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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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Flickr HAPPY NEW YEAR 2015 WISHES TO ALL- Artist Anikartick,Chennai,Tamil Nadu,India
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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

Recent Updated: 2485 years ago - Created by ANIKARTICK ( T.Subbulapuram VASU,Andipatti,Theni ) - View

Copyright and permission to use should be sought to the author - ANIKARTICK ( T.Subbulapuram VASU,Andipatti,Theni )
Flickr Sometimes Friendship Is Thicker Than Blood .
Tags: story   jeans   nostradamus   sindhis   surengurbaxani   anilhirani   
lasting long living reliving beyond
actions deeds or words ..friendship
not ending like soapsuds ..genuine
friendship that might sound absurd
a sindhi a muslim made molded
from the essence of this very mud
I am writing this directly on Facebook as I mentioned time and again I use Facebook as a blog platform.. I pimp my Flickr blogs here but sometimes I blog here .
I have many Sindhi friends as I lived at Coaba though I am ashamed I cant speak the language as fluently as both my brothers Shakil Shakir and Firdos Shakir They speak Sindhi and sometimes sound and gesture emote like Pucca Sindhis ..
I once worked at Charagh Din my first salesman's job and here it was Sindhi Sindhi Sindhi... but that part of my life is another story.. My best friend Ramesh Mulchandani made me a Sindhi , making me gorge on Sindhi papad , Sindhi curry and breathing Sindhi .. Cheti Chand No Mela and celebrating Guru Nanik day..
But than I moved to Bandra leaving behind my Sindhi friends Sindhi ethos ..and I worked for a Sindhi boss a very Big Boss type but than again that is another long story I shall narrate on some other blog page .
I will start with an anecdote to introduce you to my next Sindhi friend a brother like no brother ..A film director who had worked with Mr Danny Denzongpa , impressed with my work and styling offered me an assignment for a South Indian actor I was given a nominal advance and I was to stitch some stuff and bring readymades at Mr Atul Kasbekars studio , the lady hero clothes were assigned to one of the top most lady designer of Bollywood .
I reached the studio with two suitcases of readymades taken from my Sindhi friend Anil Hirani the exceptional hero my story..he gave me most of the stuff on approval , he used to give me loads when I worked with Mr Govinda .. suitcases and I was prompt in returning the unused stuff and paying for the stuff the actor selected , whether the producer paid me or not I settled my bill at Nostradamus .. the most iconic jean tshirt boots jacket store on Bandra Hil Road belonging to the Hiranis .
I was Anils dads favorite , he would talk with me listen to me .
Well the photo session got over and I thought I will hand over my bill for the stuff I had made and for the stuff used for the shoot and believe it or not the director disappeared and I was stuck with just the nominal advance I did not get money for the stuff I had made nor the stuff used from my friend Anil Hiranis collection , all make up soiled .
I bought the stuff home called the director but ...the phone was off the hook the lady designer put her hands up as she wanted me to pick up the heros ready mades from Try Me that I had flatly refused .
I gave up hopes I had to return Anils stuff I told him my story and told Anil I would pay from my pockets the stuff that was used and soiled ..I asked him to give me time to pay for the stuff .. Anil called his sales boy asked him to take back all the stuff and he said to me Firoze you owe me nothing .. forget about it .. and I had tears in my eyes this was long way back.. and from that day till today I have been a close friend of Anil Hirani..
When I owed money to Anil my payment came late Anil never called me and one day Anil was in bed sick and I had got a payment I went to his house to give it to him , his mother admonished me politely ,, never to to do that again but I told her it had been delayed for sometime .. than she made me sit down and served me Sindhi breakfast.
Cut to 2015 ,, I had made some jeans for a a very important client , and after the jeans were made he insisted he wanted them jeanwashed ..I knew a few guys but they had closed down they did acid wash stonewashed etc .. I tried everywhere , another good friend tried but his laundry friend does bulk wash so after two weeks I got the jeans back.. And than my wise wife said why dont you talk to Anil Hirani , I did and Anil went out of his way , and I was with him today with the jeans outside Standard Chartered Bank Bandra , he spoke to his contact , and I took the jeans to a setup at Ghatkopar by ricksha and the guys will do it for me only because of Anil Hirani ,,
So on my way back from the laundry I met two sets of beggars at Ghatkopar I sad down shot their videos .. and once in the rickshah I called up Anil Hrani and thanked him .. so this is a simple story devoid of passion pathos or poetry ,, but this is a story of a great friend my Sindhi friend Anil Hirani I thanked him and here I must add when I go to Ajmer or Pushkar I pray for all of them,.
And I have another great Sindhi friend I have made his wedding wardrobe , and at his wedding at Nehru Platenarium the chief guest was Mr LK Advani and as I entered the venue in my Pathani turban and lots of jewelry I was immediately taken into custody by his bodyguards they thought I was a terrorist I had a silver stick in my hand that they pried open .. there was no knife in it , I kept telling them I was Suren Gurbaxani the grooms designer and friend and before I was to be handed over to the local cops Suren rushed in and bailed me out ,, there was no mobile phones those days ,, So my tryst with Sindhis ,,is as old as my own history ,, there are others too I am connected to here on Facebook and they have all contributed to my humanity ,,,Mr Romu Sippy Mr Raj Sippy Shaan Uttamsingh and the list is very long ..
So I will now blog this at Flickr Ello Tumblr and a shout out on Twitter ..and I am bad selfie taker .. and use a bad phone called Lumia 640 a godforsaken Window phone ,,

Recent Updated: 2 months ago - Created by firoze shakir photographerno1 - View

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Flickr Gudhi Padwa Photo contest!
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Contest No.84 based on Maharashtra’s most holy & popular festival Gudhi Padwa, this festival is also celebrate in different states of India with different names like it is called as Ugadi in Andhra Pradesh, Yugadi in Karnataka and Cheti Chand among Sindhi people. On this day a New Year is started as per Hindu calendar. People celebrates this festival with full of joy and happiness. Capture Gudhi Padwa celebration in your camera, submit in this contest and win exciting prizes from us. Winner will be decided on basis of Votes & expert opinion. First Winner will get 2 special T-shirts & Second winner will get 2 coffee Mugs. - See more at: halla.in/contest.php?contest_id=MTAx#sthash.jJPXV9Y5.dpuf
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Gudhi Padva (Marathi: गुढी पाडवा Guḍhī Pāḍavā also known as Ugadhi in Telugu), is the Sanskrit name for Chaitra Shukla Pratipada.[2] It is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar. This day is also the first day of Chaitra Navratri and Ghatasthapana also known as Kalash Sthapana is done on this day. The practice of raising the Gudhi was started by Shivaji Maharaj to welcome the new year and symbolizes victory "Vijay Dhwaj". Since then this culture of raising Gudhi's has been followed in and around the strong holds of the Maratha kingdom.

The word पाडवा(pāḍavā) or पाडवो(pāḍavo) comes from the Sanskrit word पड्ड्वा/पाड्ड्वो(pāḍḍavā/pāḍḍavo), which stands for the first day of the bright phase of the moon called प्रतिपदा (pratipadā) in Sanskrit.

In south India, first day of the bright phase of the moon is called pāḍya(Kannada: ಪಾಡ್ಯ, Telugu: పాడ్యమి, paadyami,Konkani: पाड्यॆ,ಪಾಡ್ಯ). Konkani Hindus variously refer to the day as संसर पाडवो or संसर पाड्यॆ (saṁsāra 'pāḍavo/ saṁsāra pāḍye),संसार (saṁsāra) being a corruption of the word संवत्सर (saṁvatsara). Konkani Hindus in Karnataka also refer to it as उगादि, ಯುಗಾದಿ(ugādi).

