Sign in with Twitter

Type the topic in any language to check out real time results of Who's Talking on Social Media Sites


Trending Topics: #怪獣たちの島に潜入しよう正論と話題府緑化補助金フジ武田祐子アナB組2位死守H5型保守主義者の愛憎昭恵リスク安倍昭恵氏のフェイスブック星野真里イスラム女子ちゅーするよ行政処分勧告中央線のグリーン車計画高橋留美子先生の本当のすごさフレンズたち米下院主力行要請初写真集細貝獲得決定的想定外の攻防昭恵夫人口利きの証拠#ワールドカップアジア最終予選東京人仮面ライダー電王世界結核デー学校終わり#stby954#Nissy#tokyounited#古楽の楽しみ#sound_tripperきんようび#chronos菅長官Season蝉ドン思惑外れ勝ち点3ウクライナアニメソング#あさイチゴリラズ#ZIP今ちゃん#TinyTravelerTalkOregon and Michigan#camrenisoverpartyParaguai x Equador#URUxBRA#WhatDoIGottaDoAdrian Elms#MOABSLuxe#UpdateA90sMovie#WalesHRAwards#AskInglesRevised GOP#TúMeEnamorasCon#wowsimonUhtredDunk Contest 2017Ivan KoloffChris SullivanOroville Dam updateHunter McGradyGeorge The Animal SteelePokemon Go Gen 2Robert HarwardLos Angeles WeatherWeather Los AngelesSteve Irwinlisa marie presleyMark CubanDonald GloverNba All Star Game 2017spacex launchAll Star Weekend 2017Congressional Black Caucussan diego weatherRush LimbaughMore

Most recent 100 results returned for keyword: Congressional Black Caucus (Search this on MAP)

Flickr kimball_war_memorial_building copy-b
Tags: mcdowellcounty   wv   westvirginia   kimball   memorialbuilding   africanamericanmemorial   
The Kimball World War Memorial was the first memorial built in the United States to honor African-American veterans of World War I. The Classical Revival style building designed by noted West Virginia architect Hassel T. Hicks of Welch was completed in 1928 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. The War Memorial became the headquarters of the nation’s first all-black American Legion Post and hosted some of the state’s first NAACP meetings.

Unknown today by many Americans, over 400,000 African Americans volunteered to serve in combat during the Great War. 50,000 of these soldiers actually served overseas-one-third of the total U.S. fighting forces-and 1,500 of these came from McDowell County. While discriminatory military practices were still prevalent, when allowed to fight, these black soldiers did so with honor, demonstrating their valor in combat with French forces at the Battles of Argonne, Chateau Thierry, St. Mihies, Champagne, Vosges, and Metz, for which 171 were awarded the Croix de Guerre for “gallantry in action”. 1,300 were eventually commissioned as officers in the U.S. Military for their service during World War I.

The War Memorial was designed in the classical Greek style by Hassell T. Hicks, a noted Welch architect, also a World War I veteran, and was dedicated on February 11, 1928. Originally the building housed an auditorium with a small stage, a library, meeting rooms, kitchen facilities, a billiard room and a trophy room, with displays of plaques dedicated to veterans, and wartime memorabilia. It was a multi-purpose facility, hosting such diverse activities as American Legion meetings, high school proms, wedding receptions, and performances by Cab Calloway and other well-known entertainers of the day.
The Kimball War Memorial was a focal point of community life for decades, serving as a cultural and social center for all residents of McDowell County.

Over time, deterioration, abandonment and finally a fire in 1991 crippled the beautiful structure, leaving only its exterior shell.

For over 30 years, a group of citizens had been pursuing the dream of restoring the Memorial to its former glory. With the financial and other support of many, the dream became a reality. The memorial was the recipient of a 2007 Honor Award presented to by the West Virginia Chapter of the America Institute of Architects and was also featured in the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s forum as a Preservation Solution. The Memorial was also honored in 2006 with a Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust Award.

