Moshi, Tanzania
Tags: world   travel   tour   safari   cycle   samt   mediadump   mediadumpsamtst   
A picture from our world tour by bike, from media-dump.samt.st/safari view and subscribe to the blog here: blog.samt.st
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Flickr Sekou Toure Way, Moshi, Tanzania
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A picture from our world tour by bike, from media-dump.samt.st/safari view and subscribe to the blog here: blog.samt.st
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Flickr Sekou Toure-Andre


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Flickr Sekou Toure & Louis Farakan


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Flickr 43rd Council Meeting
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L-R: Robert van de Berg, Director, GEF Evaluation Office; Sekou Toure, GEF Secretariat; Naoko Ishii, GEF CEO and Chairpersonl; Co-chair, Raimundo Lopes, Guinea-Bissau; Gustavo Fonseca, GEF Secretariat

Photograph(s) courtesy of IISD/Earth Negotiations Bulletin
View more photos from this meeting: www.iisd.ca/gef/council43/

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Flickr Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and Ahmed Sekou Toure, Co-Presidents of the People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea. Nkrumah lived in Guinea after the CIA-backed coup in Ghana in February 1966.
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Nkrumah and Toure in Guinea during the late 1960s.
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Flickr One Look Make-Over
Tags: makeovercontest   uslmagazine   
Photo shoot for USL Magazine, July 2012
MODEL Tabitha Middleton, MUA Natalie Hayes, HAIR STYLIST Tamiko Kirk, WARDROBE STYLIST Lia Miller and CLOTHING DESIGNER Joshua Brown and Sekou Toure from The Big October.

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Flickr IMAG0022

The three giants: MLK, Malcohm X and Sekou Toure
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Flickr The King

My Guinean colleagues and I did not want to pass up on the opportunity to see the Sosso Balafon. A mythical musical instrument that Kouyate the griot, a poet, played in 1250AD for the founder of the Mandingue empire, Sundjiata Keita. We asked to see it and was told it was complicated but possible. First we called upon the doyen who as the descendant of the king had the decision in this. El hadj Djontan Madi Keita fought in the Second World War for the French. He told us how during his training the instructors had taught him never to look at the men he shot lest he be overcome by pity He explained how when they had fought through France they were ordered to stay in Belfort as the French did not want colonial troops going into Germany. He told us how he had been to UNESCO in Paris to present the balafon and how he had convinced President Sekou Toure not to take it from Niagassolo. After a while he gave us his blessing and told us to see the family of griots who held the balafon.
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Flickr The King

My Guinean colleagues and I did not want to pass up on the opportunity to see the Sosso Balafon. A mythical musical instrument that Kouyate the griot, a poet, played in 1250AD for the founder of the Mandingue empire, Sundjiata Keita. We asked to see it and was told it was complicated but possible. First we called upon the doyen who as the descendant of the king had the decision in this. El hadj Djontan Madi Keita fought in the Second World War for the French. He told us how during his training the instructors had taught him never to look at the men he shot lest he be overcome by pity He explained how when they had fought through France they were ordered to stay in Belfort as the French did not want colonial troops going into Germany. He told us how he had been to UNESCO in Paris to present the balafon and how he had convinced President Sekou Toure not to take it from Niagassolo. After a while he gave us his blessing and told us to see the family of griots who held the balafon.
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Flickr Guinea 0270 m

GUINEA CIRCA 1979: stamp printed by Guinea, shows Players and Sekou Toure cup, circa 1979
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Flickr Guinea 0171 m

GUINEA CIRCA 1979: stamp printed by Guinea, shows Sekou Toure cup, circa 1979
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Flickr Guinea Conakry 2011
Tags: africa   newspaper   nelson   mandela   afrique   sekou   touré   guinéeguineaconakry   

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Flickr African Leader President Sekou Toure Visits the American South - Ebony Magazine, February, 1960
Tags: old   people   black   history   vintage   magazine   print   scans   60s   african   negro   scan   historic   retro   ephemera   nostalgia   american   historical   americana   colored   1960s   magazines   advertisements   articles   folks   oldphotos   sixties   civilrights   journalism   newsclipping   blackhistory   1960   vintagephotos   africans   africanamericanhistory   negroes   peopleofcolor   vintagephotographs   vintagemagazine   coloredpeople   negrohistory   republicofguinea   blackpress   sekoutoure   blacknews   africanleader   
Click the "All Sizes" button above to read an article or to see the image clearly.