Guḍhī Pāḍavā in other languages, states and people[edit]
Known as Guḍhī Pāḍavā ("Gudhee Paadavaa") in Maharashtra, this festival is also known as[2]

Samvatsar Padvo among Hindu Konkanis of Goa and Konkani diaspora in Kerala[3]
Yugadi among the rest of Konkani diaspora in Karnataka and Ugadi in Andhra pradesh and Navreh or Navreh amongst Kashmiri Pandits
In other parts of India[2] this festival is celebrated during

Ugadi in Andhra Pradesh
Yugadi in Karnataka
Cheti Chand among the Sindhi people[4][5]
Etymology[edit]
The word Pāḍavā is derived from the Sanskrit word Pratipada[citation needed] for first day of a lunar month i.e. first day after new moon day (Amavasya). A Guḍhī is also hoisted on this occasion giving this festival its name. The term padva or padavo is also associated with Balipratipada the third day of Diwali[citation needed] which is another celebration that comes at the end of the harvesting season.

See also: Balipratipada
Significance[edit]
Astronomical[edit]
This new moon day has special meaning from Astronomy point of view. The Sun is supposed to be in first point of Aries, (Hamal) which is first sign of zodiac and is a natural beginning of spring. Many civilzations have known this. People of ancient Egypt knew this and Nowruz( literally "New Day" ) in Persia is also based on this observation. The Sun however may not be exactly in Aries due to Lunar month. This is adjusted by adding a "Adhik" (Literally an extra) Lunar month every three years to ensure New Year Day( "Gudhee Padwa") indeed matches observed season. See Panchang for details.

It has evolved into of many festivals Holi, Gudhee Padwa around this part of year in India It is one of the most famous harvesting festival in India.

Chronological[edit]
Being the first day of the first month of a year, Gudhi Padwa is the New Year's Day for Marathi people.[citation needed]

Agricultural[edit]
India is a predominantly agrarian society. Thus celebrations and festivals are often linked to the turn of the season and to the sowing and reaping of crops. This day marks the end of one agricultural harvest and the beginning of a new one. In this context, the Gudhi Padwa is celebrated at the end of the Rabi season. Guḍhī Pāḍavā is one of the Saadhe-Teen Muhurta (translation from Marathi: 3 and a half auspicious days) in the Indian Lunar calendar. The full list is as follows -

Gudhi Padwa- 1st Tithi of Chaitra (Bright Half)
Akshaya Tritiya- third Tithi (Lunar day) of Bright Half (Shukla Paksha) of the pan-Indian month of Vaishakha
Vijayadashami - 10th Tithi of Ashwin
Balipratipada - 1st Tithi of Kartika (Bright Half)
Historical[edit]
This day also commemorates the commencement of the Shaka calendar after Gautamiputra Satakarni, also known as Shalivahan defeated sakas in battle in 78 A.D.[6]

Religious[edit]
According to the Brahma Purana, this is the day on which Brahma created the world after the deluge and time began to tick from this day forth.[6]

Seasonal[edit]
On this day, the sun assumes a position above the point of intersection of the equator and the meridians. According to the Hindu calendar, this marks the commencement of the Vasanta ritu or the spring season.[6]

The Guḍhī[edit]

Gudhi
On Guḍhī Pāḍavā, a gudhi is found sticking out of a window or otherwise prominently displayed in traditional Maharashtrian households. Bright green or yellow cloth adorned with brocade (zari) tied to the tip of a long bamboo over which gaathi (sugar crystals), neem leaves[citation needed], a twig of mango leaves and a garland of red flowers is tied. A silver or copper pot is placed in the inverted position over it. Altogether, it is called as Gudhi. It is hoisted outside the house, in a window, terrace or a high place so that everybody can see it.

Some of the significances attributed to raising a Gudhi are as follows:

Maharashtrians also see the Gudhi as a symbol of victory associated with the conquests of the Maratha forces led by Chhatrapati Shivaji. It also symbolizes the victory of King Shalivahana over Sakas and was hoisted by his people when he returned to Paithan.[6]
Gudhi symbolizes the Brahmadhvaj (translation: Brahma’s flag) mentioned in the Brahma Purana, because Lord Brahma created the universe on this day. It may also represent Indradhvaj (translation: the flag of Indra).[6]
Historically, the Gudhi symbolizes Lord Rama’s victory and happiness on returning to Ayodhya after slaying Ravana. Since a symbol of victory is always held high, so is the gudhi (flag). It is believed that this festival is celebrated to commemorate the coronation of Rama post his return to Ayodhya after completing 14 years of exile.[6] So, people celebrated victory of lord Rama every year by raising Gudi. Gudi is symbol of victory of lord Rama
Gudhi is believed to ward off evil, invite prosperity and good luck into the house.[6]
The Gudhi is positioned on the right side of the main entrance of the house. The right side symbolizes active state of the soul.[2]

Festivities[edit]

Rangoli
On the festive day, courtyards in village houses will be swept clean and plastered with fresh cow-dung. Even in the city, people take the time out to do some spring cleaning. Women and children work on intricate rangoli designs on their doorsteps, the vibrant colours mirroring the burst of colour associated with spring. Everyone dresses up in new clothes and it is a time for family gatherings.

Traditionally, families are supposed to begin the festivities by eating the bittersweet leaves of the neem tree. Sometimes, a paste of neem leaves is prepared and mixed with dhane, gul/gur (known as jaggery in English), and tamarind. All the members of the family consume this paste, which is believed to purify the blood and strengthen the body’s immune system against diseases.

Maharashtrian families also make shrikhand and Poori or Puran Poli on this day. Konkanis make Kanangachi Kheer, a variety of Kheer made of sweet potato, coconut milk, jaggery, rice flour, etc. and Sanna.


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudi_Padwa

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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar, today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January (New Year's Day), as was the case with both the old Roman calendar and the Julian calendar that succeeded it. The order of months was January to December in the Old Roman calendar during the reign of King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and Macrobius, and has been in continuous use since that time. In many countries, such as the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the United States, 1 January is a national holiday.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, New Year's Day was variously moved, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. These New Year's Day changes were generally reversed back to January 1 before or during the various local adoptions of the Gregorian calendar, beginning in 1582. The change from March 25 – Lady Day, one of the four quarter days – to January 1 took place in Scotland in 1600, before the ascension of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 or the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707. In England and Wales (and all British dominions, including the American colonies), 1751 began on March 25 and lasted 282 days, and 1752 began on January 1.[2] For more information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

A great many other calendars have been in use historically throughout the world, some of which count years numerically, and others that do not. The expansion of Western culture during recent centuries has seen such widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar that its recognition and that of January 1 as the New Year has become virtually global. For example, at the New Year celebrations held in Dubai to mark the start of 2014, the world record was broken for the most fireworks set off in a single display,[3] which lasted for six minutes and saw the use of over 500,000 fireworks.