Presently, The Kimball World War Memorial was serves as a living community resource and is available for a wide variety of functions, including tours, training sessions, classes, organizational meetings, organizational dinners and receptions as well as social events.

The two-story, light-brick building stands on a sturdy cut-stone foundation. Its plan is a rectangular box with a small entrance vestibule on the east side. The facade faces south and displays a monumental classical portico centered in the middle. Four terra cotta columns stand on brick bases and support a tall terra cotta entablature. Laurel reliefs decorate the frieze section over each column. A band of dentils extends across the portico just under the cornice. Historic photographs of the building reveal a terra cotta extension over the entablature that held the words "World War Memorial". This section of the entablature has crumbled and no longer displays the building's name. A simple terra cotta parapet at the roofline flanks the centered portico and extends along the other two sides of the building.

Three pairs of door openings stand between the columns and open onto a shallow balcony, each separated by the columns' brick bases. The original doors were wood-framed, multipaned double doors with metal-framed transoms. On the second level centered over each doorway are tall, metal-framed multipaned windows in arched openings. flanking the portico are single multipaned windows on each level.

The Memorial Building's main entrance stands on the east side behind an entrance vestibule that has an arched opening. Concrete stairs with wrought iron railings ascend from the street level to the entrance. An arched window identical to the windows on the facade, is located directly above the entrance. The rear of the building holds two second-level doorways that open at ground level to the steep grade behind. The building's west side simply has a narrow chimney and two windows on each level.

Recent Updated: 1 year ago - Created by cathead77 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - cathead77
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Breakfast
Tags: nul   gediyonkifle   photogkcom   congressionalblackcaucusbreakfast   

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - National Urban League Washington Bureau (NULWB)
Flickr Yvette Clarke
Tags: cbc   congressionalblackcaucus   washington   dc   usa   
On Sept., 9, 2009, members of the Congressional Black Caucus are joined by National Urban League President Marc Morial and NAACP President Ben Jealous in support of HR 3200, the health care reform bill at a press conference on Capitol Hill in Washington. (Lauren Victoria Burke)
Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by listsaytocomer - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - listsaytocomer
Flickr P092714LJ-0230
Tags: washington   districtofcolumbia   
Sept. 27, 2014
"Lawrence Jackson captured the First Lady backstage watching the President deliver remarks at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation's 44th Annual Legislative Conference Phoenix Awards Dinner in Washington, D.C."
(Official White House Photo by Lawrence Jackson)

This official White House photograph is being made available only for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the subject(s) of the photograph. The photograph may not be manipulated in any way and may not be used in commercial or political materials, advertisements, emails, products, promotions that in any way suggests approval or endorsement of the President, the First Family, or the White House.

Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by Obama White House - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Obama White House
Flickr 2014 Congressional Black Caucus Leaders of Democracy Luncheon
Tags: democracy   leaders   luncheon   blackcaucus   
2014 Congressional Black Caucus Leaders of Democracy Luncheon. by Jay Baker at Baltimore, MD.
Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by MDGovpics - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - MDGovpics
Flickr 2014 Congressional Black Caucus Leaders of Democracy Luncheon
Tags: democracy   leaders   luncheon   blackcaucus   
2014 Congressional Black Caucus Leaders of Democracy Luncheon. by Jay Baker at Baltimore, MD.
Recent Updated: 2 years ago - Created by MDGovpics - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - MDGovpics
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Events 2012
Tags: zane   colinpowell   mclyte   ledisi   rolandmartin   judgemathis   dominiquewilkins   tcapr   michelleobama   stenyhoyer   emanuelcleaver   nationalcongressofblackwomen   drefayewilliams   ivykpendleton   keshawalker   eldrinbell   jeancrusol   
Allegra McCullough, Charlene Frink, Ivy K Pendleton
Recent Updated: 4 years ago - Created by The Communications Agency | TCAPR Washington, DC - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - The Communications Agency | TCAPR Washington, DC
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Events 2012
Tags: zane   colinpowell   mclyte   ledisi   rolandmartin   judgemathis   dominiquewilkins   tcapr   michelleobama   stenyhoyer   emanuelcleaver   nationalcongressofblackwomen   drefayewilliams   ivykpendleton   keshawalker   eldrinbell   jeancrusol   
Book Signing A Good Girl's Guide to Public Relations Publicity and Marketing
Recent Updated: 4 years ago - Created by The Communications Agency | TCAPR Washington, DC - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - The Communications Agency | TCAPR Washington, DC
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Institute
Tags: black   institute   davidson   congressional   caucus   
Davidson students participated in a Congressional Black Caucus Institute summit in Charlotte during the DNC.
Recent Updated: 4 years ago - Created by DavidsonCollege - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - DavidsonCollege
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus. African American Civil War museum.
Tags: square   nashville   squareformat   iphoneography   instagramapp   uploaded:by=instagram   