I thought others might appreciate these tidbits of forgotten history of People of Color.

Please feel free to leave any comments or thoughts or impressions... I look forward to reading them!

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Flickr talking drums 1984-04-09 The military - servants or masters Guinea's post Sekou Toure coup
Tags: africa   news   history   magazine   guinea   media   military   politics   culture   ghana   1984   westafrica   nigeria   publishing   journalism   dissent   coup   toli   talkingdrums   
The military - servants or masters Guinea's post Sekou Toure coup
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Flickr Ahmed Sékou TOURE 2


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Flickr Ahmed Sékou TOURE 1


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Flickr Ahmed Sekou TOURE


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Flickr Comrade President Ahmed Sekou Toure (1922-1984) was the founder and leader of the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDF). He led the Guinean people in the national liberation struggle of the 1950s and towards Pan-Africanism between 1958-1984.
Tags: president   ahmed   toure   sekou   
President Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea-Conakry, West Africa. He was the founder and leader of the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG).
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Flickr President Ronald Reagan greets Guinea President Ahmed Sekou Toure at the White House prior to a meeting in the Oval Office on June 30, 1982. Toure led his nation's liberation struggle that gained independence in October 1958. --- Image by © Bettmann/CORBI
Tags: ronald   1982   with   meeting   reagan   ahmed   toure   in   sekou   
President Ahmed Sekou Toure was the leader of the West African state of Guinea where he headed the national liberation struggle that triumphed in October 1958. He sought to build socialism in Guinea until his death in 1984.
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Flickr Photograph of Guinean President Ahmed Sekou Toure, Kwame Nkrumah and others. Both Toure and Nkrumah were leading political figures in the national liberation struggles for Pan-Africanism during the post war period.
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Anti-colonial leaders President Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea-Conakry and President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.
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Flickr Former Guinean President Ahmed Sekou Toure and Madame Toure while on a state visit to the United States during the early years of national independence. The West African state had been a French colony. Toure founded and led the Democratic Party of Guinea.
Tags: madame   with   president   toure   sekou   
President Ahmed Sekou Toure and Madame Toure in the United States during the early independence years.
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Flickr Pan-African leader and President of the Republic of Guinea, Ahmed Sekou Toure, having dinner with the leader of the People's Republic of China and head of the Communist Party of China on September 12, 1960.
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President Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea and Chairman Mao of the People's Republic of China on September 12, 1960.
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Flickr The front cover of Ebony Magazine in February 1960 featuring Guinean President Ahmed Sekou Toure. Toure was the founder and leader of the Democratic Party of Guinea which won independence in 1958 from France.
Tags: madame   president   ahmed   toure   sekou   
President Ahmed Sekou Toure and Madame Toure on the cover of Ebony magazine for February 1960.
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Flickr Ahmed Sékou TOURE 1


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Flickr Ahmed Sékou TOURE 1


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Flickr Toure_004
Tags: 1960s   westafrican   waxprint   pagne   commemerative   
C. 1960-61, UK for Guinean market. Single sided "Fancy" print.

Sekou Toure Guinea Guinee

UK Made: ELSON & NEILL A 1?301



==Elson & Neill African print code numbers==

My collection includes
*"Elson & Neill A10768” Tubman green
*"Elson & Neill A10282” Modibo Keita tux/Maps of Mali
*"Elson & Neill A1?301 U.K. REGD. DES No” Selou Toure / Maps of Guinea
Even if the number of the last is illegible, the sylistic similarity indicates these are two of a series, so A10301 is a good guess.