Nevertheless, regional or local use of other calendars persists, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In many places (such as Israel, China, and India), New Year's is also celebrated at the times determined by these other calendars. In Latin America, the observation of traditions belonging to various native cultures continues according to their own calendars, despite the domination of subsequent cultures. The most common dates of modern New Year's celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the Gregorian calendar.1 January: The first day of the civil year in the Gregorian calendar used by most countries.
Contrary to common belief in the west, the civil New Year of January 1 is not an Orthodox Christian religious holiday. The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar makes no provision for the observance of a New Year. January 1 is itself a religious holiday, but that is because it is the feast of the circumcision of Christ (8 days after his birth), and a commemoration of saints. While the liturgical calendar begins September 1, there is also no particular religious observance attached to the start of the new cycle. Orthodox nations may, however, make civil celebrations for the New Year. Those that adhere to the revised Julian calendar (which synchronizes dates with the Gregorian calendar), including Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Syria, and Turkey, observe both the religious and civil holidays on January 1. In other nations and locations where Orthodox churches still adhere to the Julian calendar, including Georgia, Jerusalem, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Ukraine, the civil new year is observed on January 1 of the civil calendar, while those same religious feasts occur on January 14 (which is January 1 Julian), in accord with the liturgical calendar.
The Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year, occurs every year on the new moon of the first lunar month, about the beginning of spring (Lichun). The exact date can fall any time between 21 January and 21 February (inclusive) of the Gregorian Calendar. Traditionally, years were marked by one of twelve Earthly Branches, represented by an animal, and one of ten Heavenly Stems, which correspond to the five elements. This combination cycles every 60 years. It is the most important Chinese celebration of the year.
The Vietnamese New Year is the Tết Nguyên Đán which most times is the same day as the Chinese New Year due to the Vietnamese using Chinese calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is Losar and falls from January through March.
February[edit]
Mesoamerican New Year (Aztec, etc.). February 23rd.[4]
March[edit]
Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox. Ancient celebrations lasted for eleven days.[5]
Nava (new) Varsha (year) is celebrated in India in various regions in March–April.
New Year's Day in the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar is on 14 March.
The Iranian New Year, called Nowruz, is the day containing the exact moment of the Northward equinox, which usually occurs on 20 or 21 March, commencing the start of the spring season. The Zoroastrian New Year coincides with the Iranian New Year of Nowruz and is celebrated by the Parsis in India and by Zoroastrians and Persians across the world. In the Bahá'í calendar, the new year occurs on the vernal equinox on 21 March, and is called Naw-Rúz. The Iranian tradition was also passed on to Central Asian countries, including Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs, and there is known as Nauryz. It is usually celebrated on 22 March.
The Balinese New Year, based on the Saka Calendar (Balinese-Javanese Calendar), is called Nyepi, and it falls on Bali's Lunar New Year (26 March in 2009). It is a day of silence, fasting, and meditation: observed from 6 am until 6 am the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection and as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. Although Nyepi is a primarily Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents of Bali observe the day of silence as well, out of respect for their fellow citizens. Even tourists are not exempt; although free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, and the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day. The only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles carrying those with life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth.
Ugadi, the Telugu and Kannada New Year, generally falls in the months of March or April. The people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in southern India celebrate the advent of New Year's Day in these months. This day is celebrated across entire Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as Ugadi (in Sanskrit, Yuga (era or epoch or year) + adi (the beginning or the primordial), start of a new year). The first month is Chaitra Masa. Masa means month.
Kashmiri Calendar, Navreh (New Year): 5083 Saptarshi/2064 Vikrami/2007–08 AD, 19 March. This holy day of Kashmiri Brahmins has been celebrated for several millennia.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated as the first day of the Hindu year by the people of Maharashtra, India. This day falls in March or April and coincides with Ugadi. (see: Deccan)
Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi/Gudi Padwa to mark the celebration of the Sindhi New Year.
The Thelemic New Year on 20 March (or on April 8 by some accounts) is usually celebrated with an invocation to Ra-Hoor-Khuit, commemorating the beginning of the New Aeon in 1904. It also marks the start of the twenty-two-day Thelemic holy season, which ends at the third day of the writing of The Book of the Law. This date is also known as The Feast of the Supreme Ritual. There are some that believe the Thelemic New Year falls on either 19, 20, or 21 March, depending on the vernal equinox, this is The Feast for the Equinox of the Gods which is held on the vernal equinox of each year to commemorate the founding of Thelema in 1904. In 1904 the vernal equinox was on a 21st, and it was the day after Aleister Crowley ended his Horus Invocation that brought on the new Æon and Thelemic New Year.
April[edit]
The Assyrian New Year, called Kha b'Nissan or Resha d'Sheeta, occurs on the first day of April.
The Thelemic New Year on April 8 which corresponds to the utterance of the Book of the Law in 1904.
Mid-April (Northern spring)[edit]
The new year of many South and Southeast Asian calendars falls between 13 and 15 April, marking the beginning of spring.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, on the first of Chithrai (சித்திரை)(13 or 14 or 15 April). In the temple city of Madurai, the Chithrai Thiruvizha is celebrated in the Meenakshi Temple. A huge exhibition is also held, called Chithrai Porutkaatchi. In some parts of Southern Tamil Nadu, it is also called Chithrai Vishu. The day is marked with a feast in Hindu homes and the entrance to the houses are decorated elaborately with kolams.
Punjabi/Sikh Vaisakhi is celebrated on 14 April in Punjab.
Nepali New Year is celebrated on the 1st of Baisakh Baisākh (12–15 April) in Nepal. Nepal follows Vikram Samvat (विक्रम संवत्) as an official calendar. (Not to be confused with Nepal Era New year)
Assamese New Year (Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu) is celebrated on 14–15 April in the Indian state of Assam.
Maithili New Year or Jude-Sheetal too fall on these days. It is celebrated by Maithili People all around the world.
Bengali New Year (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is celebrated on the 1st of Boishakh (14–15 April) in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Oriya New Year (Vishuva Sankranti) is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian state of Odisha.
Manipuri New Year or Cheirouba is celebrated on 14 April in the Indian State of Manipur with much festivities and feasting.
Sinhalese New Year is celebrated with the harvest festival (in the month of Bak) when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries). Sri Lankans begin celebrating their National New Year "Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද)" in Sinhala and "Puththandu (புத்தாண்டு)" in Tamil. However, unlike the usual practice where the new year begins at midnight, the National New Year begins at the time determined by the astrologers. Not only the beginning of the new year but the conclusion of the old year is also specified by the astrologers. And unlike the customary ending and beginning of the new year, there is a period of a few hours in between the conclusion of the Old Year and the commencement of the New Year, which is called the "nona gathe" (neutral period). During this time one is expected to keep off from all types of work and engage solely in religious activities. It will fall on 13 April for the year 2009.
Malayali New Year (Vishu) is celebrated in the South Indian state of Kerala in mid April.
Western parts of Karnataka where Tulu is spoken, the new year is celebrated along with Tamil/ Malayali New year 14 or 15 April, although in other parts most commonly celebrated on the day of Gudi Padwa, the Maharashtrian new year. In Kodagu, in Southwestern Karnataka, however both new years, Yugadi (corresponding to Gudi Padwa in March) and Bisu (corresponding to Vishu in around April 14 or 15th), are observed.
The Water Festival is the form of similar new year celebrations taking place in many Southeast Asian countries, on the day of the full moon of the 11th month on the lunisolar calendar each year. The date of the festival was originally set by astrological calculation, but it is now fixed on 13–15 April. Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but since the new year falls during the hottest month in Southeast Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The festival has many different names specific to each country:
In Burma it is known as Thingyan (Burmese: သင်္ကြန်; MLCTS: sangkran)
Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์) in Thailand
Pi Mai Lao (Lao:ປີໃໝ່ Songkan) in Laos
Chaul Chnam Thmey (Khmer: បុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មី ) in Cambodia.
It is also the traditional new year of the Dai peoples of Yunnan Province, China. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out, a tradition which all of these cultures share.
June[edit]
The Kutchi people celebrate Kutchi New Year on Ashadi Beej, that is 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. As for people of Kutch, this day is associated with beginning of rains in Kutch, which is largely a desert area. Hindu calendar month of Aashaadh usually begins on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
Odunde Festival is a celebration on the 2nd Sunday of June, where "Odunde" means "Happy New Year" in the Yorube Nigerian language.
Northern fall (autumn)[edit]
Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for 'head of the year') is a Jewish, two day holiday, commemorating the culmination of the seven days of Creation, and marking God's yearly renewal of His world. The day has elements of festivity and introspection, as God is traditionally believed to be assessing His creation and determining the fate of all men and creatures for the coming year. In Jewish tradition, honey is used to symbolize a sweet new year. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten with blessings recited for a good, sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.[6]
The Marwari New Year is celebrated on the day of the festival of Diwali, which is the last day Krishna Paksha of the Ashvin month & also the last day of the Ashvin month of the Hindu calendar.
The Gujarati New Year is celebrated the day after the festival of Diwali (which occurs in mid-fall – either October or November, depending on the Lunar calendar). The Gujarati New Year is synonymous with sud ekam, i.e. first day of Shukla paksha of the Kartik month, which is taken as the first day of the first month of the Gujarati lunar calendar. Most other Hindus celebrate the New Year in early spring. The Gujarati community all over the world celebrates the New Year after Diwali to mark the beginning of a new fiscal year.
The Nepal Era New year (see Nepal Sambat) is celebrated in regions encompassing original Nepal. The new year occurs in the fourth day of Diwali. The calendar was used as an official calendar until the mid 19th century. However, the new year is still celebrated by citizens of original Nepal, the Newars.
Some neo-pagans celebrate their interpretation of Samhain (a festival of the ancient Celts, held around 1 November) as a New Year's Day representing the new cycle of the Wheel of the Year, although they do not use a different calendar that starts on this day.
The now deceased Murador Aboriginal tribe of Western Australia celebrated New Years on what is known on present day calendars to be 30 October. A time of reconciliation and celebration of friendship, the Murador tribe were said to have placed great importance on the past as well as the year that was coming[7]
The French Revolutionary Calendar, in force in France from 1793 to 1805 and briefly under the Paris Commune in 1871, began the calendar year on the day of the Southward equinox - 22, 23, or 24 September.
Variable[edit]
The Islamic New Year occurs on 1 Muharram. Since the Muslim calendar is based on 12 lunar months amounting to about 354 days, the Muslim New Year occurs about eleven days earlier each year in relation to the Gregorian calendar, with two Muslim New Years falling in Gregorian year 2008.
Christian liturgical year[edit]
Main article: Liturgical year
The early development of the Christian liturgical year coincided with the Roman Empire (east and west), and later the Byzantine Empire, both of which employed a taxation system labeled the Indiction, the years for which began on September 1. This timing may account for the ancient church's establishment of September 1 as the beginning of the liturgical year, despite the official Roman New Year's Day of January 1 in the Julian calendar, because the indiction was the principal means for counting years in the empires, apart from the reigns of the Emperors. The September 1 date prevailed throughout all of Christendom for many centuries, until subsequent divisions eventually produced revisions in some places.