Recent Updated: 5 years ago - Created by maybemccoy - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - maybemccoy
Flickr MLK & The Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: mlk   gediyonkifle   thecongressionalblackcaucus   

Recent Updated: 5 years ago - Created by mlkmemorialfoundation - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - mlkmemorialfoundation
Flickr MLK & The Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: mlk   gediyonkifle   thecongressionalblackcaucus   

Recent Updated: 5 years ago - Created by mlkmemorialfoundation - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - mlkmemorialfoundation
Flickr MLK & The Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: mlk   gediyonkifle   thecongressionalblackcaucus   

Recent Updated: 5 years ago - Created by mlkmemorialfoundation - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - mlkmemorialfoundation
Flickr MLK & The Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: mlk   gediyonkifle   thecongressionalblackcaucus   

Recent Updated: 5 years ago - Created by mlkmemorialfoundation - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - mlkmemorialfoundation
Flickr MLK & The Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: mlk   gediyonkifle   thecongressionalblackcaucus   

Recent Updated: 5 years ago - Created by mlkmemorialfoundation - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - mlkmemorialfoundation
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: washington   congress   
Rep. Emanuel Cleaver, II, D-Miss., the new chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus after the ceremonial swearing-in.
(Photo by Nina Lincoff, Medill News Service)

Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by Medill DC - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Medill DC
Flickr Lords of the Bling
Tags: minnesota   minneapolis   civilrights   
Congressional Black Caucus
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by IBNNEDITOR - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - IBNNEDITOR
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Tags: dc   washington   unitedstates   event   congressionalblackcaucusjazzconcert   
Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by michael starghill - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - michael starghill
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Tags: dc   washington   unitedstates   event   congressionalblackcaucusjazzconcert   
Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by michael starghill - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - michael starghill
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Tags: dc   washington   unitedstates   event   congressionalblackcaucusjazzconcert   
Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by michael starghill - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - michael starghill
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Tags: dc   washington   unitedstates   event   congressionalblackcaucusjazzconcert   
Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by michael starghill - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - michael starghill
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Tags: dc   washington   unitedstates   event   congressionalblackcaucusjazzconcert   
Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by michael starghill - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - michael starghill
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Tags: dc   washington   unitedstates   event   congressionalblackcaucusjazzconcert   
Congressional Black Caucus Jazz Concert
Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by michael starghill - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - michael starghill
Flickr Forty Third Congressional Black Caucus 2008


Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by Silencedogwood - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Silencedogwood
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: washingtondc   district   columbia   