The Smithsonian has a similar piece (With a portrait of US President Kennedy) with mark: "ELSON & NEILL A11083 PRESIDENT KENNEDY"
This has a collected date -- in West Africa -- of 1963

This suggests -- assuming thes numbers are successive -- that they all date from prior to 1963. The Mali & Guinea examples have to date from 1959/60 or later, and both well known photos of the independece leaders date from 1959-61. The Tubman photo could be from anytime in the 1950s or 60s. If the code numbers are successive, 1962 would be a good guess, while 1960 would be a good guess for the Mali and Guinea examples.

While "U.K. REGD. DES No" must be U.K Registered Design Number", the "A" prefex, as well as the low numbers, (reg design numbers for printed textiles from the 1880s are higher than this) indicate these are company stock numbers from Elson & Neill Limited, a now defunct textile manufacturer in Manchester/Macclesfield.

Holdings in the Victoria & Albert Museum have examples from of Elson & Neill with stock numbers: one from 1913 has the code "90557". The Historisch Museum Deventer (Holland) has several examples specifically printed for the African market, with numbers A4885, A4605, A4598, each also prefixed by a four digit number. The Museum only gives a date range of 1931 to 1967.

This is a good indication the "A" prefix is for Africa market textiles.


A Minneapolis Institute of Arts African piece, dated 1970, is also printed as Elson & Neill manufacture, but no stock number is indicated.


==Examples==

Commemorative Political Textile - Wrapper

Smithsonian Institution, NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Collected by Dr. Ernest W. Lefever in 1963
ACCESSION NUMBER: 400185
CATALOG NUMBER: E427926-0

collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:nmnhant...



Minneapolis Institute of Arts
Eye Target (#DW-56)
Accession Number:
2009.83.2
www.artsconnected.org/resource/111742/eye-target-dw-56




Victoria & Albert Museum

Sample
Museum number:
T.128-2004
collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O103476/sample/

Furnishing fabric
Museum number:
CIRC.430-1966
collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O270547/furnishing-fabric/




Historisch Museum Deventer

Elson & Neill Ltd., Manchester nr:8383 A4605
15: bundel lapjes met etiket: Elson & Neill Ltd., Manchester nr:8383 A4605 .
16: bundel lapjes met zelfde etiket als .15. nr: 8391 A4885 .
17: bundel lapjes met zelfde etiket als .15. nr: 8061 A4598 .
18: bundel lapjes met zelfde etiket als .15. nr: 9163 A4898 .


www.historischmuseumdeventer.nl/detail?id=6510##/detail?i...







Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Tomathon - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Tomathon
Flickr Toure_003
Tags: 1960s   westafrican   waxprint   pagne   commemerative   
Commemorative wraps (Pagnes) printed on wax fabric in the 1960s. Guinean

Sekou Toure Guinea Guinee

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Tomathon - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Tomathon
Flickr Toure_002
Tags: 1960s   westafrican   waxprint   pagne   commemerative   
Commemorative wraps (Pagnes) printed on wax fabric in the 1960s. Guinean

Sekou Toure Guinea Guinee

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Tomathon - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Tomathon
Flickr Toure_001
Tags: 1960s   westafrican   waxprint   pagne   commemerative   
Commemorative wraps (Pagnes) printed on wax fabric in the 1960s. Guinean