After the sack of Rome in 410, communications and travel between east and west deteriorated. Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church. Nevertheless, the principal points of development were maintained between east and west. The Roman and Constantinopolitan liturgical calendars remained compatible even after the East-West Schism in 1054. Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.

During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (30 November). According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at 4:00 pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2). By the time of the Reformation (early 16th century), the Roman Catholic general calendar provided the initial basis for the calendars for the liturgically-oriented Protestants, including the Anglican and Lutheran Churches, who inherited this observation of the liturgical new year.

The present-day Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar is the virtual culmination of the ancient eastern development cycle, though it includes later additions based on subsequent history and lives of saints. It still begins on 1 September, proceeding annually into the Nativity of the Theotokos (8 September) and Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) to the celebration of Nativity of Christ (Christmas), through his death and resurrection (Pascha / Easter), to his Ascension and the Dormition of the Theotokos ("falling asleep" of the Virgin Mary, 15 August). (This last feast is known in the Roman Catholic church as the Assumption.) The dating of "1 September" is according to the "new" (revised) Julian calendar or the "old" (standard) Julian calendar, depending on which is used by a particular Orthodox Church. Hence, it may fall on 1 September on the civil calendar, or on 14 September (between 1900 and 2099 inclusive).

The present-day Coptic Orthodox liturgical calendar reflects the same fundamental ancient structures, even though its early break from Eastern Orthodoxy in 452 shows evidence of a separate development. The Coptic calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar, which Emperor Augustus reformed in 25 BC to keep it forever in synch with the Julian calendar, but it is not identical to the Julian calendar. The Coptic liturgical new year, at the feast of Neyrouz, synchronized with the Julian September 1 at a different point from the Gregorian calendar, has therefore a different degree of separation today. Between 1900 and 2099, Neyrouz occurs on 11 September (Gregorian), with the exception of the year before Gregorian leap years, when it occurs on 12 September. (The Coptic year 1731 began in September 2013.) The Ethiopian Orthodox new year, Enkutatash, falls on the same date as Neyrouz. The Ethiopian calendar year 2006 began on 11 September 2013.

Historical European new year dates[edit]
During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire years began on the date on which each consul first entered office. This was probably 1 May before 222 BC, 15 March from 222 BC to 154 BC,[8] and 1 January from 153 BC.[9] In 45 BC, when Julius Caesar's new Julian calendar took effect, the Senate fixed 1 January as the first day of the year. At that time, this was the date on which those who were to hold civil office assumed their official position, and it was also the traditional annual date for the convening of the Roman Senate. This civil new year remained in effect throughout the Roman Empire, east and west, during its lifetime and well after, wherever the Julian calendar continued in use.

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with. After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that 1 January be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed] Later, however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on 25 March.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages in Europe a number of significant feast days in the ecclesiastical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church came to be used as the beginning of the Julian year:

In Modern Style[10] or Circumcision Style dating, the new year started on 1 January, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ.
In Annunciation Style or Lady Day Style dating the new year started on 25 March,[10] the feast of the Annunciation (traditionally nicknamed Lady Day). This date was used in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages and beyond.
Scotland changed to Modern Style new year dating on 1 January 1600, by Act of (the Scottish) Parliament on 17 December 1599.[10][11] Despite the unification of the Scottish and English royal crowns with the accession of King James VI and I in 1603, and even the union of the kingdoms themselves in 1707 (producing the United Kingdom), England continued using March 25 until after Parliament passed the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. This act converted all of Great Britain to use of the Gregorian calendar, and simultaneously redefined the civil new year to 1 January (except in Scotland). It went into effect on 3/14 September 1752.[10] Nevertheless, the UK tax year which begins on 6 April (March 25 + 12 days) still reflects its Julian calendar and new year heritage - the leap year difference of the calendars was adjusted for in 1800, but not again in 1900.
In Easter Style dating, the new year started on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter),[12] or sometimes on Good Friday. This was used all over Europe, but especially in France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. A disadvantage of this system was that because Easter was a movable feast the same date could occur twice in a year; the two occurrences were distinguished as "before Easter" and "after Easter".
In Christmas Style or Nativity Style dating the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany and England[citation needed] until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendémiaire, the first day of the first month.

Current readoptions of January 1[edit]
It took quite a long time before 1 January again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

CountryStart year[13][14]
Grand Duchy of Lithuania[15][16]1362
Venice1522
Sweden1529
Holy Roman Empire (~Germany)1544
Spain, Portugal, Poland1556
Prussia, Denmark[17] and Norway1559
France (Edict of Roussillon)1564
Southern Netherlands[18]1576
Lorraine1579
Dutch Republic1583
Scotland1600
Russia1700
Tuscany1721
Britain, Ireland and
British Empire
except Scotland1752
Greece1923
Turkey1926
Thailand1941
1 March was the first day of the numbered year in the Republic of Venice until its destruction in 1797, and in Russia from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar). 1 September was used in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.

Time zones[edit]
Because of the division of the globe into time zones, the new year moves progressively around the globe as the start of the day ushers in the New Year. The first time zone to usher in the New Year, just west of the International Date Line, is located in the Line Islands, a part of the nation of Kiribati, and has a time zone 14 hours ahead of UTC.[19][20][21] All other time zones are 1 to 25 hours behind, most in the previous day (31 December); on American Samoa and Midway, it is still 11 PM on 30 December. These are among the last inhabited places to observe New Year. However, uninhabited outlying U.S. territories Howland Island and Baker Island are designated as lying within the time zone 12 hours behind UTC, the last places on earth to see the arrival of 1 January. These small coral islands are found about midway between Hawaii and Australia, about 1,000 miles west of the Line Islands! This is because the International Date Line is a composite of local time zone arrangements, which winds through the Pacific Ocean, allowing each locale to remain most closely connected in time with the nearest or largest or most convenient political and economic locales with which each associates. By the time Howland island sees the new year, it is 2 AM on 2 January in the Line Islands of Kiribati.