Recent Updated: 6 years ago - Created by Brule Laker - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Brule Laker
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus meets with NASA (201001130003HQ)
Tags: washingtondc   dc   washington   nasa   congressionalblackcaucus   uscapitolbuilding   barbaralee   robertscott   melwatt   donaldpayne   donnaedwards   dianewatson   corrinebrown   usrepresentative   mikeforeman   charlesbolden   paulealers   sts129   donnachristensen   barrywilmore   robertsatcher   lelandmelvin   sts129postflight   randybresnick   
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, space shuttle crew STS-129 and members of the Congressional Black Caucus pose for a group photo at the Capitol Building, Wednesday, Jan. 13, 2010, in Washington. Back row from left to right: U.S. Rep Donna Edwards (D-MD), U.S. Rep Diane Watson (D-CA), NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, astronauts Leland Melvin, Mike Foreman, Robert Satcher, Barry Wilmore, Randy Bresnick, and U.S. Rep Mel Watt (D-NC). Front row from left to right: U.S. Rep Robert Scott (D-VA), U.S. Rep. Corrine Brown (D-Fla), U.S. Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA), U.S. Rep. Donna Christensen (D-VI) and U.S. Rep. Donald Payne (D-NJ). The crew of STS-129 presented the CBC with a montage commemorating their mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by NASA HQ PHOTO - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - NASA HQ PHOTO
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus meets with NASA (201001130002HQ)
Tags: washingtondc   nasa   congressionalblackcaucus   uscapitolbuilding   charlesbolden   paulealers   
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left standing, speaks to members of the Congressional Black Caucus during their weekly meeting at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, Wednesday, Jan. 13, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by NASA HQ PHOTO - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - NASA HQ PHOTO
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr IMG_0148
Tags: dcconventioncenter   congressionalblackcaucus39thannuallegislativeconferencewashington   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Barron's Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Barron's Photography
Flickr IMG_0128
Tags: dcconventioncenter   congressionalblackcaucus39thannuallegislativeconferencewashington   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Barron's Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Barron's Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: us   washington   districtofcolumbia   unitedstatesofamerica   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Joel Johnson Jr - J2 Photography
Flickr IMG_8980
Tags: dcconventioncenter   congressionalblackcaucus39thannuallegislativeconferencewashington   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Barron's Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Barron's Photography
Flickr IMG_8976
Tags: dcconventioncenter   congressionalblackcaucus39thannuallegislativeconferencewashington   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by Barron's Photography - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Barron's Photography
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Tags: dc   washington   september   2009   

Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by tombarnes20008 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - tombarnes20008
Flickr Members of the Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: sudan   darfur   capitolhill   congressionalblackcaucus   
Congressional Black Caucus Press Conference May 19 2009
Recent Updated: 7 years ago - Created by United to End Genocide - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - United to End Genocide
Flickr The USA President Barack Obama 2009
Tags: usa   college   tom   illustration   hope   comic   order   president   police   hyde   credit   american   malia   ann   tax   fraternal   obama   income   newton   dunham   audacity   occidental   the   barack   harkin   minow   歐巴馬   parkearned   
New hope in 2009
有段話我覺得不要翻成英文比較好,老美看了大概會不爽,這張圖我弄好後覺的很像黑人牙膏的mark說....TT我應該把它作成貼紙印出來的!以下就轉貼他的生平:
"Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).
Barack Obama



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

44th President of the United States
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 20, 2009
Vice President Joe Biden
Preceded by George W. Bush

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

United States Senator
from Illinois
In office
January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008
Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald
Succeeded by Roland Burris

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Member of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th district
In office
January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004
Preceded by Alice Palmer
Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[2]
Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)
Children Malia Ann (b. 1998)
Natasha (a.k.a. Sasha) (b. 2001)
Residence Chicago, Illinois (private)
White House, Washington, D.C. (official)
Alma mater Occidental College
Columbia University (B.A.)
Harvard Law School (J.D.)
Profession Community organizer
Attorney
Author
Professor
Politician
Religion Protestant Christian[3]
Signature
Website WhiteHouse.gov
This article is part of a series about
Barack Obama
Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate
Political positions · Public image · Family
2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign
Transition · Inauguration · US Presidency

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 until he resigned following his 2008 election to the presidency. He was inaugurated as President on January 20, 2009.

Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.