Sekou Toure Guinea Guinee

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Tomathon - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Tomathon
Flickr Cuban leader Fidel Castro greets former Guinea President Ahmed Sekou Toure and former Presidents Agostino Neto of Angola and Luis Cabral of Guinea-Bissau during the Non-Aligned Movement Summit in Cuba in 1979.
Tags: agostino   castro   fidel   neto   toure   sekou   
Fidel Castro greets Ahmed Sekou Toure , Agostino Neto and Luiz Cabral.
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Pan-African News Wire File Photos - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Pan-African News Wire File Photos
Flickr African leaders Sekou Toure of Guinea, Tubman of Liberia and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in the late 1950s.
Tags: ghana   liberia   toure   tubmanandnkrumahfromguinea   
Three leaders of independent Africa: Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea-Conakry, Tubman of Liberia and Dr. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. The photo was probably taken in 1959.
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Pan-African News Wire File Photos - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Pan-African News Wire File Photos
Flickr Guinea, Moschee 09-03-05
Tags: guinea   mosque   
Conakry Grand Mosque was built by Ahmed Sékou Touré. It is the largest in West Africa. Ahmed Sékou Touré was an African political leader and President of the Republic of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984.
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by AchimF - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - AchimF
Flickr Guinean state funeral for former military leader Lansana Conte. Junior army officers staged a coup a few hours after his death on December 23, 2008.
Tags: guinea   state   funeral   
State funeral for the late military leader Lansana Conte who ruled the country since 1984 after the death of the first President Ahmed Sekou Toure.
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Pan-African News Wire File Photos - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Pan-African News Wire File Photos
Flickr Guinean Capt. Camara and Prime Minister Souare during happier times. Capt. Camara led a coup against the government after the death of Lansana Conte.
Tags: guinea   coup   
Guinea coup has seen the rise of lower junior army officers as in the coup of 1984, after the death of President Ahmed Sekou Toure, leader of the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG).
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Pan-African News Wire File Photos - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Pan-African News Wire File Photos
Flickr Prd Sekou Toure


Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by tellydiallo2010 - View

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Flickr President Ahmed Sekou Toure (1922-1984) of Guinea-Conakry at the United Nations in 1960. Toure led the Democratic Party of Guinea until his death in March 1984.
Tags: ahmed   toure   sekou   
President Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea.
Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by Pan-African News Wire File Photos - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Pan-African News Wire File Photos
Flickr SEKOU TOURE
Tags: ast   astgn   

Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by freemc2001 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - freemc2001
Flickr 1960 New York president Sekou Toure et Nelson Rockefeller admirent D'mBa, le plus grand masque du monde qui symbolise la fecondite chez les Baga - Copy (2)
Tags: ast   astgn   
Avec Rockfeller
Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by freemc2001 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - freemc2001
Flickr Dalaba Villa

The colonial administrative villa in Dalaba, un-used since the time of Sekou Toure but with all it's moulding ornamentation still intact
Recent Updated: 9 years ago - Created by safiakou - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - safiakou
Flickr Sekou Toure & Louis Farakan
Tags: people   
1984
Recent Updated: 10 years ago - Created by simba_pictures - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - simba_pictures
Flickr Blue Dome Church
Tags: blue   church   dome   mozambique   maputo   hotelavenida   geolat2597502   geolong3259361   
Blue domed church beside Hotel Avenida. I think the street is Av. Ahmed Sekou Toure.
Recent Updated: 10 years ago - Created by JSpencerUNC - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - JSpencerUNC
Flickr Villa Algarve
Tags: maputo   leonardosolano   villaalgarve   ahmendsekoutoure   
Police head quarters during colonial period- before the portuguese were kicked out! :)
Now it is just ruins. We lived right across the street from it. I was allowed to go in once and took these pictures.

Recent Updated: 11 years ago - Created by Leonardo S - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Leonardo S
Flickr sekou-toure-1


Recent Updated: 12 years ago - Created by yamoudou2005 - View

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Flickr
Tags: civilwar   nathanbedfordforrest   selmaalabama   battleofselma   campboiro   ahmedsékoutouré   fayaorarosetoure   
This bronze bust of Nathan Bedford Forrest was stolen from Old Live Oak Cemetery in Selma Alabama. In May of 2015, the monument has been restored with a new bust.
Recent Updated: 36 years ago - Created by billyjana80 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - billyjana80