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Flickr Rithvik Dhanjani - Sindhi actor - sindhi in bollywood - sindhi celebrity - sindhi tv artist - sindhi artist - sindhi performer - SINDHI SINDHI - SINDHI INDIAN SINGER - SINDHI COMEDIAN - SINDHI SONGS - SINDHI DHARAMSHALA - SINDHI EVENTS - SINDHI ORGANISER

Rithvik Dhanjani - Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi tv, Sindhi, master chander, Sindhi romantic song, Sindhi bhajan, Sindhi jhulelal bhajan, jhulelal bhagwan, jhulelal sai, Sindhi darbar, Sindhi dharamshala, Sindhi panchayat, pankaj mulchandani, Sindhi organiser, Sindhi event manager, Sindhi celebrities, anjana sukhani Sindhi, aftab shivdasani, jackky bhagnani, hansika motwani, Sindhi actor asrani, Sindhi kavi samelan, cheti chand hong kong, Sindhi mandir, jhulelal mandir, Sindhi sufi song, Sindhi shaadi song, Sindhi marriage song, Sindhi wedding song, Sindhi song live, Sindhi music India, Sindhi culture, chander Mulchandani, Sindhi singer Raipur, Sindhi singer Jaipur, Sindhi singer Kanpur, Sindhi singer Kota, Sindhi singer Indore, Sindhi singer Bhopal, Sindhi singer Ahmadabad, Sindhi singer Ulhasnagar, Sindhi singer Mumbai, Sindhi singer Katni, Sindhi singer Behragad, Sindhi singer Jalgoan, Sindhi singer Goa, Sindhi singer Kolkata, Sindhi playback singer, Sindhi singer Gwalior, Sindhi singer Bangkok, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Jakarta, Sindhi singer Singapore, Sindhi singer Malaysia, Sindhi singer China, Sindhi singer Kolhapur, Sindhi singer Nagpur, Sindhi singer Pune, Sindhi singer Bangalore, Sindhi singer Hyderabad, Sindhi singer Chennai, Sindhi singer Surat, Sindhi singer Lucknow, Sindhi singer Thane, Sindhi singer Vadodara, Sindhi singer Ghaziabad, mohit lalwani, pinky maidasani, sangeeta lalla, sangita lala, kajal chandiramani, payal bhatija, payal bathija, raj juriani, seema motwani, asrani, Sindhi singers, Sindhi female singer, Sindhi male singer, Sindhi dancers, Sindhi comedians, Sindhi andhor, Sindhi lada singer, Sindhi singer dubai, Sindhi singer mumbai, Sindhi singer delhi, Sindhi cheti chand show, cheti chand festival, Sindhi festival, Sindhi dancing song, Sindhi remix, paer pavandisa, o lal meri, Sindhi radio, Sindhi sangat, Sindhi music, Sindhi samachar, Sindhi singer Agra, Sindhi singer Nashik, Sindhi singer Rajkot, Sindhi singer Varanasi, Sindhi singer Aurangabad, Sindhi singer Allahabad, Renu Gidoomal, vishni israni, ishwar juriani, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Bareilly, Sindhi singer Gurgaon, Sindhi singer Noida, Sindhi singer Ajmer, Chander Mulchandani, Dynamic Events, Sindhi Bollywood Actress Shweta Keswani, Sindhi In Bollywood Anita Hassanandani, Sindhi Actress Shilpa sakhlani, Sindhi in Bollywood Hiten Tejwani, Sindhi Bollywood Actor Jackky Bhagnani, Sindhi Actor Karan Godwani, Sindhi Celebrity Sonali Nagrani, Sindhi Famous Actress Lillete Dubey, Sindhi Bollywood Model and Actress Priti Jhangiani, Sindhi Celebrity Govinda, Sindhi TV Artist Manish Rajsighani, Sindhi, Shidhi Bollywood Reality show actor Rithvik Dhanjani, Sindhi Lada, Sindhi Singer List, Sindhi Singers Name, sindhi bollywood stars, Cheti chand Melo, Sindhi Dramo, sindhi event management company, sindhi event manager, sindhi girls, Sindhi food, Sindhi youngster, Sindhi Boy, Sindhi Girls, Sindhi Wedding, Sindhi Sangeet, Sindhi Barat, Sindhi Annual Meet, Sindhi Parichey Samelan, Vimla Jivan Jhule Lal Mandir, Sindhi Samelan , Sadhu Vaswani Mission
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Flickr Hansika Motwani - Pankaj Chander Mulchandani, Dynamic Events, Sindhi Bollywood Actress Shweta Keswani, Sindhi In Bollywood

Hansika Motwani - Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi tv, Sindhi, master chander, Sindhi romantic song, Sindhi bhajan, Sindhi jhulelal bhajan, jhulelal bhagwan, jhulelal sai, Sindhi darbar, Sindhi dharamshala, Sindhi panchayat, pankaj mulchandani, Sindhi organiser, Sindhi event manager, Sindhi celebrities, anjana sukhani Sindhi, aftab shivdasani, jackky bhagnani, hansika motwani, Sindhi actor asrani, Sindhi kavi samelan, cheti chand hong kong, Sindhi mandir, jhulelal mandir, Sindhi sufi song, Sindhi shaadi song, Sindhi marriage song, Sindhi wedding song, Sindhi song live, Sindhi music India, Sindhi culture, chander Mulchandani, Sindhi singer Raipur, Sindhi singer Jaipur, Sindhi singer Kanpur, Sindhi singer Kota, Sindhi singer Indore, Sindhi singer Bhopal, Sindhi singer Ahmadabad, Sindhi singer Ulhasnagar, Sindhi singer Mumbai, Sindhi singer Katni, Sindhi singer Behragad, Sindhi singer Jalgoan, Sindhi singer Goa, Sindhi singer Kolkata, Sindhi playback singer, Sindhi singer Gwalior, Sindhi singer Bangkok, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Jakarta, Sindhi singer Singapore, Sindhi singer Malaysia, Sindhi singer China, Sindhi singer Kolhapur, Sindhi singer Nagpur, Sindhi singer Pune, Sindhi singer Bangalore, Sindhi singer Hyderabad, Sindhi singer Chennai, Sindhi singer Surat, Sindhi singer Lucknow, Sindhi singer Thane, Sindhi singer Vadodara, Sindhi singer Ghaziabad, mohit lalwani, pinky maidasani, sangeeta lalla, sangita lala, kajal chandiramani, payal bhatija, payal bathija, raj juriani, seema motwani, asrani, Sindhi singers, Sindhi female singer, Sindhi male singer, Sindhi dancers, Sindhi comedians, Sindhi andhor, Sindhi lada singer, Sindhi singer dubai, Sindhi singer mumbai, Sindhi singer delhi, Sindhi cheti chand show, cheti chand festival, Sindhi festival, Sindhi dancing song, Sindhi remix, paer pavandisa, o lal meri, Sindhi radio, Sindhi sangat, Sindhi music, Sindhi samachar, Sindhi singer Agra, Sindhi singer Nashik, Sindhi singer Rajkot, Sindhi singer Varanasi, Sindhi singer Aurangabad, Sindhi singer Allahabad, Renu Gidoomal, vishni israni, ishwar juriani, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Bareilly, Sindhi singer Gurgaon, Sindhi singer Noida, Sindhi singer Ajmer, Chander Mulchandani, Dynamic Events, Sindhi Bollywood Actress Shweta Keswani, Sindhi In Bollywood Anita Hassanandani, Sindhi Actress Shilpa sakhlani, Sindhi in Bollywood Hiten Tejwani, Sindhi Bollywood Actor Jackky Bhagnani, Sindhi Actor Karan Godwani, Sindhi Celebrity Sonali Nagrani, Sindhi Famous Actress Lillete Dubey, Sindhi Bollywood Model and Actress Priti Jhangiani, Sindhi Celebrity Govinda, Sindhi TV Artist Manish Rajsighani, Sindhi, Shidhi Bollywood Reality show actor Rithvik Dhanjani, Sindhi Lada, Sindhi Singer List, Sindhi Singers Name, sindhi bollywood stars, Cheti chand Melo, Sindhi Dramo, sindhi event management company, sindhi event manager, sindhi girls, Sindhi food, Sindhi youngster, Sindhi Boy, Sindhi Girls, Sindhi Wedding, Sindhi Sangeet, Sindhi Barat, Sindhi Annual Meet, Sindhi Parichey Samelan, Vimla Jivan Jhule Lal Mandir, Sindhi Samelan , Sadhu Vaswani Mission
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Flickr ASRANI - pankaj mulchandani, Sindhi organiser, Sindhi event manager, Sindhi celebrities, anjana sukhani Sindhi, aftab shivdasani, jackky bhagnani, hansika motwani, Sindhi actor asrani, Sindhi kavi samelan, cheti chand hong kong, Sindhi mandir, jhulelal ma