As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, Obama helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for U.S. military personnel returning from combat assignments in Iraq and Afghanistan
Early life and career
Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama
Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[4][5] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[6] a White American from Wichita, Kansas,[7][8][9] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married on February 2, 1961.[12] Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[11] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[13]

After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[14] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, until he was ten years old.

He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[15] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[16]


Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[17] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[18] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[19] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[20]

Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[21]

Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[22] He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[23] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[24][25] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[26][27]

After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[26][28] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[29] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[30] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[31]

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[32] and president of the journal in his second year.[33] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[34] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[35][36] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[32]

Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[33] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[37] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[37] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[37]

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[38][39]

For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching Constitutional Law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[40] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[26][41][42]

Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[26][43] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[26] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[26] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[26]


Political career

State legislator: 1997–2004
Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama
Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[44] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[45] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[46] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[47]

Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the General Election, and reelected again in 2002.[48] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[49][50]

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[51] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[46][52] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[53] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[54]


2004 U.S. Senate campaign
See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004
In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[55] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[56] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[57] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[58]

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers watching on PBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News and C-SPAN saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and confirmed his status as the Democratic Party's brightest new star.[61]

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Two months later and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[64] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[65]


U.S. Senator: 2005–2008
Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[66] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[67] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[68] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[69][70] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[71] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[72][73] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[74]


Legislation
See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[75]Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[76] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[77] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[78] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[79] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[80]

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[81] Obama is not hostile to Tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[82]

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[83] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[84] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[85] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[86] neither of which have been signed into law.


Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[87]Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[88] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[89] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[90][91] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[92]


Committees
Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[93] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[94] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[95] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[96][97][98][99]


2008 Presidential campaign
Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008
Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States
On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[100][101] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[102] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care.[103]


Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[104][105][106] On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[107]

A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. After a few initial contests, the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[108][109][110][111] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[112] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[113][114] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[115] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.

On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[116]


Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech.At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[117][118] On August 28, Obama delivered a speech to 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[119][120]

After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, there were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[121][122] In November, Obama won the presidency with 53% of the popular vote and a wide electoral college margin. His election sparked street celebrations in numerous cities in the United States[123] and abroad.


Election victory
Main article: Presidential transition of Barack Obama

President-elect Obama meets with President George W. Bush in the Oval Office, November 10, 2008.On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the general election with 365 electoral votes to McCain's 173[124] and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[125][126][127][128] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[129]

On January 8, 2009, the joint session of the U.S. Congress met to certify the votes of the Electoral College for the 2008 presidential election. Based on the results of the electoral vote count, Barack Obama was declared to have been elected President of the United States and Joseph Biden was declared to have been elected Vice President of the United States.[130]


Presidency
Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama
The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[131]

In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Global Gag Rule),[132] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[133] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[134] and reducing the secrecy given to presidential records,[135] and closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010, and "Immediate Review of All Guantánamo Detentions".


Political positions
Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama
A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[136] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[137] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[138]


Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[139] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[140] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[141] speaking out against the war.[142][143] On March 16, 2003, the day Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[144] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[145] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise.[146]

Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[147]

In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[148] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[149] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[150][151][152] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[153]

In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[154] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[155] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[156]


Obama speaking at a rally at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[157] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[158] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[159] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[160]

In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[161] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[162] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[163] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[164] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[165]

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[166] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[167] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[168] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[169] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[170]


Family and personal life
Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama

Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson, who later became his wife, when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[171] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[172] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[173] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[174] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[175] Because of Michelle Obama's employment with the University of Chicago, the Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[176]

Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[177]

Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[178] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[179][180]

In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[181] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[182]


Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[183]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations." he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[184] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[185] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[186] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[187] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[188] Obama's maternal and paternal grandfathers fought in World War II. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[189] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops.[190]

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[191] He is an avid sports fan. Obama follows the Chicago Bears, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Bulls and West Ham United F.C.[192][193][194][195] While he has never been a heavy smoker, Obama has tried to quit smoking several times, including a well-publicized and ongoing effort which he began before launching his presidential campaign.[196] Obama has said he will not smoke in the White House.[197]