Asrani - Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi tv, Sindhi, master chander, Sindhi romantic song, Sindhi bhajan, Sindhi jhulelal bhajan, jhulelal bhagwan, jhulelal sai, Sindhi darbar, Sindhi dharamshala, Sindhi panchayat, pankaj mulchandani, Sindhi organiser, Sindhi event manager, Sindhi celebrities, anjana sukhani Sindhi, aftab shivdasani, jackky bhagnani, hansika motwani, Sindhi actor asrani, Sindhi kavi samelan, cheti chand hong kong, Sindhi mandir, jhulelal mandir, Sindhi sufi song, Sindhi shaadi song, Sindhi marriage song, Sindhi wedding song, Sindhi song live, Sindhi music India, Sindhi culture, chander Mulchandani, Sindhi singer Raipur, Sindhi singer Jaipur, Sindhi singer Kanpur, Sindhi singer Kota, Sindhi singer Indore, Sindhi singer Bhopal, Sindhi singer Ahmadabad, Sindhi singer Ulhasnagar, Sindhi singer Mumbai, Sindhi singer Katni, Sindhi singer Behragad, Sindhi singer Jalgoan, Sindhi singer Goa, Sindhi singer Kolkata, Sindhi playback singer, Sindhi singer Gwalior, Sindhi singer Bangkok, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Jakarta, Sindhi singer Singapore, Sindhi singer Malaysia, Sindhi singer China, Sindhi singer Kolhapur, Sindhi singer Nagpur, Sindhi singer Pune, Sindhi singer Bangalore, Sindhi singer Hyderabad, Sindhi singer Chennai, Sindhi singer Surat, Sindhi singer Lucknow, Sindhi singer Thane, Sindhi singer Vadodara, Sindhi singer Ghaziabad, mohit lalwani, pinky maidasani, sangeeta lalla, sangita lala, kajal chandiramani, payal bhatija, payal bathija, raj juriani, seema motwani, asrani, Sindhi singers, Sindhi female singer, Sindhi male singer, Sindhi dancers, Sindhi comedians, Sindhi andhor, Sindhi lada singer, Sindhi singer dubai, Sindhi singer mumbai, Sindhi singer delhi, Sindhi cheti chand show, cheti chand festival, Sindhi festival, Sindhi dancing song, Sindhi remix, paer pavandisa, o lal meri, Sindhi radio, Sindhi sangat, Sindhi music, Sindhi samachar, Sindhi singer Agra, Sindhi singer Nashik, Sindhi singer Rajkot, Sindhi singer Varanasi, Sindhi singer Aurangabad, Sindhi singer Allahabad, Renu Gidoomal, vishni israni, ishwar juriani, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Bareilly, Sindhi singer Gurgaon, Sindhi singer Noida, Sindhi singer Ajmer, Chander Mulchandani, Dynamic Events, Sindhi Bollywood Actress Shweta Keswani, Sindhi In Bollywood Anita Hassanandani, Sindhi Actress Shilpa sakhlani, Sindhi in Bollywood Hiten Tejwani, Sindhi Bollywood Actor Jackky Bhagnani, Sindhi Actor Karan Godwani, Sindhi Celebrity Sonali Nagrani, Sindhi Famous Actress Lillete Dubey, Sindhi Bollywood Model and Actress Priti Jhangiani, Sindhi Celebrity Govinda, Sindhi TV Artist Manish Rajsighani, Sindhi, Shidhi Bollywood Reality show actor Rithvik Dhanjani, Sindhi Lada, Sindhi Singer List, Sindhi Singers Name, sindhi bollywood stars, Cheti chand Melo, Sindhi Dramo, sindhi event management company, sindhi event manager, sindhi girls, Sindhi food, Sindhi youngster, Sindhi Boy, Sindhi Girls, Sindhi Wedding, Sindhi Sangeet, Sindhi Barat, Sindhi Annual Meet, Sindhi Parichey Samelan, Vimla Jivan Jhule Lal Mandir, Sindhi Samelan , Sadhu Vaswani Mission
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Flickr KARAN GODWANI - SINDHI ARTIST PANKAJ CHANDER MULCHANDANI DYNAMIC EVENTS SINDHI SANGEET CHETI CHAND SINGER JHULELAL BHAJAN SINDHI DANCE TROUPE SINDHI MODEL SINDHI GIRLS SINDHI FOOD SINDHI SINGER MUMBAI SINDHI SINGER DELHI SINDHI SINGER GIRISH SIDHWANI

Karan Godwan, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi tv, Sindhi, master chander, Sindhi romantic song, Sindhi bhajan, Sindhi jhulelal bhajan, jhulelal bhagwan, jhulelal sai, Sindhi darbar, Sindhi dharamshala, Sindhi panchayat, pankaj mulchandani, Sindhi organiser, Sindhi event manager, Sindhi celebrities, anjana sukhani Sindhi, aftab shivdasani, jackky bhagnani, hansika motwani, Sindhi actor asrani, Sindhi kavi samelan, cheti chand hong kong, Sindhi mandir, jhulelal mandir, Sindhi sufi song, Sindhi shaadi song, Sindhi marriage song, Sindhi wedding song, Sindhi song live, Sindhi music India, Sindhi culture, chander Mulchandani, Sindhi singer Raipur, Sindhi singer Jaipur, Sindhi singer Kanpur, Sindhi singer Kota, Sindhi singer Indore, Sindhi singer Bhopal, Sindhi singer Ahmadabad, Sindhi singer Ulhasnagar, Sindhi singer Mumbai, Sindhi singer Katni, Sindhi singer Behragad, Sindhi singer Jalgoan, Sindhi singer Goa, Sindhi singer Kolkata, Sindhi playback singer, Sindhi singer Gwalior, Sindhi singer Bangkok, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Jakarta, Sindhi singer Singapore, Sindhi singer Malaysia, Sindhi singer China, Sindhi singer Kolhapur, Sindhi singer Nagpur, Sindhi singer Pune, Sindhi singer Bangalore, Sindhi singer Hyderabad, Sindhi singer Chennai, Sindhi singer Surat, Sindhi singer Lucknow, Sindhi singer Thane, Sindhi singer Vadodara, Sindhi singer Ghaziabad, mohit lalwani, pinky maidasani, sangeeta lalla, sangita lala, kajal chandiramani, payal bhatija, payal bathija, raj juriani, seema motwani, asrani, Sindhi singers, Sindhi female singer, Sindhi male singer, Sindhi dancers, Sindhi comedians, Sindhi andhor, Sindhi lada singer, Sindhi singer dubai, Sindhi singer mumbai, Sindhi singer delhi, Sindhi cheti chand show, cheti chand festival, Sindhi festival, Sindhi dancing song, Sindhi remix, paer pavandisa, o lal meri, Sindhi radio, Sindhi sangat, Sindhi music, Sindhi samachar, Sindhi singer Agra, Sindhi singer Nashik, Sindhi singer Rajkot, Sindhi singer Varanasi, Sindhi singer Aurangabad, Sindhi singer Allahabad, Renu Gidoomal, vishni israni, ishwar juriani, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Bareilly, Sindhi singer Gurgaon, Sindhi singer Noida, Sindhi singer Ajmer, Chander Mulchandani, Dynamic Events, Sindhi Bollywood Actress Shweta Keswani, Sindhi In Bollywood Anita Hassanandani, Sindhi Actress Shilpa sakhlani, Sindhi in Bollywood Hiten Tejwani, Sindhi Bollywood Actor Jackky Bhagnani, Sindhi Actor Karan Godwani, Sindhi Celebrity Sonali Nagrani, Sindhi Famous Actress Lillete Dubey, Sindhi Bollywood Model and Actress Priti Jhangiani, Sindhi Celebrity Govinda, Sindhi TV Artist Manish Rajsighani, Sindhi, Shidhi Bollywood Reality show actor Rithvik Dhanjani, Sindhi Lada, Sindhi Singer List, Sindhi Singers Name, sindhi bollywood stars, Cheti chand Melo, Sindhi Dramo, sindhi event management company, sindhi event manager, sindhi girls, Sindhi food, Sindhi youngster, Sindhi Boy, Sindhi Girls, Sindhi Wedding, Sindhi Sangeet, Sindhi Barat, Sindhi Annual Meet, Sindhi Parichey Samelan, Vimla Jivan Jhule Lal Mandir, Sindhi Samelan , Sadhu Vaswani Mission
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Flickr SINDHI SANGEET - JHULELAL - SINDHI SINGER - SINDHI IN BOLLYWOOD - SINDHI CELEBRITIES - SINDHI DANCE - CHETI CHAND - SINDHI ARTIST - PANKAJ CHANDER MULCHANDANI - SINDHI SONGS - SINDHI LADA - SINDHI BHAJAN - SINDHI KALAKAR - SINDHI FEMALE SINGER

Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi tv, Sindhi, master chander, Sindhi romantic song, Sindhi bhajan, Sindhi jhulelal bhajan, jhulelal bhagwan, jhulelal sai, Sindhi darbar, Sindhi dharamshala, Sindhi panchayat, pankaj mulchandani, Sindhi organiser, Sindhi event manager, Sindhi celebrities, anjana sukhani Sindhi, aftab shivdasani, jackky bhagnani, hansika motwani, Sindhi actor asrani, Sindhi kavi samelan, cheti chand hong kong, Sindhi mandir, jhulelal mandir, Sindhi sufi song, Sindhi shaadi song, Sindhi marriage song, Sindhi wedding song, Sindhi song live, Sindhi music India, Sindhi culture, chander Mulchandani, Sindhi singer Raipur, Sindhi singer Jaipur, Sindhi singer Kanpur, Sindhi singer Kota, Sindhi singer Indore, Sindhi singer Bhopal, Sindhi singer Ahmadabad, Sindhi singer Ulhasnagar, Sindhi singer Mumbai, Sindhi singer Katni, Sindhi singer Behragad, Sindhi singer Jalgoan, Sindhi singer Goa, Sindhi singer Kolkata, Sindhi playback singer, Sindhi singer Gwalior, Sindhi singer Bangkok, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Jakarta, Sindhi singer Singapore, Sindhi singer Malaysia, Sindhi singer China, Sindhi singer Kolhapur, Sindhi singer Nagpur, Sindhi singer Pune, Sindhi singer Bangalore, Sindhi singer Hyderabad, Sindhi singer Chennai, Sindhi singer Surat, Sindhi singer Lucknow, Sindhi singer Thane, Sindhi singer Vadodara, Sindhi singer Ghaziabad, mohit lalwani, pinky maidasani, sangeeta lalla, sangita lala, kajal chandiramani, payal bhatija, payal bathija, raj juriani, seema motwani, asrani, Sindhi singers, Sindhi female singer, Sindhi male singer, Sindhi dancers, Sindhi comedians, Sindhi andhor, Sindhi lada singer, Sindhi singer dubai, Sindhi singer mumbai, Sindhi singer delhi, Sindhi cheti chand show, cheti chand festival, Sindhi festival, Sindhi dancing song, Sindhi remix, paer pavandisa, o lal meri, Sindhi radio, Sindhi sangat, Sindhi music, Sindhi samachar, Sindhi singer Agra, Sindhi singer Nashik, Sindhi singer Rajkot, Sindhi singer Varanasi, Sindhi singer Aurangabad, Sindhi singer Allahabad, Renu Gidoomal, vishni israni, ishwar juriani, Sindhi in bollywood, Sindhi singer Bareilly, Sindhi singer Gurgaon, Sindhi singer Noida, Sindhi singer Ajmer, Chander Mulchandani, Dynamic Events, Sindhi Bollywood Actress Shweta Keswani, Sindhi In Bollywood Anita Hassanandani, Sindhi Actress Shilpa sakhlani, Sindhi in Bollywood Hiten Tejwani, Sindhi Bollywood Actor Jackky Bhagnani, Sindhi Actor Karan Godwani, Sindhi Celebrity Sonali Nagrani, Sindhi Famous Actress Lillete Dubey, Sindhi Bollywood Model and Actress Priti Jhangiani, Sindhi Celebrity Govinda, Sindhi TV Artist Manish Rajsighani, Sindhi, Shidhi Bollywood Reality show actor Rithvik Dhanjani, Sindhi Lada, Sindhi Singer List, Sindhi Singers Name, sindhi bollywood stars, Cheti chand Melo, Sindhi Dramo, sindhi event management company, sindhi event manager, sindhi girls, Sindhi food, Sindhi youngster, Sindhi Boy, Sindhi Girls, Sindhi Wedding, Sindhi Sangeet, Sindhi Barat, Sindhi Annual Meet, Sindhi Parichey Samelan, Vimla Jivan Jhule Lal Mandir, Sindhi Samelan , Sadhu Vaswani Mission
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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
Tags: rajkot   prconsultancy   rajkotcityguidecom   gujratcityguidecom   
Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
Tags: rajkot   prconsultancy   rajkotcityguidecom   gujratcityguidecom   
Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Date: 24th March, 2012
Organized by: Sai Social Yuva Group
Venue: Junction Gayakwadi Plot, Baba Taheliaram Chowk, Rajkot
Time: 5-30pm

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Flickr "Cheti Chand" function celebration with Sai Social Yuva Group
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Flickr Happy New Year
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Yes it was March 24th 2012 and the people in India were celebrating the New Year with great fanfare and the ususal accompaniment of loud drums, fire crackers and fire displays.

One would be pardoned to think that it was a marriage taking place but, no, it really was the New Year for the Sindhis all over the world.

Happy New Year

The Sindhis are a diaspora all over the world. The mostly Hindu Sindhis were driven out from their native Sindh in erstwhile Pakistan at the time when the Indian sub continent was divided in 1947.
Most migrated to India and settled down in various towns and cities. Some went off the the southeast Asia and others to Africa.

They also call it "Cheti Chand" in the community.

Happy New Year!


Dates
Taken on March 24, 2012 at 7.09pm IST (edit)
Posted to Flickr May 2, 2012 at 10.45AM IST (edit)
Exif data
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Exposure 13
Aperture f/14.0
Focal Length 27 mm
ISO Speed 200
Exposure Bias 0 EV
Flash No Flash
_DSC8104 nef

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Happy New Year



The Sindhis are a diaspora all over the world. The mostly Hindu Sindhis were driven out from their native Sindh in erstwhile Pakistan at the time when the Indian sub continent was divided in 1947.
Most migrated to India and settled down in various towns and cities.


Dates
Taken on March 24, 2012 at 7.09pm IST (edit)
Posted to Flickr May 2, 2012 at 10.45AM IST (edit)
Exif data
Camera Nikon D300
Exposure 13
Aperture f/14.0
Focal Length 27 mm
ISO Speed 200
Exposure Bias 0 EV
Flash No Flash

_DSC8104 jpeg

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Gudi Padwa or Gudhi Padwa (Marathi: गुढी पाडवा often mis-pronounced as guDi padwa because ढी sounds like डी while speaking) is the Marathi name for the Hindu holy day of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada.[1] It is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar. It is theorized that Padwa is the origin of the term "Pagwah", a synonymous title used in Guyana and Trinidad for Holi.