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201]

Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), at least on a colloquial level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[202] After the APEC summit in November 2008, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono related a telephone conversation with Obama in Indonesian to Indonesian media. Obama had told Yudhoyono that he missed Indonesian food like Nasi Goreng, Bakso or Rambutan.[203]


Cultural and political image
Main article: Public image of Barack Obama
With his black Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[204] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[205]

Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[206] A popular catch phrase distilled the concept: "Rosa sat so Martin could walk; Martin walked so Obama could run; Obama is running so our children can fly."[207]


From left: Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter meet in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.Obama has been praised as a master of oratory on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[208][209] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music in a video produced by Will.i.am, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[210] and received an Emmy Award.[211] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his excellence is because the politician is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation, the desire to act morally and do good for others.[212] Obama used these communication skills in a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[213] he has suggested he will make a series of broadcast and internet addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[214]

Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[215] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[216] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then incumbent British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[217] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[218] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[219]

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of both of his books; for Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[220]

In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[221]


Notes
^ "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov.
^ a b "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com (August 8, 1961). Retrieved on 2008-12-12.
^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com (November 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2009-1-20.
^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", Politics, Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.
^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics" (Article), Special to the Star-Bulletin, Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on November 30 2008.
^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19
^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.
^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish", Politics, The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.
^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2008-11-08.
^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
^ a b Jones, Tim (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.
^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 9 April 2007.
^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.
^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.
^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.
^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.
^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.
^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students", Associated Press, Boston Globe (November 21, 2007). Retrieved on 4 January 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen", Washington Post. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm", New York Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.
^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum", CNN.com. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.
^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."
^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83", Columbia College Today. Retrieved on 9 June 2008.
^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 2001-05-09. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.
^ Issenberg, Sasha (2008-08-06). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
^ Scott, Janny (2007-10-30). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.
^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (2007-03-30). "Portrait of a pragmatist", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Lizza, Ryan (2007-03-19). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link), New Republic. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.
^ Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.
^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (2008-03-02). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer", Newsday, p. A06. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.
^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.
^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (2007-01-28). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kantor, Jodi (2007-01-28). "In law school, Obama found political voice", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kodama, Marie C (2007-01-19). "Obama left mark on HLS", The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mundy, Liza (2007-08-12). "A series of fortunate events", The Washington Post, p. W10. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Heilemann, John (2007-10-22). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&titl.... Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.
^ a b Butterfield, Fox (1990-02-06). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review", The New York Times, p. A20. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Ybarra, Michael J (1990-02-07). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 3. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Drummond, Tammerlin (1990-03-12). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times, p. E1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Evans, Gaynelle (1990-03-15). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama", Black Issues in Higher Education, p. 5. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (1990-04-18). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive), The Miami Herald, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008.
^ Aguilar, Louis (1990-07-11). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago"
^ Adams, Richard (2007-05-09). "Barack Obama", The Guardian. Retrieved on 26 October 2008.
^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". Retrieved on 2008-10-26.
^ a b c Scott, Janny (2008-05-18). "The story of Obama, written by Obama", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.
^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
^ Jarrett, Vernon (1992-08-11). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 23. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-.... Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Anderson, Veronica (September 27–October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43.
^ University of Chicago Law School (2008-03-27). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Miller, Joe (2008-03-28). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Holan, Angie Drobnic (2008-03-07). "Obama's 20 years of experience". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-10.<
^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (2007-02-10). "Obama got start in civil rights practice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Pallasch, Abdon M (2007-12-17). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 4. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "People" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune (1993-06-27), p. 9 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Business appointments" (paid archive), Chicago-Sun-Times (1993-07-05), p. 40. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Miner, Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.
^ "ARDC Individual Attorney Record of Public Registration and Public Disciplinary and Disability Information as of October 17, 2008 at 12:52:13 PM". Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission of the Supreme Court of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
^ Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Public Allies' History with Senator Barack and Michelle Obama". Public Allies. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (2007-04-03). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 14 January 2008. [dead link] White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.
^ Slevin, Peter (2007-02-09). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol", Washington Post. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-09-23). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics", Associated Press, CBS News (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 20 April 2008. "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video), CLTV, Chicago Tribune (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.
^ a b Scott, Janny (2007-07-30). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (2007-05-03). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.
^ Allison, Melissa (2000-12-15). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (2001-04-18). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.
^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2000-08-24). Archived from the original on 2000-04-12. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2004-10-09). Archived from the original on 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.. See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". and Scott, Janny (2007-09-09). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.