Known as Gudhi Padwa in Maharashtra, this festival is also known as[1]

* Samvatsar Padvo among Hindu Konkanis of Goa[2]
* Yugadi among the rest of Konkani diaspora in Karnataka and Ugadi in Andhra pradesh[citation needed]

In other parts of India[1] this festival is celebrated during

* Ugadi in Andhra Pradesh
* Yugadi in Karnataka
* Cheti Chand among the Sindhi people


The word padwa is derived from the Sanskrit word Pratipada[citation needed] for first day of a lunar month i.e. first day after new moon day (Amavasya). A Gudhi is also erected on this occasion giving this festival its name. The term padwa or padavo is also associated with Balipratipada the third day of Diwali[citation needed] which is another celebration that comes at the end of the harvesting season.
See also: Balipratipada


On Gudi Padwa, a gudi is found hanging out of a window or otherwise prominently displayed in traditional Maharashtrian households. Gudi is a bright green or yellow cloth adorned with brocade (zari) tied to the tip of a long bamboo over which gathi (sugar crystals), neem leaves[citation needed], a twig of mango leaves and a garland of red flowers is tied. A silver or copper pot is placed in the inverted position over it. This gudi is then hoisted outside the house, in a window, terrace or a high place so that everybody can see it.

Some of the significances attributed to raising a Gudhi are as follows:

* Gudhi symbolizes the Brahmadhvaj (translation: Brahma’s flag) mentioned in the Brahma Purana, because Lord Brahma created the universe on this day. It may also represent Indradhvaj (translation: the flag of Indra).[3]
* Mythologically, the Gudhi symbolizes Lord Rama’s victory and happiness on returning to Ayodhya after slaying Ravan. Since a symbol of victory is always held high, so is the gudi (flag). It is believed that this festival is celebrated to commemorate the coronation of Rama post his return to Ayodhya after completing 14 years of exile.[3]
* Maharashtrians also see the Gudhi as a symbol of victory associated with the conquests of the Maratha forces led by Chhatrapati Shivaji. It also symbolizes the victory of King Shalivahana over Sakas and was hoisted by his people when he returned to Paithan.[3]
* Gudhi is believed to ward off evil, invite prosperity and good luck into the house.[3]

The Gudhi is positioned on the right side of the main entrance of the house. The right side symbolizes active state of the soul.[1]
[edit] Festivities

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GREETINGS AND BEST WISHES ON THIS AUSPICIOUS DAY.

This New Moon Day is celebrated in many parts of India as New Years Day. Many names, many cultures, many languages, but the celebration is one, REAL, UNITY IN DIVERSITY, INDEED.

UGADI, GUDI PADAVA, CHALTRAS SUKLADI, CHETI CHAND, NAVREH, SAJIBU CHEIRABOA.

Celebrated in unique ways in different parts of the country, these festivals herald the beginning of the New Year.

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Significance (source:Wiki):
Yugadi (from yuga + aadi, yuga means era, aadi means start- the start of an era) is the New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India.
While the people of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh use the term Yugadi/Ugadhi for this festival, the people of Maharashtra term the same festival, observed on the same day, Gudi Padwa. Sindhis, people from Sindh, celebrate the same day as their New Year day Cheti Chand.
The South Indians celebrate the festival with great fanfare and gatherings of the extended family. The day, begins with ritual showers (oil bath) followed by prayers, and then the eating of a specific mixture of -
• Neem Buds/Flowers for bitterness
• Raw Mango for tang
• Tamarind Juice for sourness
• Green Chilli/Pepper for heat
• Jaggery and ripe banana pieces for sweetness
• Pinch of Salt for saltiness

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Marathi asmita marathi maan,marathi paramparechi marathi shaan,aaj sonyacha divas gheun aala chaitnyachi khaan,tumhala pahila maan! "SHUBH GUDHI PADVA

"firoze shakir

Gudi Padwa is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month, and is celebrated as New Year's Day by Maharashtrians and Hindu Konkanis.

This is also first day of Marathi Calendar. This festival is supposed to mark the beginning of Vasant (spring). According to the Gregorian calendar this would fall sometime at the end of March and the beginning of April. According to the Brahma Purana, this is the day on which Brahma created the world after the deluge and time began to tick from this day forth. This is one of the 3 and a half days in the Indian Lunar calendar, whose every moment is considered auspicious.

While the people of Maharashtra use the term Gudi Padwa for this festival and the Konkanis use Sanvsar Padvo (sanvsar derived from samvatsar meaning year) the people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka term the same festival, observed on the same day, Ugadi. The Sindhi festival of Cheti Chand is celebrated same day.

This is a time of the year when the sun’s rays increase in intensity, going from mellow to hot. The crops have been harvested and the fruits of the harvest are making their way to the marketplaces. Mangoes, called "the king of fruit" in India, are in season once again. The ripe smell of jackfruit fills the air. Shrubs and trees are bursting into flower. Everything is fresh and new. It looks and smells like spring (or the best impersonation of quintessential springtime that the climate can do).

India was, and still is to a certain extent, a predominantly agrarian society. Thus, celebrations and festivals were often linked to the turn of the season and to the sowing and reaping of crops. There is a theory that the word ‘padwa’ might have its roots in the Sanskrit word for crop, which is ‘Pradurbhu.’ The word ‘padwa’ as used contemporarily means ‘New Year’, but this day also marks the end of one harvest and the beginning of a new one, which for an agricultural community would signify the beginning of a New Year. In the case of Gudi Padwa, it is celebrated at the end of the Rabi season. The term ‘padava’ or ‘padavo’ is also associated with Diwali, another New Year celebration that comes at the end of the harvesting season, thus substantiating the agricultural link to the festival.


[edit] Festivities
On the festive day, courtyards in village houses will be swept clean and plastered with fresh cow-dung. Even in the city, people take the time out to do some spring-cleaning. Women and children work on intricate rangoli designs on their doorsteps, the vibrant colours mirroring the burst of colour associated with spring. Everyone dresses up in new clothes and it is a time for family gatherings. Specialties like soonth panak and chana usual are eaten on this day.

Traditionally, families are supposed to begin the festivities by eating the bittersweet leaves of the neem tree. Sometimes, a paste of neem leaves is prepared and mixed with ajwain, gur (known as jaggery in English), and tamarind. All the members of the family consume this paste, which is believed to purify the blood and strengthen the body’s immune system against diseases.

Maharashtrian familes also make shrikhand and Poori on this day.


[edit] The ‘Gudi’
Gudi Padwa is especially dedicated to the worship of Lord Brahma. Many legend states that this festival is celebrated to commemorate the victory of Rama over Ravana.

Some Maharashtrians see the gudis as a symbol of victory associated with the conquests of the Maratha forces lead by the great hero Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Gudis are also displayed as they are expected to ward off evil and invite prosperity and good luck into the house.

The gudi, Brahma’s flag (Brahmadhvaj) is hoisted in every house as a symbolic representation of Rama’s victory and happiness on returning to Ayodhya after slaying Ravan. Since a symbol of victory is always held high, so is the gudi (flag).

A bright green or yellow cloth adorned with brocade (zari) is tied to the tip of a long bamboo over which gathi (a type of sweet), neem leaves, a twig of mango leaves and a garland of red flowers is tied. This is then hoisted by placing a silver or copper pot placed in the inverted position over it. Beautiful designs with special powder of soft, white stone (rangolis) are drawn on the floor in front of it. Everyone eagerly waits to usher in the new year. Then uttering meaning, ‘I offer obeisance to the flag of Lord Brahma’ one should ritualistically worship the gudi with a resolve. Since Lord Brahma created the universe on this day, this flag is called ‘the flag of Brahma’ (Brahmadhvaj) in the scriptures. Some also refer to it as ‘the flag of Indra’ (Indradhvaj). On Gudi Padwa, you will find gudis hanging out of windows or otherwise prominently displayed in traditional Maharashtrian households.


[edit] Position of the Gudi
The Gudi is raised next to the main entrance of the house. The spot selected should be on the right side (when sighted from the house) of the entrance. The right side symbolizes active state of the soul.[1]

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudi_Padwa

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