^ McClelland, Edward (2007-02-12). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural", Salon. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (2007-07-16). "Across the Divide", Newsweek, MSNBC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. and Wills, Christopher (2007-10-24). "Obama learned from failed Congress run", USA Today. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.
^ Calmes, Jackie (2007-02-23). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.
^ Tavella, Anne Marie (2003-04-14). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate", Daily Herald, p. 17. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (2003-06-29). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review", Chicago Tribune, p. 8. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Pearson, Rick (2003-07-17). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved on 1 June 2008.
^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.
^ Coffee, Melanie (2004-11-06). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat", Associated Press, HPKCC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.
^ Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-07). "Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Wallace-Wells, Ben (2007-04-01). "Obama's Narrator", The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-17). "From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat", New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Jackson, John S (August 2006). "The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race" (PDF), Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute, Southern Illinois University. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech", Chicago Magazine. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Obama, Barack (2004-07-27). "Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention" (text or video). BarackObama.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
^ . (2004-08-02). "Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights", Newsweek, pp. 48–51. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Samuel, Terence (2004-08-02). "A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats", U.S. News & World Report, p. 25. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Lizza, Ryan. "The Natural. Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?", The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 30, 33. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Davey, Monica (2004-07-26). "A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Leibovich, Mark (2004-07-27). "The other man of the hour", The Washington Post, p. C1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Milligan, Susan (2004-07-27). "In Obama, Democrats see their future", The Boston Globe, p. B8. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q. (2004-07-28). "Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Broder, David S. (2004-07-28). "Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes", The Washington Post, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Bing, Jonathan; McClintock, Pamela (2004-07-29). "Auds resist charms of Dem stars", Daily Variety, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.
^ "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Illinois", CNN (2004-06-25). Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (2004-08-09). "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star", Associated Press, Union-Tribune (San Diego). Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ Liam, Ford; David Mendell (2004-08-13). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal City", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois", CNN. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Slevin, Peter (2007-11-13). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff in Political Gambles", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.
^ "About Barack Obama". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "Breaking New Ground: African American Senators". U.S. Senate Historical Office. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. See also: Zeleny, Jeff (2005-06-26). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His Point—With Subtlety", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.
^ Nather, David (2008-01-14). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama", CQ Weekly. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. See also: Curry, Tom (2008-02-21). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal", MSNBC. Retrieved on 25 June 2008.
^ "Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007", National Journal (2008-01-31). Retrieved on 25 June 2008.
^ KnowLegis. "Power Rankings: Senate". Retrieved on 2008-09-07.
^ Mason, Jeff (2008-11-16). "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved on 2008-11-21.
^ Sidoti, Liz (2008-11-13). "Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday". Time. Time Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-11-22.
^ Baker, Peter (2008-11-14). "ON THE WHITE HOUSE; If the Senate Reconvenes, Two Seats May Be Empty". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on 2008-11-21.
^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act.". White House (2006-09-26).
^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (2005-05-12). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence", CBS 2 (Chicago) (2006-11-20). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
^ "Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office (2007-01-11). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: Lugar, Richard G; Barack Obama (2005-12-03). "Junkyard Dogs of War", Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ McCormack, John (2007-12-21). "Google Government Gone Viral", Weekly Standard. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. See also: "President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act". Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office (2006-09-26). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. and USAspending.gov
^ S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008 Govtrack.us, 2007-2008 (110th Congress)
^ McIntire, Mike (2008-02-03). "Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate", The New York Times. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Daniel Fisher (August 11, 2008). "November Election A Lawyer's Delight". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved on 2009-01-11.
^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (April 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. "The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo". International Rescue Committee (2007-01-05). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ Weixel, Nathaniel (2007-11-15). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel", The Hill. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Weixel, Nathaniel (2007-12-05). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation", The Hill. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. See also: "Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007", Federal Election Commission (2007-09-24). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Stern, Seth (2007-01-31). "Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation", CQPolitics.com, The New York Times. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (2007-01-31). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: "Honesty in Elections" (editorial), The New York Times (2007-01-31). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Krystin, E. Kasak (2007-02-07). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home", Medill News Service, The Times (Munster, Indiana). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee." U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (2007-01-30). "S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "Nunn–Lugar Report" (PDF). Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office (August 2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-30.
^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office (2007-10-01). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: Dine, Philip (2007-12-23). "Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges", St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases".
^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (2007-09-12). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran", CQ Today. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-12-20). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-08-02). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "Committee Assignments" (archive). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-12-09). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments", Associated Press, Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-11-15). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Baldwin, Tom (2007-12-21). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience", Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP", Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Goudie, Chuck (2006-01-12). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor", WLS-TV. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud", News24.com (2006-08-28). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.
^ Wamalwa, Chris (2006-09-02). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (2006-09-04). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007.
^ Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (February 10, 2007). "Obama: I'm running for president", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.
^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid", BBC News (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.
^ "Presidential Campaign Announcement" (video), Obama for America, Brightcove.TV (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.
^ "Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?", Washington Post. Retrieved on 14 April 2008. See also: Falcone, Michael (2007-12-21). "Obama's 'One Thing'", The New York Times. Retrieved on 14 April 2008.
^ Malone, Jim (July 2, 2007). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination", Voice of America. Retrieved on 14 January 2008.
^ Cummings, Jeanne (September 26, 2007). "Small Donors Rewri

Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by DJ XAVIOR - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - DJ XAVIOR
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus at Williams College
Tags: black   college   williams   congressional   caucus   

Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by Africana Studies at Williams College - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Africana Studies at Williams College
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus
Tags: democraticnationalconvention   

Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by wizardkitten - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - wizardkitten
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Jobs Initiative
Tags: cbc   congressionalblackcaucus   maxinewaters   crenshawchristiancenter   
People from throughout Los Angeles packed into the auditorium of the Crenshaw Christian Center for a town hall put on by the Congressional Black Caucus
Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by Neon Tommy - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Neon Tommy
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Foundation headquarters
Tags: washingtondc   dcist   dupontcircle   congressionalblackcaucus   massachusettsavenue   scottcircle   
Headquarters of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation at 1720 Massachusetts Avenue, NW between Scott Circle and Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congressional_Black_Caucus

Recent Updated: 8 years ago - Created by NCinDC - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - NCinDC
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Weekend


Recent Updated: 9 years ago - Created by conskeeted17 - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - conskeeted17
Flickr Congressional Black Caucus Annual Conference
Tags: apollo   alc   cleanenergy   apollochallenge   apolloalliance   jeromeringo   congressionalblackcaucusfoundation   

Recent Updated: 10 years ago - Created by Apollo Alliance - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Apollo Alliance
Flickr Congressional_Black_Caucus
Tags: cards   katrina   satire   games   parody   magiccards   

Recent Updated: 10 years ago - Created by Loki and Lex - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - Loki and Lex
Flickr congressional black caucus bldg
Tags: conferences   bookexpo   bookexpoamerica   bea2006   

Recent Updated: 10 years ago - Created by baratunde - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - baratunde